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Honors Anatomy & Physiology. Corsets were designed to constrict the waist—the tighter the corset the smaller the waist. A successfully corseted young.

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Presentation on theme: "Honors Anatomy & Physiology. Corsets were designed to constrict the waist—the tighter the corset the smaller the waist. A successfully corseted young."— Presentation transcript:

1 Honors Anatomy & Physiology

2 Corsets were designed to constrict the waist—the tighter the corset the smaller the waist. A successfully corseted young lady might boast of a 12-inch diameter waist! Problem was, the upper part of the corset included the lower part of the rib cage. What was the result of this constant binding? The corset prevented adequate ventilation and caused a permanent deformity of the rib cage…to say nothing of the displaced abdominal organs. The corseted young lovely couldn’t breathe and often fainted. Herein lies the physiologic basis of the swoon and delicate weakness that characterized wealthy young women. They were not weak because of their female X chromosomes; they were merely hypoxic…no oxygen going to the brain. Fortunately, only the wealthiest could make this fashion statement.

3  Pulmonary Ventilation Breathing – movement of air into/out of lungs  External Ventilation Oxygen from lungs to blood CO 2 from blood to lungs  Transport of Respiratory Gases Via cardiovascular system  Internal Respiration Oxygen from blood to tissue cells CO 2 from tissue cells to blood *Also involved with smell & speech

4  Nose Airway for respiration Moistens & warms air Filters & cleans air Olfactory receptors  Nasal Cavity Divided by nasal septum Lined w/vibressae hairs Olfactory mucosa Respiratory mucosa – psuedostratified ciliated epithelial tissue (cilia sluggish in cold weather) Goblet cells- Mucus  water to humidify  Lysozyme  Defensins - antibiotics Sensory nerves for sneeze reflex Superficial capillaries warm air Superior, middle, and inferior conchae  increase surface area  Deflect non-gas particles into mucus

5  5”long  Nasopharynx Air passageway only Uvula & soft palate closes off during swallowing  (fails when laughing!) Pharyngeal tonsil (AKA adenoids)  Oropharynx Both swallowed food & air pass through Palantine & lingual tonsils  Laryngopharynx Stratified squamous epithelium Food & air passageway (food has priority) Extends to epiglottis of larnyx & esophagus

6  2” attached to hyoid bone  3 functions: Provide open airway Switching mechanism to direct air & food Voice production  Adams Apple-laryngeal prominence of thyroid cartilage

7  Pitch determined by length & tension of chords changes Tenser chords vibrate faster therefore higher pitch Deep tones produced by a wide glottis  Loudness depends on force of air stream across chords  Quality depends on length of pharynx to amplify & enhance as well as oral, nasal, and sinus cavities  Enunciation depends on muscles of pharynx, tongue, soft palate & lips

8  4”long, ¾” diameter, 3 layers  Mucosa - Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium w/goblet cells  Submucosa – connective tissue  Adventitia - reinforced by C shaped hyaline cartilage, trachealis smooth muscle decreases diameter of trachea when swallowing food or to produce cough to expel air up to 100mph!  Smoking destroys cilia…leaving coughing as only mechanism for preventing debris from entering lungs

9  Conducting Zone R/L primary bronchi branch off into 2 0 and 3 0 bronchi up to 23 orders of branching Bronchioles (1mm) lead to terminal bronchioles (0.5mm) Mucous, Cilia & supporting cartilage are sparse  Respiratory Zone Alveoli- thin walled air sacs 300 million account for most of lung volume Simple squamous epithelial tissue Densly covered w/cobweb of pulmonary capillaries Gas exchnage occurs by simple diffusion

10  Each lung in its on plural cavity Visceral & parietal pleura Pleural fluid fills pleural cavity  Left Lung superior & inferior lobes  Right Lung superior, middle & inferior lobes  Pulmonary arteries branch into pulmonary capillaries surrounding the alveoili  Oxygenated blood is carried out of the lungs by pulmonary viens  Lungs innervated w/parasympathetic (constricts & sympathetic (dilates) motor fibers

11  Atmospheric Pressure = 760mmHg  Boyle’s Law – pressure is inversely proportional to volume  Inspiration Diaphragm & external intercostals contract Increases volume of thoracic cavity by almost 500mL Pulmonary pressure decreases about -6mmHg Forced inspiration utilizes scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor, & erector spinae muscles  Expiration As inspiratory muscles relax, lungs recoil & thoracic volume decreases increasing pressure to 761mmHg Forced expiration utilizes oblique & transverse abdominals, and internal intercostals


13  Spirometer – measures respiratory capacities  Vital Capacity Tidal Volume  Normal quiet breathing (500mL ea/breath) Inspiratory Reserve Volume  Air taken in forcibly (2100-3200mL over TV) Expiratory Reserve Volume  Air forcibly expelled (1200mL)  Residual Volume Air remaining in lungs that cannot be expelled (1200mL) Allows gas exchange between breaths, keeps alveoli inflated  Dead Space Volume Air remains in “passageways” and never reaches alveoli (150mL)

14  Composition of Alveolar Gas Gas exchange in lungs Humidification Gas mixing w/ea breath  Oxygen Transport HHb + O 2 ⇋ HbO 2 + H + Deoxyhemoglobin ⇋ oxyhemoglobin Each molecule of hemoglobin can bind 4 O2, after 1 binds, changes shape easily picking up other O2 until saturated Various factors affect O2 affinity for Hb GasAtmosphereAlveoli N2N2 78.6%74.9% O2O2 20.9%13.7% CO 2 0.04%5.2% H2OH2O0.46%6.2%

15  7-10% Dissolved in Plasma  20% Bound to a.a. of Hemoglobin  70% as bicarbonate ions  In Plasma: CO 2 + H 2 O ⇋ H 2 CO 3 (unstable) ⇋ H + + HCO 3 - O 2 release from Hb is enhanced by CO2 loading Carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system – resists shifts in blood pH  In Lungs Diffuses from blood into alveoli

16  Neural Mechanisms Medulla Oblongata  Inspiratory neurons cycle w/ expiratory neurons  Respiratory rate: 12-15 breaths per minute  Can be supressed by alcohol or morphine  Influencing Factors Levels of CO 2 (most influential), O 2, and H + in blood Hypothalmus – emotions Cerebral motor contral (voluntary) – limited Irratants constrict bronchioles, stimulate couch or sneeze

17  Chronic Obstructuve Pulmonary Disease  Irreversible decrease in the ability to force air out of lungs

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