4 The Galvanic Skin Response Known as a lie detector Costs anywhere from 5-10k Consists of 2 electrodes usually placed on fingers Measures electrical conductivity of skin Sweat = Na+ ions More sweat, more conductivity
5 Galvanic Skin Response The GSR is affected when the sympathetic nervous system is active, in particular when a person is anxious
6 GSR for Control If voluntarily change GSR level, then we have a biometric switch
7 How to control GSR Thinking of exciting imagery usually causes one to sweat more Calm, relaxing thoughts do the opposite Other interesting imagery Multiplying numbers Blank wall Lifting weights
13 Improving accuracy Raise temperature Provide user with different stimuli to focus on when trying to say “no” and “yes” Experimented with Audio and Visual input Baseline after activation
14 Visual Input Looked at difference between “Judge Judy” and “Golf game” Golf game = 2.6 peaks with peak strength = 834 Judge Judy = 1.7 peaks with peak strength = 211 Why?
15 Auditory Input Subject listened to book on tape Average peak strength = 90 Having a subject focus on a story on tape helps to keep “no” stable.
16 Predictability If subject can predict next choice, it gives them advance notice on what to do. Double edged sword Can improve performance because more time to generate “yes” Can cause misfires because of anticipation
17 Baseline after activation Subjects could not give 2 yes’s in a row, too tiring Once subject gives “yes”, give X seconds to relax and establish baseline.
18 Algorithms Simple thresholding is ok, but requires manual intervention often Need automated algorithm to detect “yes” and “no”
19 Temporal peak comparison Compare largest peaks across trials If current largest peak > X * previous largest peak, it’s a “yes” Empirically we found accuracy is max at X = 1.3
20 Spelling Interface Letters appear in order of probability If X items, presents sqrt(X) items at a time if X>9
21 Disadvantages of GSR VERY slow Fastest with able bodied subjects was 6 bit/min Fastest with locked-in subjects was 3 bit/min Very demanding, within 15-20 min user is tired Only a “YES” indicates a confirmation, which further lowers information throughput.
22 Successes Able bodied subjects have spelled names with 90-100% accuracy with no training Locked in subject communicated “NE” when asked to spell “NEIL”, then got tired. Often communicates basic needs using a number chart