Presentation on theme: "Muscular System 37. Unit 3 Notebook Check (glue/get signed)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Muscular System 37. Unit 3 Notebook Check (glue/get signed) 38. Muscular System Vocabulary (21 words/definitions and 10 pictures)39. Muscle Diagrams (3; colors and labels)40. Muscle Labeling Practice Worksheet41. Muscle Anatomy Lecture42. Muscle Crossword43. Muscle Lab44. Case Studies45. Types of Body Movements46. More About Muscles47. Muscular System Test48. Muscular System Portfolio Check TOMORROW
2 Test and Notebook Check Nervous System48. Muscular System Portfolio Check GET SIGNED!49. Nervous System Overview homework (stamped)50. Intro to the Nervous System Lecture51. Parts of the Nervous System (color, label, definitions)52. Cells of the Nervous System (notes and color)53. Neurons (notes and research)54. Neuron Lab55. The Brain (notes and color)56. Nervous System Crossword57. Sheep Dissection58. Test 159. Diseases of the NS60. Neurotransmitters61. Nerve Impulse Lecture62. Sensory Receptors63. TedTalk64. Notebook CheckTest and Notebook CheckWednesday!
3 A B G D C E F Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another.Insulates the axon.Receives signals from other neurons.Controls cell activity.Transmits message from dendrites.ABGDCEF
4 A B G D C E F Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another.Insulates the axon.Receives signals from other neurons.Controls cell activity.Transmits message from dendrites.ABGDCEF
5 A B G D C E F Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus. Allows message to jump from one another.Insulates the axon.Receives signals from other neurons.Controls cell activity.Transmits message from dendrites.ABGDCEF
6 THREE BASIC FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Sensory - gathers infoIntegrative - information is brought togetherMotor - responds to signals, homeostasis
7 Basic Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS):brain and spinal cord.Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):nerves of the body31 pairs of spinal nerves12 pairs of cranial nervestwo subdivisions:Figure 12.2
8 Somatic Nervous System controls skeletal muscles (voluntary) Autonomic Nervous System controls organs, smooth muscles, glands (involuntary)
9 Green = motor nerves Red = sensory nerves Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous SystemBrain (yellow)Spinal Cord (light blue)E1. Autonomic Sensory Nerves (red)E2. Somatic Sensory Nerves (red)F1. Somatic Nerve (green)F2. Sympathetic Nerve (green)F3. Parasympathetic Nerve (green)G. Gray Matter (gray)H. White MatterHeart (other organs)Skin SensesSkeletal MuscleGreen = motor nervesRed = sensory nerves
11 52. Cells of the Nervous System A. Neurons = nerve cells that carry messages through an electrochemical process.Parts of the neuron:1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions2. Dendrites – shorter, more numerous, receive information3. Axons – single, long “fiber” which conducts impulse away from the cell body, sends information4. Myelin – wrapped around the axon of neurons; accelerates nerve impulses5. Axon Terminals – contain neurotransmitters, release the message to other neurons6. Nodes of Ranvier – spots that the message jumps to, increase the speed of the message
12 B. Neuroglial Cells = nervous system cells that support neurons
13 1. Microglial Cells: digest debris or bacteria; respond to immunological alarms
14 2. Oligodendrocytes: makes the myelin sheath that provides insulation around the axons of nerves in the CNS
15 3. Astrocytes: connect blood vessels to neurons I connect to blood vessels
16 4. Ependymal Cells: forms a membrane; produce CSF
17 5. Schwann cells: form the insulating myelin sheath around the neurons in the PNS
24 #53. Neurons A B G D C E F Releases message to other neurons. Contains nucleus.Allows message to jump from one another.Insulates the axon.Receives signals from other neurons.Controls cell activity.Transmits message from dendrites.ABGDCEF
25 Types of NeuronsSensory Nerves – conduct impulses into the brain or spinal cord from senses; AFFERENT nervesMotor Nerves – carry impulses to muscles or glands; cause a response; EFFERENT nervesInterneurons – connect sensory and motor nervesNEUROPATHY – damage to nerves in the PNS usually from underlying medical conditions (ie. Diabetes)symptoms include burning/tingling sensation and loss of sensation
26 Interesting Facts about the Neuron Longevity – can live and function for a lifetimeDo not divide – fetal neurons lose their ability to undergo mitosis; neural stem cells are an exceptionHigh metabolic rate – require abundant oxygen and glucoseThe nerve fibers of newborns are unmyelinated - this causes their responses to stimuli to be coarse and sometimes involve the whole body. Try surprising a baby!
