Presentation on theme: "One Minute Manager Period 4"— Presentation transcript:
1One Minute Manager Period 4 Biological Bases of BehaviorYour objective is to research your assigned term and create a one minute lesson about the term with as many facts, names, definitions, examples or other pertinent information for the study of biopsychology. You will need to create a slide with the following items on it:1. The term2. Several bulleted points about the term3. A visual to graphically represent the termBe prepared to elaborate on the information as you present to the class.
21. Biological Psychology Focuses on physical and chemical changes that eithercause certain behaviors/mental processesoccur in response to behaviorsStudy of cells and organsExamines relationship between the brain and behaviorRoger Sperry, neuropsychologist
3coordinates voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body via the spinal cordconsists of 2 main parts:the central nervous system (containing the brain and spinal cord)and the peripheral nervous system (consists mainly of nerves)“a complex combination of cells whose primary function is to allow an organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately.”2. Nervous System
43. NeuronsNeurons- “nerve cells”; cells designed to rapidly respond to signalsand send their own.Exchange info through axons and dendrites and by synapsesHeld together and kept alive by glial cells
54. Glial Cells the “supporting cell” What they do? 3 types:AstrocytesOligodendrocytesand Microglia.What they do?hold neurons in placesupply neurons with nutrients and oxygeninsulate neurons“clean up” dead neurons
65. Axon - AliAn Axon is a neuron fiber that carries signals away from the cell body out to where communication occurs w/ other neurons.Most neurons have only one axonMost carry signals in the form of Action PotentialsThe larger the axon, the faster it transmits informationSome axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator. Which transmit information much faster than other neurons.
76. Dendrite What is a dendrite? A neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell bodyFunction?To detect and carry signals to cellsType of signal carried?Postsynaptic potential (electrochemical signal moving towards cell body)
87. SynapsesNeurons have specialized projections called dendrites and axons which work in cahoots to bring and take information to and from the cell body.Information from one neuron flows to anotheracross a SYNAPSE -- which can be said to beingsimilar to a neuro-shipping channel - and thecargo is information.The SYNAPSE consists of a “presynaptic” ending whichcontains neurotransmitters and a “postsynaptic” endingwhich houses receptor sites -- thus making up the “channel.”
98. Action PotentialA sudden wave of electrochemical changes in the axonBeginning in the axon go in both directionsdown and backwardsSpeed is constant for a particular cellIn different cells, speed can bemeters per second
10It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system 9. MyelinA dielectric material that forms a layer around only the axon of a neuron.Made up by different cell types & varies in chemical composition & configurationIt is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous systemThe production of the myelin begins in the 14th week of Fetal DevelopmentMyelin is about 40% water, the dry mass is about 70-85% lipids and about 15-30% proteins.
1110. Refractory PeriodThe period of time where the response to a second stimulus is significantly slowed because a first stimulus is still being processedIt requires divided attention such as reading while watching tv, texting while talking to someone, or driving and talking on the phoneRefractory periods can be affected by personality, age, and the level of alcohol or caffeine intake
1312. NeurotransmittersA neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber upon the arrival of a nerve impulseThe neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse or junction to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber or another structureNeurotransmitters are stored in small, bubble like compartments called vesiclesEach vesicle tends to hold a specific type of neurotransmitter (dopamine, serotonin)Problems with neurotransmitters can be the cause of many mental diseases and disorders
1514. Postsynaptic Potentials Definition: a temporary change in polarization of a neuron membrane, can make the cell either more or less likely to fireEx: positively charged molecules of chemicals like sodium or calcium flow into the neuron, making itslightly less polarizedCaused by the action ofneurotransmitters released by thepresynaptic cell
1615. Excitatory And Inhibitory Neurotransmitters that stimulates the brainActivation of the receptor causes depolarization of the membrane and promotes action potential generationCause an opening opening of ligand gated sodium ion channelsInhibitoryActivation of the receptor causes hyperpolarization and depresses action potential generation.Are responsible for regulating the activation of excitatory neuronsPrimarily project within small, localized regions of cortex
1817. Sensory System Part of the Nervous System Responsible for processing sensory informationSensory systems code for four aspects of a stimulus: type, intensity, location, and durationA stimulus modality is a type of physical phenomenon that can be sensed
1918.Motor Systemsability to perform complex muscle and nerve acts that produce movement; fine motor skills like writing, tying shoes, walking and kicking
2019. Peripheral Nervous System part of nervous system not encased in bone (not brain or spinal cord)2 divisions:somatic: transfers info. between senses, central nervous system, and musclesautonomic: messages between central nervous system and heart, lungs, organs, glands, etc.sympathetic system: fight-or-flight responseparasympathetic system: energy conservation
2120. Autonomic Nervous System The part of the nervous system responsible for control of the bodily functions not consciously directed. These control systems are mainly controlled by your atlas and axis.-i.e. breathing, heartbeat or glandular activityTWO SUBDIVISIONS:Sympathetic Nervous System: The sympathetic nervous system activates the fight or flight response. Like other parts of the nervous system, the sympathetic nervous system operates through a series of interconnected neurons.Parasympathetic Nervous System: rest and digest system, the parasympathetic system conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract.
