Location Bottom middle part of cortex, right behind the temples. Function Hearing – Receives sensory information (sounds and speech) from the ears. Selective Listening – Key to being able to understand meaningful speech. – Makes sense of all the different sound and pitches being transmitted from the sensory receptors of the ears. Visual Memories – Contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of explicit long-term memory modulated by the amygdala. Vocab Cortex – the outer layer of the cerebrum. Hippocampus – consolidates information from short-term memory to long-term. Amygdala – two almond-shaped groups of nuclei located deep and medialy within the temporal lobes of the brain.
Frontal Lobe Controls: ● Emotions ● Problem Solving ● Memory ● Language ● Judgement ● Social Behavior ● Primary Motor Function ● Ability to consciously move muscles ● Larger in humans ● Criss Crossed
Parts of Speech: ● Expressive (Broca’s Area) ● Receptive (Wernicke’s Area) Damage can result in changes in personality, loss of judgement, and aphasia.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain.major lobescerebral cortex brain The two occipital lobes are the smallest of four paired lobes in the human cerebral cortex. Located in the rearmost portion of the skull, the occipital lobes are part of the forebrain.forebrain The occipital lobe houses the primary visual cortices. These are the portions of the cerebrum that receive visual information from the eyes and the optic nerve and organize it into images that the brain can recognize. the occipital lobe makes sense of visual information so that we are able to understand it. If our occipital lobe was impaired, or injured we would not be able to correctly process visual signals.
The Parietal Lobe ●Location: above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe ●Function: ○Processes sensory information ■taste, temperature, and touch ○Also involves spatial information ■ the ability to judge size, distance, and shapes ●Interprets sensory information such as letting you know the location of parts of your body and aiding in physical navigation. ○Ex. your parietal lobe automatically tells you where your tongue is as you chew to keep you from biting it. ●Parietal association cortex: gives us the ability to understand written language and solve mathematical problems
★ The left hemisphere of the parietal lobe is often stronger in right-handed person ○ Handling the symbolism of letters and numbers becomes easier ★ The right hemisphere is more dominant in left-handed people ○Images and spatial distances involved in them, such as reading maps become easier ★ Damage to the left parietal lobe: ○ "Gerstmann's Syndrome" ■right-left confusion ■difficulty with writing and mathematics ■disorders of language ■inability to perceive objects normally ★ Damage to the right parietal lobe: ○neglecting part of the body or space ■impairs self-care skills: dressing and washing ○can cause difficulty in making things ○affects drawing ability ★ Bilateral damage: ○"Balint's Syndrome" ■a visual attention and motor syndrome ■inability to integrate components of a visual scene ■inability to accurately reach for an object with visual guidance Parietal Lobe Fun Facts
hippocampus -part of the limbic system -it is located in the temporal medial lobe -essential for memory function * short term memory # duration is about15-30s * long term memory # duration is unlimited -one of the few areas that of the brain that is capable of actually growing new neurons -alzheimer's disease is one of the many condition associated with the hippocampus
Wernicke’s Area Anie Britton, Aine Stecher, Amelia Welmaker
Wernicke’s Area Located in posterior section of left hemisphere Contains motor neurons Involved in the comprehension of speech Has a role in processing subordinate words with similar meanings “river” given “bank” Processes dominant word meanings “teller” given “bank” Important in understanding jokes Damage to this area can lead to language disorders Wernicke Aphasia- difficulty understanding language meaning
The Brocas Area By Abraham Lincoln’s ghost, Kassya Gomez, and Sophia Gilmour
Broca’s Area Located in the frontal lobe of one hemisphere Its function is speech production, facial neuron control, and language processing Damage to the frontal lobe could lead to a language disorder known as Brocaphasia, named after the man who discovered it
Limbic System ● The Limbic System is made up of 4 different parts of the brain: Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Cingulate Gyrus, and Amygdala and Hippocampus ● It is responsible for the portion of the brain that deals with emotions, memories and arousal. ●The limbic System is also involved in feelings of pleasure that are related to our survival, such as those experienced from eat and sex. ●It also determines what memories are stored and where it is stored.
The Limbic system is responsible for controlling various functions in the body. Some of these functions include interpreting emotional responses, storing memories, and regulating hormones. The limbic system is also involved with sensory perception and motor function. Summary
Meninges (singular: meninx) ● Membranes that envelop the brain and the spinal cord of the central nervous system. ● Three layers: the dura mater, the arachnoid mater, and the pia mater.
● Meningitis: condition where the meningeal membranes becomes inflamed. ● Causes muscle soreness, fever, loss of appetite, and in some case rashes and poor mental health (fear of loud noise, irritability)
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) ●Clear, colorless fluid ●Found in the brain and spinal cord ●Primary function -To cushion the brain within the skull -Serves as shock absorber for the CNS ●Circulates nutrients and chemicals filtered from blood
CSF continue ●Doctors use “spinal tap” to diagnose nervous system disorders
Blood Brain Barrier Function- protects the central nervous system form potentially harmful chemicals in the blood that may harm the brain regulates the transport of essentail molecules maintains a constant environment for the brain Formation- formed by tight junctions between brain endothelial cells which regulate what enters the brain parenchyma.
Description and Location- The BBB is a highly selective semi-permeable blockade seperates the circulating blood from the brain fluid Position Cases the outer side of the brain The last form of protection
Quadriplegia and paraplegia are two types of paralysis
Quadriplegia Injury to the spinal cord above the first thoracic region Affects all four limbs to be paralyzed Can often times affect the breathing and chest area to be weakened
Paraplegia Occurs below the first thoracic spinal nerve The degree of paralyzation varies from full impairment of the legs to in other cases no movement in the abdomen
The spinal cord injury level, known as a lesion, is the exact point in the spinal cord segment at which damage has occurred. Different areas determine what the injury will be like Thoracic, Lumbar, and Sacral These area’s are important in defining quadriplegia and paraplegia
●AKA the visceral nervous system and involuntary nervous system ●Control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates –heart rateheart rate –digestiondigestion –respiratory raterespiratory rate –pupillary response –urinationurination –and sexual arousalsexual arousal Autonomic Nervous System
●regulated by the hypothalamus.hypothalamus ●2 branches ●the sympathetic nervous systemsympathetic nervous system –often considered the "fight or flight" systemfight or flight ●the parasympathetic nervous system.parasympathetic nervous system –often considered the "rest and digest" or "feed and breed" system ANS cont.
● The SoNS is the part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for carrying sensory and motor information to and from the CNS. ● Made up of nerves that connect to the skin, sensory organs, and all skeletal muscles What is it?
● Nearly all voluntary muscle movements ● Processing sensory information that arrives via external stimuli including hearing, touch, and sight ● Involuntary movements aka reflex arcs (hand jerk after touching something hot) What is is responsible for?
● Sensory (afferent) neurons ● Motor (efferent) neurons ● Spinal Cord Parts of SoNS