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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 16, part 1 Neural.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 16, part 1 Neural."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 16, part 1 Neural Integration II: The Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Order Functions

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Central Nervous System Overview

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Compare the organization of the autonomic nervous system with the somatic nervous system. Describe the structures and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. Describe the mechanisms of neurotransmitter release in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. Describe the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters on target organs and tissues.

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Describe the hierarchy of interacting levels of control in the ANS Explain how memories are created, stored and recalled. Summarize the effects of aging on the nervous system.

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-1 An Overview of the ANS

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive functions Preganglionic neurons in the CNS send axons to synapse on ganglionic neurons in autonomic ganglia outside the CNS ANS

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Divisions of the ANS Sympathetic division (thoracolumbar, “fight or flight”) Thoracic and lumbar segments Parasympathetic division (craniosacral, “rest and repose”) Preganglionic fibers leaving the brain and sacral segments

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-2 The Sympathetic Division

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Preganglionic neurons between segments T1 and L2 Ganglionic neurons in ganglia near vertebral column Specialized neurons in adrenal glands Sympathetic division anatomy

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16.3 The Organization of the Sympathetic Division of the ANS Figure 16.3

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic chain ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) Collateral ganglia (prevertebral ganglia) Sympathetic ganglia

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16.5 Animation: The sympathetic division PLAY Figure 16.5 The Distribution of Sympathetic Innervation

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings In crises, the entire sympathetic division responds Sympathetic activation Affects include increased alertness, energy and euphoria, increased cardiovascular and respiratory activities, elevation in muscle tone, mobilization of energy resources Sympathetic activation

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stimulation of sympathetic division has two distinct results Release of ACh or NE at specific locations Secretion of E and NE into general circulation Most postganglionic fibers are adrenergic, a few are cholinergic or nitroxidergic Two types of receptors are alpha receptors and beta receptors Sympathetic ganglionic neurons end in telodendria studded with varicosities filled with neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters and sympathetic function

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16.6 Sympathetic Variosities Figure 16.6

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-3 The Parasympathetic Division

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Preganglionic neurons in the brainstem and sacral segments of spinal cord Ganglionic neurons in peripheral ganglia located within or near target organs Parasympathetic division

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16.7 Figure 16.7 The Organization of the Parasympathetic Division of the ANS

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 16.8 Figure 16.8 The Distribution of Parasympathetic Innervation

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Effects produced by the parasympathetic division relaxation food processing energy absorption Parasympathetic activation

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings All parasympathetic fibers release ACh Short-lived response as ACH is broken down by AChE and tissue cholinesterase Postsynaptic membranes have two kinds of receptors Muscarinic Nicotinic Neurotransmitters and parasympathetic functions

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-4 Interactions Between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic Widespread influence on visceral and somatic structures Parasympathetic Innervates only visceral structures serviced by cranial nerves or lying within the abdominopelvic cavity Dual innervation = organs that receive input from both systems Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Important physiological and functional differences exist Comparison of the two divisions

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Summary: The Anatomical Differences between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-5 Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Activity in the ANS is controlled by centers in the brainstem that deal with visceral functioning Higher levels of autonomic control

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Levels of Autonomic Control Figure 16.12

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Integration occurs at the brainstem and higher centers SNS and ANS organized in parallel

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure A Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Function

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-6 High Order Functions

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Are performed by the cerebral cortex and involve complex interactions Involve conscious and unconscious information processing Are subject to modification and adjustment over time Higher order functions

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Short term or long term Memory consolidation is moving from short term to long term Amnesia is the loss of memory due to disease or trauma Memory

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Memory Storage Figure 16.14

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Deep sleep, the body relaxes and cerebral cortex activity is low REM sleep active dreaming occurs The reticular activating system (RAS) is important to arousal and maintenance of consciousness Consciousness

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The Reticular Activating System Figure 16.16

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-7 Brain Chemistry and Behavior

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neurotransmitters and brain function Changes in balance between neurotransmitters can profoundly alter brain function Personality and self-awareness Characteristics of the brain as an integrated system rather than one specific component Neurotransmitters and the brain

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 16-8 Aging and the Nervous System

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reduction in brain size and weight Reduction in the number of neurons Decrease in blood flow to the brain Changes in synaptic organization of the brain Intracellular and extracellular changes in CNS neurons Age-related changes

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with: The organization of the autonomic nervous system. The structures and functions of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. The mechanisms of neurotransmitter release in the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters on target organs and tissues. The hierarchy of interacting levels of control in the ANS. How memories are created, stored and recalled. The effects of aging on the nervous system.


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