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Presentation on theme: "Nervous System PATRICK L, LUCAS B, TANNER A, JAVIER C."— Presentation transcript:


2 Basic Functions Sensory Function ◦This part of the nervous system is conducted by sensory receptors at the end of peripheral neurons ◦Sensory receptors detect change both inside and outside of the body ◦They monitor light, temperature, sound and any other environment factors Integrative Function ◦After the sensory receptors send the information to the central nervous system, the impulses are integrated, or grouped together to form sensations

3 Basic Functions (Cont.) Motor Function ◦Reacting to impulses ◦Peripheral neurons carry impulses away from the central nervous system to responding structures called effectors (muscles, glands) ◦Can be split into two categories ◦Somatic: controlled, voluntary ◦Autonomic: involuntary

4 Neurons The neuron is made of two main parts, the cell body and the axon The cell body houses the nucleus and chromatophilic substance Dendrites extend from the cell body and brings information into the neuron The axon also extends from the cell body, but instead takes the information away from the cell body The axon is surrounded by a protective layer known as the myelin sheath which is created by Schwann cells surrounding the axon Nodes of Ranvier allow impulses to reach the axon’s end as it would be nearly impossible if the axon was completely wrapped in the sheath

5 The Synapse A Synapse is a junction between two communicating neurons.

6 Synaptic Transmission Gap in between neurons is the synaptic cleft. The presynaptic neuron carries impulse to the synapse, and the postsynaptic neuron is the receiver. Process of crossing synaptic cleft is called synaptic transmission. (ST) Neurotransmitters are biochemically responsible for the one way process of ST. Distal end of axons contain synaptic knobs. Synaptic knobs contain synaptic vesicles that release neurotransmitters.

7 Excitatory and Inhibitory Actions Excitatory Neurotransmitters that increase postsynaptic membrane permeability are excitatory. If most neurotransmitter s released are excitatory, then it will reach threshold. Neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine, norepinephrine Inhibitory Neurotransmitters that increase postsynaptic membrane permeability are excitatory. If most neurotransmitter s released are excitatory, then it will reach threshold. Neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine, norepinephrine

8 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are synthesized in the cytoplasm of the synaptic knob and stored in synaptic vesicles. When action potential reaches membrane of synaptic knob, permeability to calcium ions increases. Synaptic vesicles fuse with membrane and release into synaptic cleft. The vesicle breaks away from membrane and return to cytoplasm to retrieve more neurotransmitters. Decomposed in synaptic cleft by enzymes. Some are transported back to synaptic knob that released them or into nearby neuroglial cells.

9 Central Nervous System (CNS) Comprised of the Spine and Brain ◦Sensory receptors convert into nerve pulses and sent here ◦Signals integrated creating sensations, adding to memory, producing thoughts Integrative functions ◦Conscious/subconscious thoughts and decisions ◦Functions employ peripheral neurons – carry impulses from CNS to effectors ◦Muscles, glands associated with movement

10 Peripheral Nerves that branch from CNS to rest of body Divided into somatic and Autonomic systems ◦Somatic oversees conscious movement Consists of 12 Cranial Nerves – all but 1 st pair originating from brainstem ◦Pass through foramina and lead to head neck and trunk ◦Name and number designate cranial nerves ◦Numbers: Front to back ◦Names: primary function

11 Cranial Nerves Olfactory (I)- sense of smell ◦Upper nasal cavity ◦Senses carried to olfactory in bulbs then cerebral centers Optic (II)- Vision ◦Eyes to brain ◦In ganglian cell layers in eyes (mass of nervous tissue) ◦Axons pass through optic foramina to pathways of brain and interpreted in visual cortices of occipital lobes Oculomotor (III)- Adjust lighting (pupils) ◦Each component of nerve connect to voluntary part of eyelid (4 of 6)

12 Cranial Nerves Trochlear (IV)- Lighting ◦Arise from midbrain ◦Carries motor impulses to 5 th voluntary muscle-moves eye Trigeminal (V) Eyes, Upper, lower mouth ◦Mixed nerve ◦3 sensory components- Ophthalmic, maxillary, Mandibular ◦Opth.-Send impulses to eye, tear glands, anterior scalp, forehead, upper eyelid ◦Max.- to upper teeth, gum, lip, skin of face, mucous lining of palate ◦Man- Motor: muscles of mastication, some in floor of mouth. Sensory: scalp behind ear, jaw, lower teeth, jaw, lip

