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Muscular System 37. Unit 3 Notebook Check (glue/get signed) 38. Muscular System Vocabulary (21 words/definitions and 10 pictures) 39. Muscle Diagrams (3;

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Presentation on theme: "Muscular System 37. Unit 3 Notebook Check (glue/get signed) 38. Muscular System Vocabulary (21 words/definitions and 10 pictures) 39. Muscle Diagrams (3;"— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscular System 37. Unit 3 Notebook Check (glue/get signed) 38. Muscular System Vocabulary (21 words/definitions and 10 pictures) 39. Muscle Diagrams (3; colors and labels) 40. Muscle Labeling Practice Worksheet 41. Muscle Anatomy Lecture 42. Muscle Crossword 43. Muscle Lab 44. Case Studies 45. Types of Body Movements 46. More About Muscles 47. Muscular System Test 48. Muscular System Portfolio Check TOMORROW

2 Nervous System 48. Muscular System Portfolio Check GET SIGNED! 49. Nervous System Overview homework (stamped) 50. Intro to the Nervous System Lecture 51. Parts of the Nervous System (color, label, definitions) 52. Cells of the Nervous System (notes and color) 53. Neurons (notes and research) 54. Neuron Lab 55. The Brain (notes and color) 56. Nervous System Crossword 57. Sheep Dissection 58. Test Diseases of the NS 60. Neurotransmitters 61. Nerve Impulse Lecture 62. Sensory Receptors 63. TedTalk 64. Notebook Check

3 Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another. Insulates the axon. Receives signals from other neurons. Controls cell activity. Transmits message from dendrites.

4 Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another. Insulates the axon. Receives signals from other neurons. Controls cell activity. Transmits message from dendrites.

5 Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another. Insulates the axon. Receives signals from other neurons. Controls cell activity. Transmits message from dendrites.

6 THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ● Sensory - gathers info ● Integrative - information is brought together ● Motor - responds to signals, homeostasis

7 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Figure 12.2 Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): nerves of the body 31 pairs of spinal nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves two subdivisions:

8 Somatic Nervous System controls skeletal muscles (voluntary) Autonomic Nervous System controls organs, smooth muscles, glands (involuntary)

9 A.Central Nervous System B.Peripheral Nervous System C.Brain (yellow) D.Spinal Cord (light blue) E1. Autonomic Sensory Nerves (red) E2. Somatic Sensory Nerves (red) F1. Somatic Nerve (green) F2. Sympathetic Nerve (green) F3. Parasympathetic Nerve (green) G. Gray Matter (gray) H. White Matter a.Heart (other organs) b.Skin Senses c.Skeletal Muscle Green = motor nerves Red = sensory nerves

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11 Neurons A. Neurons = nerve cells that carry messages through an electrochemical process. Parts of the neuron: 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites – shorter, more numerous, receive information 3. Axons – single, long “fiber” which conducts impulse away from the cell body, sends information 4. Myelin – wrapped around the axon of neurons; accelerates nerve impulses 5. Axon Terminals – contain neurotransmitters, release the message to other neurons 6. Nodes of Ranvier – spots that the message jumps to, increase the speed of the message

12 Neuroglial Cells B. Neuroglial Cells = nervous system cells that support neurons

13 1. Microglial Cells: digest debris or bacteria; respond to immunological alarms

14 2. Oligodendrocytes: makes the myelin sheath that provides insulation around the axons of nerves in the CNS

15 3. Astrocytes: connect blood vessels to neurons I connect to blood vessels

16 4. Ependymal Cells: forms a membrane; produce CSF

17 5. Schwann cells: form the insulating myelin sheath around the neurons in the PNS

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20 A.Neuron (blue) B.Myelin (pink) C.Nodes of Ranvier (black) D.Astrocytes(yel low) E.Microglial (green) F.Ependymal (orange) G.Oligodendroc ytes (purple) H.Capillary (red)

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24 Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another. Insulates the axon. Receives signals from other neurons. Controls cell activity. Transmits message from dendrites.

