Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare The INFN: promotes, coordinates and performs scientific research in subnuclear, nuclear and astroparticle physics, as well as the research and technological development necessary for activities in these sectors, in close collaboration with universities, and within a framework of international cooperation
The origins of the INFN Enrico Fermi and the “Boys of Via Panisperna” conducted a series of fundamental nuclear physics experiments at the Isitiuto di Fisica at the University of Rome in the 1930s. Fermi realized that continuing the progress in the field would require costly instruments and technical infrastructure (e.g., accelerators). Fermi (in Rome) and Bruno Rossi (in Florence) sought to establish an “Istituto Nazionale di Fisica” in the 1930s. Because of the war, this was impossible until Edoardo Amaldi worked to found the INFN in 1951. D’Agostino Segrè Amaldi Rasetti Fermi
1951 4 University Sections Milan, Turin, Padua, and Rome 1957 Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Frascati The origins of the INFN
Laboratori del Sud (Catania) 20 Sections 11 Affiliated Groups 4 National Laboratories INFN oggi VIRGO-EGO E uropean G ravitational O bservatory Legnaro Gran Sasso Milano Bicocca
Fundamental research Study the microscopic structure of matter Search for gravitational waves Develop theoretical models Develop and construct particle detectors Study and develop accelerating techniques Perform material studies and biomedical research with synchrotron light What do we do at LNF? Develop and support computing systems and networks
The scientific method The modern scientific method was first formally introduced by Galileo Hypothesis Prediction Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 Observation
John Dalton: Atomic Therory (1805): 1.The chemical elements are made of atoms. 2.The atoms of an element are identical in mass. 3.Atoms of different elements have different masses. 4.Atoms combine only in whole-number ratios (1:1, 1:2, 2:3, etc.) 5.Atoms can not be created or destroyed. The modern understanding of matter stems from centuries of inquiry Ancient Greeks: 4 elements What is matter made of?
In 1869, Mendeleev introduces the periodic table and predicts the existence of elements not yet discovered The periodic table
The Rutherford atom Seeing the invisible In 1898, Thomson discovered the electron and hypothesized that the electrons are uniformly distributed within the atom, like rasins in rasin bread - - - - - - In 1909-1911, Rutherford and colleagues tested this hypothesis by bombarding a gold foil with alpha particles. Some scattered at large angles, indicating the presence of a heavy nucleus. The Thomson atom
Observation Observing objects around us is like performing a “Rutherford” experiment In the microscopic world, the target and beam have similar dimensions Source Light Object Observer Accelerator Particle Beam Target Detector
Observation The wavelength of visible light is 400 to 800 nm (i.e., ~10 -7 m) 10 -10 m To see atoms (and smaller) we need a smaller probe!
Particle sources Rutherford used alpha particles from the decay of radioactive elements. To obtain particle beams of different types and energies, today we construct particle accelerators. Particle beams start out from a source. The simplest example is electrons emitted by a hot filament, as in a lightbulb. Particles acquire energy when they are accelerated by an electric field +− +
Experiments using fixed targets Matter is mainly empty All particles which do not interact are lost Energy is lost in moving the center of mass “Target” is a nucleus, with a complex structure synchrotron LINAC target e -,e +,p … p, n, etc detectors
A new approach: Use colliding beams The non-interacting particles can be reused in successive rounds Collisions are performed in the center-of-mass frame The circulating particles can be either elementary or complex (nuclei or atoms) detector Accumulation ring Bruno Touschek, Frascati, 1960
e+e+e+e+ e-e-e-e- ---- ++++ A related idea: Collide particle and antiparticle + - e-e-e-e- e+e+e+e+ E = 2m e c 2 E = 2m c 2 E = 2m c 2 E = m c 2 The greater the energy, the higher the number of particles that can be studied
Matter-antimatter colliders ADA at Frascati in 1959 ADONE at Frascati in 1969 DA NE LEP at CERN (Geneva) 1988 LHC at CERN: operating since 2009
Higgsboson Force Carriers Z boson W photon g gluon Matter families Matter families tau -neutrino b bottom t top III muon -neutrino s strange c charm II e electron e e-neutrino d down up uI Lepton s Quarks Gravity The “Phantom of the Opera” FermionsBosons The Standard Model
The fundamental forces ForceIntensity Weak10 29 Weak decays: n p + e + Electromagnetic 10 40 Holds atoms together Strong10 43 Holds nuclei together Gravitational1 Keeps you on your chair Effect Z boson W photon g gluon
Out of the electron-positron collisions, a ϕ meson can be produced. It decays immediately into two other particles, the K-mesons (kaons). The two kaons can be either neutral or oppositely charged. K K ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee The kaons are used by the experiments (KLOE, FINUDA, etc.) At DAΦNE, up to 10000 kaons per second are produced ee ee ee ee ee ee ee ee Physics at DAΦNE
K-K-K-K- p Kaonic hydrogen n=25 n=2 n=1 2p 1s (K ) X ray of interest In the DEAR experiment, the strong force is investigated by studying kaonic atoms, in which a K substitutes an atomic electron. Kaonic atoms (DEAR - Siddharta)
FINUDA FINUDA (Fisica Nucleare a DAΦNE) u s K n d u d d u s u d Reconstruction of a hypernuclear event in the FINUDA detector p n p n n n n n n n n p p p p p p n n p n p In the FINUDA experiment, the strong force is studied by placing a “foreign body” inside the nucleus Hypernucleus
KLOE KLOE (K LOng Experiment) KLOE studies the differences between matter and antimatter, by looking at kaon (and antikaon) decays
DA Φ NE-Luce photon Synchrotron light is the radiation emitted when a charged particle’s path is bent by a magnetic field. This radiation is very useful for studies in: Biophysics and medicine Solid state physics and electronics Materials science
SPARC (Sorgente Pulsata Auto-amplificata di Radiazione Coerente) is a project with 4 principal beamlines, aimed at the development of an X-ray source of very high brilliance (energy emitted per unit solid angle) Originally a by-product, synchrotron light has become a powerful scientific tool. It is now produced on purpose for various uses 150 MeV Advanced Photo-Injector Production of an electron beam and compression by magnetic and radiofrequency systems SASE-FEL Visible-VUV Experiment For the study of beam-transport systems X-ray source X-ray monochromator
Incoherent radiation Coherent radiation Coherent, monochromatic waves Fixed wavelength and fixed relative phase Equivalent to many, many waves superimposed
The LI 2 FE laboratory FLAME (Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments) is an extremely high power laser source (300 TW), with bursts lasting 20 fs and a frequency of 10 Hz. By combining the SPARC electron beam with the FLAME laser, we produce a unique monochromatic X-ray source. This can be used to produce high quality medical images using less radiation. LI 2 FE is an interdisciplinary laboratory inaugurated in Frascati in December 2010.
The force of gravity A distortion in the fabric of space
Gravitational waves: an analogy Electromagnetic waves are produced by an electric charge when accelerated Gravitational waves are produced by masses that undergo acceleration antenna Hi! How are you?
Gravitational waves Gravitational waves are 10 40 times less intense than electromagnetic waves
Supernova in our galaxy h=10 18 Supernova in Virgo h=10 21 Thermal noise @ T=300 K, L=10 16 m Thermal noise @ T=3 K, L=10 17 m Thermal noise @ T=300 mK L=10 18 m Search for gravitational waves: NAUTILUS