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Before History Chapter 1. The Hominids Australopithecus Homo Erectus Migrations of Homo Erectus Hominid Walked upright Opposable thumbs Communicate verbally.

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Presentation on theme: "Before History Chapter 1. The Hominids Australopithecus Homo Erectus Migrations of Homo Erectus Hominid Walked upright Opposable thumbs Communicate verbally."— Presentation transcript:

1 Before History Chapter 1

2 The Hominids Australopithecus Homo Erectus Migrations of Homo Erectus Hominid Walked upright Opposable thumbs Communicate verbally Traveled deliberately Tools (choppers, scrapers) “upright walking human” Sophisticated tools Created fires Fires used for: cooking, Defense, heat Communicate complex ideas Increase control over Environment Migrated to N. Africa And Eurasian lands Moved to W,E, SE &S Asia

3 Homo Sapiens Language Migrations of Home Sapiens The Peopling Of the World The Natural Environment Evolved traits Vocal chords Mouth cavity w/ Tongue Adaptable Africa, Europe And Asia Ice bridges Populated other areas No other animal Or plant has made it To all habitable parts Of the world Homo sapiens Used their intelligence, Sophisticated tools, And language to Exploit the natural World efficiently

4 Paleolithic Society

5 Economy & Society of Hunting and Gathering Peoples Relative Social Equality Relative Gender Equality Big Game Hunting Paleolithic Settlements Hunting and Gathering prevents Private property Influence started By: age, strength, Courage, intelligence, Fertility, force of personality All members Contributed to Survival Women & Children gathered Men hunted Interdependence Discourage dominance Lived in small Bands (30-50 mem) Systemic & efficient Exploitation of environ ment Special tools Disguises Fires Disturbances To cause a stampede Natufians  Mediterranean  Wild wheat & animals Jomon  Japan  Buckwheat&fishing Chinook  NW N. America  wild Berries, acorns, salmon

6 Paleolithic Culture Neanderthal Peoples The Creativity of Homo Sapiens Venus FigurinesCave Paintings Named after Neander Valley In W. Germany Some same Region as Homo Sapiens Little inter Breeding Deliberate Burials & rituals Significance of Life a death Achievement Through Communication Ability Roman goddess Of love Exaggerated sexual Features Generation of new life Lascaux in France Reasons: Successful Hunting Expeditions, Sympathetic Magic Minerals, Plants, blood, Saliva, water, Animal fat

7 THE NEOLITHIC ERA AND THE TRANSITION TO AGRICULTURE

8 The Origins of Agriculture Neolithic Era Global Climate Change & Gender Relations in Agriculture Independent Inventions in Agriculture Early Spread of Agriculture Aka “new stone Age” Early stages Of agriculture Use of stone tools years ago Many fluctuations In temp and rain After ice age Earth get warmer, More rain, stable Climate Neolithic people Took advantage by Growing plants & Domestication Women: nurtured Plants and collected Men: hunted & dome- sticated 1 st signs of Agriculture in Different areas: 9000bce-SW Asia bce- SE African in Sahara bce- SW Africa 6500bce-E. Asia 4000bce-Meso- America 3000bce-S. America Agriculture Spread fast due To methods Slash and Burn cultivation Method helped To spread cultivation Foods in one Area only were Spread to others (ex. Wheat Agriculture Was physically demanding

9 Early Agricultural Society Emergence of Villages & Towns And Spec. of Labor Pottery and Metalworking Textile Production Social Distinctions & Social Inequality Settled near fields In villages Jericho-earliest Known village Many people, surplus of food Meant new jobs Catal Huyuk- Neolithic town Suggesting spec. of Labor Ex. Clay pots, Baskets, metal tools, textiles Store surplus foods Dry or liquid Products Artistic expression & practical utensil Copper-earliest metal Humans used Jewelry & simple tools Smelted copper made Other tools (ex. Knives Axes, hoes) Metallurgical foundation Selective Breeding led to Better fibers Woman’s job While caring For the children 1st time people Can accumulate Wealth Barter system Development Of private Property land=wealth= Power Social classes emerged

10 Neolithic Culture Religious Values Dependence on Agriculture led to knowledge Of the moon and stars Agricultural people learned the seasons through The position of the sun, moon and stars 1 st steps toward a calendar Neolithic religion reflected it reliance on the earth Celebrated ideas of birth, growth, death & regeneration Ex. Butterflies and frogs

11 The Origins of Urban Life Emergence of Cities Development of Cities was gradual Differed from villages and towns in 2 ways: 1) more complex (spec. of labor, more population, more professionals, professional managers [governors, tax collectors, military strategist], priests) 2) influenced political, economic and cultural life of larger regions (attracted buyers and sellers of different regions), extended claims of authority, were able to spread their culture and traditions


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