25 AFFERENT Sensory Nerves – conduct impulses into the brain or spinal cord from senses; AFFERENT nerves EFFERENT Motor Nerves – carry impulses to muscles or glands; cause a response; EFFERENT nerves Interneurons – connect sensory and motor nerves Types of Neurons NEUROPATHY NEUROPATHY – damage to nerves in the PNS usually from underlying medical conditions (ie. Diabetes) burning/tingling sensationloss of sensation symptoms include burning/tingling sensation and loss of sensation

26 Interesting Facts about the Neuron ● Longevity – can live and function for a lifetime ● Do not divide – fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo mitosis; neural stem cells are an exception ● High metabolic rate – require abundant oxygen and glucose The nerve fibers of newborns are unmyelinated - this causes their responses to stimuli to be coarse and sometimes involve the whole body. Try surprising a baby!

27 White vs. Grey Matter white matter Myelinated neurons (white matter) – myelinated axons grey matter Unmyelinated neurons (grey matter) - unmyelinated

28 Take notes…

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30 Nerves to know RESEARCH WHERE THESE NERVES ARE FOUND AND WHAT THEY INNERVATE! ● Olfactory nerve ● Optic nerve ● Vagus nerve ● Sciatic nerve ● Phrenic nerve ● Trochlear nerve

31 The Brain #55 Can be divided into 4 main parts: Cerebrum (A): LARGEST PART OF BRAIN Front of brain Composed of left and right hemispheres Controls movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, judgment, prob-solving, emotions, learning Brainstem (D) Middle of brain Includes the midbrain (D1), pons, and medulla oblongata Controls movement of eyes/mouth, relaying sensory messages, hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, sneezing, coughing, swallowing, vomiting, involuntary muscle movements

32 Cerebellum (C) Back of brain Controls coordination of voluntary muscle movements, maintain posture, balance, and equilbrium Frontal Lobe Largest section of brain at front Personality characteristics, movement, smell 4 Lobes of the brain Parietal Lobe Middle part of brain Identify objects, spatial relationships, interpret pain and touch Diencephalon (B) Consists of thalamus (B1), hypothalamus (B2), and epithalamus (B3)

33 Temporal Lobe Sides of brain Memory, speech, musical rhythm, smell Pons and Medulla – in the brainstem Pons (D2) Deep in brain Eye and face movements Medulla Oblongata (D3) Most vital part of entire brain Controls heart and lungs Occipital Lobe Back part of brain Vision VENTRICLES – filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); CSF is used for communication and protection mainly

34 Why do we need CSF surrounding our brain tissue?

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36 #59 NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES For each disease, determine the following: Brief description What part of the brain it affects Who it affects Signs and symptoms Prognosis Multiple Sclerosis StrokeEpilepsy Parkinson’s Disease HydrocephalusALS

37 Ions in the cell and outside the cell create a positive and negative side, which produces an electric current.

38 Steps of a Nerve Impulse 1. Neuron is at rest at -70mV 2. Stimulus hits the neuron causing Na+ to rush into the nerve cell and K+ to rush out (-55mV is the ALL response) 3. The nerve impulse travels down the axon to the axon terminals 4. Calcium rushes into the cell releasing the neurotransmitters in the synapse 5. Neuron gets back to resting as Na+ and K+ are pumped back to their original places 6. Neurotransmitters carry the message to the next neuron.

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40 Neurotransmitters GABA – nature’s valium; inhibitory; reduces stress and anxiety Dopamine – reward; too much = Schizophrenia and too little = Parkinson’s disease, both inh and exc Serotonin – too little = depression, OCD, anger, suicide; inhibitory; happiness, appetite, & sleep Norepinephrine – brings us on “high alert;” excitatory, increase blood pressure and heart rate; memories Acetylocholine – first NT discovered; mimics vagus nerve; learning/memory, dream/sleep, stimulate muscles; both inh and exc Endorphins – inhibitory; similar to opium; pain reduction and increases pleasure; hiberation (slows heart rate, metabolism, respiration)

41 Neurotransmitters #60 Excitatory - increase membrane permeability, increases chance for threshold to be achieved Inhibitory - decrease membrane permeability, decrease chance for threshold to be achieved

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43 A: Neuron (axon) B: Neuron (dendrite) 1. Mitochondria 2. Vesicle 3. Receptor 4. Synapse 5. Receptor 6. Calcium Channel 7. Releases neurotransmitter 8. Re-uptake

44 Drugs that Affect Synapses and Neurotransmitters


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