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2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (C) Karen Lancour Patty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor – A&P.

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Presentation on theme: "2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (C) Karen Lancour Patty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor – A&P."— Presentation transcript:

1 2013 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (C) Karen Lancour Patty Palmietto National Bio Rules National Event Committee Chairman Supervisor – A&P

2 Event Rules – 2013 DISCLAIMER This presentation was prepared using draft rules. There may be some changes in the final copy of the rules. The rules which will be in your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be the official rules.

3 Event Rules – 2013 BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2013 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

4 TRAINING MATERIALS Training Power Point – content overview Training Handout - content information Sample Tournament – sample problems with key Event Supervisor Guide – prep tips, event needs, and scoring tips Internet Resource & Training CD’s – on the Science Olympiad website at under Event Informationwww.soinc.org Anatomy/A&P CD (new) Biology-Earth Science CD, Anatomy/A&P CD (new) as well as the Division B and Division C Test Packets are available from SO store at

5 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Event Content: 2013 BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY  Nervous system (new)  Digestive system  Excretory system  Major disorders  Treatment and prevention of disorders PROCESS SKILLS - observations, inferences, predictions, calculations, data analysis, and conclusions. PROCESS SKILLS - observations, inferences, predictions, calculations, data analysis, and conclusions.

6 Divisions of the Nervous System Brain &Spine Rest of Body

7 Neuron Basic functional cell of nervous system Transmits impulses Three types Sensory neurons – bring messages to CNS Motor neurons - carry messages from CNS Interneurons – between sensory & motor neurons in the CNS

8 Neuron carries it impulses toward the cell body Dendrite – receive stimulus and carries it impulses toward the cell body Cell Body with nucleus – nucleus & most of cytoplasm carries impulses away from cell body Axon – fiber which carries impulses away from cell body Schwann Cells- cells which produce myelin or fat layer Myelin sheath – lipid layer around the axon Node of Ranvier – gaps or nodes in the myelin sheath dendrite to cell body to axon Impulses travel from dendrite to cell body to axon

9 Impulses Impulse Self propagating Mechanism – Na + K + pump Synapse Junction between neurons Neurotransmitters

10 Synapse Junction between neurons The neurons do not actually tough at the synapse Neurotransmitters used to restart impulse in dendrite of 2 nd neuron

11 Neurotransmitters Chemicals in the junction which allow impulses to be started in the second neuron Chemicals in the junction which allow impulses to be started in the second neuron

12 Reflex Arch

13 Central Nervous System Brain Brain stem – medulla, pons, midbrain Diencephalon – thalamus & hypothalamus Cerebellem Cerebrum Spine Spinal Cord

14 Cerebrum Regions Lobes of the Cerebrum Frontal Parietal Temporal Occipital Special regions Broca’s area Wernicke’s area Limbic System

15

16 Peripheral Nervous System Cranial nerves Cranial nerves 12 pair 12 pair Attached to undersurface of brain Attached to undersurface of brain Spinal nerves Spinal nerves 31 pair 31 pair Attached to spinal cord Attached to spinal cord

17 Autonomic Nervous System Regulates bodies involuntary responses Regulates bodies involuntary responses Two divisions Two divisions Sympathetic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Emergency response Emergency response Fight or flight Fight or flight Parasympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Normal everyday conditions Normal everyday conditions

18 Autonomic Nervous System

19 Major Sense Organs Vision – Eye Hearing – Ear Taste – Taste receptors (new) Smell – Olfactory system Skin – Hot, cold, pressure, pain

20 Eye

21 Images  the cornea and the lens help to produce the image on the retina  images formed by the lens are upside down and backwards when they reach the retina they reach the retina

22 Visual Pathway

23 Ear

24 Taste Buds Chemical Receptors Sweet Sour Bitter Salty MSG

25 Olfactory Receptors Chemical Receptors Top of nasal cavity Extremely sensitive Easily fatigued Much of “taste” involves smell

26 Senses in Skin Heat Cold Light pressure Heavy Pressure Pain

27 Disorders of the Nervous System Epilepsy, Epilepsy, Seizures, Seizures, Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s Disease Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Parkinson’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Shingles (herpes zoster), Shingles (herpes zoster), Cerebral palsy, Cerebral palsy, Glaucoma, Glaucoma, Pink eye (conjunctivitis) Pink eye (conjunctivitis) Symptoms of disorders Symptoms of disorders Treatments and prevention Treatments and prevention

28 Effects of Drugs Effects of drugs on the nervous system Alcohol Alcohol Caffeine Caffeine Nicotine Nicotine Marijuana Marijuana

29 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM DIGESTIVE SYSTEM – digest foods extracellular (outside of cell) in digestive canal