27 White vs. Grey MatterMyelinated neurons (white matter) – myelinated axonsUnmyelinated neurons (grey matter) - unmyelinated
30 Research!! Nerves to know RESEARCH WHERE THESE NERVES ARE FOUND AND WHAT THEY INNERVATE!Olfactory nerveOptic nerveVagus nerveSciatic nervePhrenic nerveTrochlear nerveResearch!!
31 The Brain #55 Can be divided into 4 main parts: Cerebrum (A): LARGEST PART OF BRAINFront of brainComposed of left and right hemispheresControls movement, temperature, touch, vision, hearing, judgment, prob-solving, emotions, learningBrainstem (D)Middle of brainIncludes the midbrain (D1), pons, and medulla oblongataControls movement of eyes/mouth, relaying sensory messages, hunger, respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, body temperature, sneezing, coughing, swallowing, vomiting, involuntary muscle movements
32 Cerebellum (C) Diencephalon (B) 4 Lobes of the brain Frontal Lobe Back of brainControls coordination of voluntary muscle movements, maintain posture, balance, and equilbriumDiencephalon (B)Consists of thalamus (B1), hypothalamus (B2), and epithalamus (B3)4 Lobes of the brainFrontal LobeLargest section of brain at frontPersonality characteristics, movement, smellParietal LobeMiddle part of brainIdentify objects, spatial relationships, interpret pain and touch
33 Pons and Medulla – in the brainstem Occipital LobeBack part of brainVisionTemporal LobeSides of brainMemory, speech, musical rhythm, smellPons and Medulla – in the brainstemPons (D2)Deep in brainEye and face movementsMedulla Oblongata (D3)Most vital part of entire brainControls heart and lungsVENTRICLES – filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); CSF is used for communication and protection mainly
34 Why do we need CSF surrounding our brain tissue?
36 #59 NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES For each disease, determine the following:Brief descriptionWhat part of the brain it affectsWho it affectsSigns and symptomsPrognosisMultiple SclerosisStrokeEpilepsyParkinson’s DiseaseHydrocephalusALS
37 Ions in the cell and outside the cell create a positive and negative side, which produces an electric current.
38 Steps of a Nerve Impulse Neuron is at rest at -70mVStimulus hits the neuron causing Na+ to rush into the nerve cell and K+ to rush out (-55mV is the ALL response)The nerve impulse travels down the axon to the axon terminalsCalcium rushes into the cell releasing the neurotransmitters in the synapseNeuron gets back to resting as Na+ and K+ are pumped back to their original placesNeurotransmitters carry the message to the next neuron.
40 NeurotransmittersGABA – nature’s valium; inhibitory; reduces stress and anxietyDopamine – reward; too much = Schizophrenia and too little = Parkinson’s disease, both inh and excSerotonin – too little = depression, OCD, anger, suicide; inhibitory; happiness, appetite, & sleepNorepinephrine – brings us on “high alert;” excitatory, increase blood pressure and heart rate; memoriesAcetylocholine – first NT discovered; mimics vagus nerve; learning/memory, dream/sleep, stimulate muscles; both inh and excEndorphins – inhibitory; similar to opium; pain reduction and increases pleasure; hiberation (slows heart rate, metabolism, respiration)
41 Neurotransmitters #60Excitatory - increase membrane permeability, increases chance for threshold to be achievedInhibitory - decrease membrane permeability, decrease chance for threshold to be achieved