2221. Nuclei -SophiaNuclei- collection of nerve cell bodies in the central nervous systemThe central nervous system is laid out like carefully planned streets of new suburb with distinct neighborhoods, winding streets and multi-laned highwaysThe “neighborhoods” are collections of neuronal cell bodies (nuclei) the “highways” are made up of axons that travel together in bundles called fiber tractsthese fiber tracts travel from one nucleus to another nucleithis tells us how the brain works by being able to trace the connections among nuclei
2423. Spinal Cord and Reflexes Spinal Cord: relays signals from peripheral senses to brain, then the body; initiates reflexes- feedback system (info about consequences)Reflexes: automatic, finely coordinated movements that react to external stimuli involuntarily-few slow synaptic links make them fast
2524. Cerebral Hemisphere Kylie Valencia Either of the 2 symmetrical halves of the cerebrum, divided by the longitudinal cerebral fissure. The sides are connected by the the corpus callosum.Its the part of the brain that controls reading, writing, and learning.The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.Left Hemisphere = Language, writing, math, & logicRight Hemisphere = Spatial abilities, Face recognition, dreams, awareness, visual imagery, & artsKylie Valencia
2625. Cerebral Cortex Holly Guzman The outer layer of the cerebrumComposed of folded gray matter,Plays an important role in consciousnessresponsible for “higher order” functions:perceiving, producing, & understanding languageHas right & left hemispheres, separated into 4 lobesparietal, occipital, temporal, & frontalMost of the information processing happens here
2726. Sensory Cortex - Jackie Region of the cerebral cortex concerned with receiving and interpreting sensory information from various parts of the body.Umbrella term that encompasses all the senses: sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell.
2827. Motor Cortex A region of the cerebral cortex Involved in the planning, control and execution of voluntary movementscomprises three different areas of the frontal lobepremotor cortex, primary motor cortex,and the supplementary motor area
29Association Cortex the cerebral cortex outside the primary areas essential for mental functions that are more complex than detecting basic dimensions of sensory stimulationlike recognizing objects, not just colors, shapes and signsnot motor or sensory but are thought to be involved in higher thinking
3029. Corpus Callosum- Corpus Callosum a wide, flat bundle of neural fibers beneath the cortex.- It connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication.-The Interpreter-It is the largest white matter structure in the brain- Two parts of the corpus callosumThe posterior portion is called the spleniumThe anterior is called the genu or "knee”
3130. Lateralization Which side of the brain do you use more? The logical left or the creative right?On the left side you have more mathematical thinkers while on the right you have music players and artistsText Book Definition: Referring to the tendency for one cerebral hemisphere to excel at a particular function or skill compared with the other hemisphere
3231. Synaptic PlasticityThe ability of neurons to strengthen or weaken, depending on useThe brain is constantly changing these connections and their strengthCould be a few seconds, minutes, hours, days, or yearsIt’s the learning process, dude
33Neurotransmitter system A chemical substance, such as acetylcholine or dopamine, that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.Two kinds of NeurotransmittersInhibitory: balances moodExcitatory: stimulate the brain
3433. Endocrine SystemRegulates functions ranging from stress responses to physical growth.Cells that form organs are called glands and communicate with one another by secreting chemicals called hormones.
3635. Flight or Fight Syndrome The body’s natural response systemResponse to threats and dangerTo either stay & fight or run awayCommon Occurrences:Heart rate increasesNarrowed or tunnel visionMuscular tensionSweating or perspirationIncreased hearing ability
3736. Negative Feedback Systems - Harnoor Negative Feedback occurs when the result of a processinfluences the operation of the process itself in such a way as to reduce changesNegative Feedback self-regulates the system,it can produce stability and reduce the effect of fluctuationsNegative Feedback loops can be stable, accurate and responsiveExample - Human body temperature - The hypothalamus of a human responds to temperature fluctuations and responds accordingly. If the temperature drops, the body shivers to bring up the temperature and if it is too warm, the body will sweat to cool down due to evaporation.
3837. Phineas Gage Who? Aftermath Influence on Psychology A railroad worker injured in an accidental explosiondestroyed most of his frontal lobeAftermatha year of recovery later he was blind in only one eye but physically in good healthbefore the accident was said to be hard-working and pleasantafter the accident his friends reported him to be an aggressive drunk who couldn’t hold a jobInfluence on Psychologyhis case influenced more discoveries in neuroscienceHis story served as the first sources of evidence that the frontal lobe was connected to personalities
3938. Immune System - Brad What is the immune system? system of biological structures/processes that protect against diseaseHow does it protect against disease?detects harmful substances and attacks themWho has one?All humans and animals - even bacteria have one (enzymes protect)What happens if it’s damaged?Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer
4036. Autoimmune DisorderWhere the immune system can’t tell the difference between healthy body tissues and antigens and begins to attack themMore than 80 different types of autoimmune disordersMay result in:The destruction on one or more types of body tissuesAbnormal growth of an organChanges in organ functionsSymptoms:FatigueFeverGeneral ill-feeling(malaise)
4140. Chromosomal Abnormalities •Chromosomal abnormalities, alterations and aberrations are at the root of many inherited diseases and traits.•Chromosomal abnormalities often give rise to birth defects and hereditary conditions that may develop during an individual's lifetime.•Examining the karyotype of chromosomes (karyotyping) in a sample of cells can allow detection of a chromosomal abnormality and counseling can then be offered to parents or families whose offspring are at risk of growing up with a genetic disorder.•Ex: Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) , Edward’s Syndrome (trisomy 18)