30 BASIC PROCESSES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM INGESTION -- intake of food DIGESTION – breakdown of food Mechanical Digestion – physical breakdown Chemical Digestion – chemical breakdown of macromolecules to monomers Absorption -- Transport of the products of digestion into the blood Defecation -- Elimination of undigested waste

31 ORGANS OF DIGESTIVE TRACT (Mouth to anus) Mouth - Chewing, Digestion begins Pharynx - Swallowing Esophagus - Transports food to stomach Stomach - Storage of food, Digestion of protein Small Intestine - Majority of digestion and absorption of food Large Intestines - Absorption of water, Waste storage Anus - Elimination of waste

32 ASCESSORY ORGANS SECRETE FLUIDS INTO DIGESTIVE TRACT Salivary Glands - Secrete salivary amylase Liver - Produces bile Gallbladder - Storage of bile Pancreas - Secretes pancreatic amylase and other digestive enzymes

33 MOUTH Opens to outside to facilitate feeding Aids in preparation of food for digestion Foods are broken down mechanically by chewing Saliva is added as a lubricant from the auxiliary saliva glands Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that digests starch Serves as an organ for speech and pleasure Includes cheeks, lips, tongue, palate, teeth – primary & secondary

34 TEETH Incisors (8) – for biting food Canines (4) - for grasping and tearing food Bicuspids (8) – for grinding and crushing food Molars (12) – for grinding food

35 ESOPHAGUS a simple tube between the mouth and stomach – peristalsis aides in swallowing

36 STOMACH

37 STOMACH Enzyme digestion of proteins initiated Foods reduced to a liquid form Walls lined with millions of gastric glands Several kinds of cells in gastric glands Very little absorption from stomach – some water, ethanol, drugs as aspirin, and certain ions

38 SMALL INTESTINE most of chemical enzymatic digestion occur almost all nutrients are absorbed Accessory glands – liver, gall bladder, and pancreas provide secretions to assist with chemical enzymatic digestion

39 LIVER and GALL BLADDER Liver: - provides bile salts to the small intestine, which are critical for digestion and absorption of fats. Gallbladder – stores bile

40 PANCREAS Pancreas: - provides digestive enzymes to the small intestine which are critical for digestion of fats, carbohydrates and protein.

41 LARGE INTESTINES Colon: liquid residue – mainly water with undigested materal water is absorbed, bacterial fermentation takes place feces are formed. Rectum: collects undigested waste Anus: expels undigested waste – muscles to control exit and prevent leakage.

42 DIGESTIVE PROCESS Ingestion – intake of food Digestion – breakdown of food bit by bit into molecules small enough to be absorbed Mechanical Digestion – physical breakdown of food Chemical Digestion – chemical breakdown of macromolecules to monomers Absorption – transport of productions into the blood Elimination (Defecation) - elimination of undigested waste

43 CHEMICAL DIGESTION CARBOHYDRATES PROTEIN FATS NUCLEIC ACIDS

44 Common Disorders of Digestive System Stomach and duodenal ulcers Cancers of the digestive system Diarrhea Lactose Intolerance Hepatitis Crohn’s Disease, GERD, Diverticular Disease, Celiac Disease (National)

45 Role of Fiber in Digestion Fiber is found mostly in plant There are two types – insoluble fiber and soluble fiber Insoluble fiber is a type of fiber which cannot be dissolved in water Insoluble fiber draws water to the intestine, increasing the bulk and softness of waste products Soluble fiber which can be dissolved in water Soluble fiber can be digested slowly and it slows the digestive process and keeps the stomach fuller longer leaving the body feeling full for a longer period of time Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are slower so that glucose (sugar) in food enters the bloodstream more slowly, which keeps blood sugar on a more even level The slow absorption of sugar gives the body an opportunity to regulate blood sugar levels

46 Excretory System Functions: Excrete toxins and nitrogenous waste Regulate levels of many chemicals in blood Maintain water balance Helps regulate blood pressure

47 Organs of Excretory System Kidney – filters blood and forms urine Ureter – carries urine to bladder Bladder – stores urine Urethra – releases urine

48 Kidney Filtration Reabsorption Secretion

49 Nephron

50 Nephron

51 Composition of Urine

52 Glomerular Filtration Rate GFR– amount of filtrate formed per minute in all nephrons of both kidneys The amount of fluid filtered from the glomeruli into Bowman's space per unit of time. Renal capillaries are much more permeable than others. The flow rate is 180 L/day (125 ml/min) compared to 4 L/day in the other capillaries. The entire plasma volume is filtered about 60 times a day! Most is reabsorbed! GFR = UV = Urine concentration x Rate of Urine Flow = g/ml x ml/min = ml/min P Blood Plasma Concentration g

53 Diseases of Excretory System Obstructive Disorders Urinary tract infections (UTI) Glomerular Disorders Renal Failure Acute Chronic Treatment for Renal Failure Incontinence, Prostatitis, BPH (national)


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