13 Cranial Nerves Abducens (VI)- remaining impulses to eye Facial (VII)- some fibers transmit for facial expressions ◦From lower parts on pons ◦Anterior 2/3 of tongue Vestibulocochlear (VIII)- 2 Parts ◦Vestibular: located on ganglia of inner ear ◦Maintains equilibrium ◦Cochlear: located inner ◦Interprets sounds Glossopharyngeal (IX)- pharynx and tongue ◦Sensory: Signals to pharynx and tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue ◦Motor: innervate muscles of pharynx- swallowing

14 Cranial Nerves Vagus (X)- Neck, chest, abs ◦Somatic: impulses to larynx- speech, swallowing ◦Autonomic (Predominant): heart, smooth muscles, glands in thorax and abdomen Accessory (XI)- both cranial and spinal ◦Cranial: joins vagus nerves ◦Spinal: supplies motor fibers of trapezius/ sternocleidomastoid Hypoglossal (XII)- tongue ◦From medulla to tongue ◦Helps in speaking chewing swallowing

15 Spinal Nerves There are 31 pairs ◦Mixed nerves ◦Provide two-way communication between spinal cord and upper and lower limbs ◦Also neck and trunk ◦Not individually named- Grouped according to level ◦8 cervical pairs ◦12 Thoracic pairs ◦5 Lumbar pairs ◦1 Coccygeal pair

16 Spinal Nerves Emerges from cord by two dorsal roots ◦This forms with a ventral root to form a nerve Except in thoracic region, main portions of nerve form to make plexuses ◦Cervical plexuses lie deep in neck (C 1-4) ◦Supply muscles of skin of neck ◦C 3-5 pass into phrenic nerves-impulses to diaphragm ◦Brachial plexuses (C5-T1_ ◦Deep in shoulders ◦Supply muscles and skin of arm, forearm, hand ◦Include musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, radial, and axillary nerves

17 Spinal Nerves Lumbosacral Plexuses (T12-S5) ◦Give rise to motor and sensory fibers in lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, buttocks, thighs, legs, and feet ◦Major branches are obturator, femoral, and sciatic nerves T2-T11 ◦Do not enter plexuses ◦Become intercostal nerves- give impulses to intercostal muscles and upper abdominal wall ◦Also receive sensory impulses from skin of thorax and abdomen

18 Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Part of PNS- functions independently Controls visceral functions by regulating smooth muscles, cardiac glands ◦Heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, body temperature (Homeostasis) Two sublevels ◦Sympathetic Division- Fight or Flight ◦Parasympathetic Division- Normal Conditions

19 Sympathetic Preganglionic Fibers originate from neurons in gray matter of spine ◦Axons leave through ventral roots of spinal cord in T1-L2 ◦Enter a member of a chain of paravertebral ganglia ◦Forms synapse with 2 nd neuron ◦Post ganglionic fiber returns to a spinal nerve

20 Parasympathetic Fibers arise from brainstem and sacral region of spine Lead in outward in cranial or sacral nerves to ganglia Postganglionic fibers continue from ganglia to specific muscles or glands within viscera Autonomic Neurotransmitters ◦Control if effect will be sympathetic or para. ◦Both secrete acetylcholine- sympathetic secrete norepinephrine- adrenergic fibers

21 Somatic Nervous System Controls Skeletal Muscles Also controls external sensory organs (Skin) This system is said to be voluntary because the responses can be controlled consciously. Enables humans to react consciously to environmental changes

22 Somatic Senses Touch and Pressure Light touches are detected by Meissner's corpuscles Deep pressure is detected by Pacinian corpuscles.

23 Somatic Senses Sensation of Temperature Free Nerve Endings detect temperature. Sensation of Pain Pain can be sensed through the skin, like temperature, touch and pressure Can also be sense in our Viscera’s

24 Somatic Senses Sensation of Muscles ◦Muscle senses tell us about the position of our bodies in space and how much force we are currently using in any muscle ◦Uses Muscle Spindles in order to sense

25 Relationship: Taste and Smell Ever wonder why food taste different when you have a cold? Without the other, your senses can be impaired. Taste buds vs. Odorants

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