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The Crisis of Reconstruction,

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1 The Crisis of Reconstruction, 1865-1877
Chapter 16

2 Results of the Civil War:
Over 620,000 men died The South’s economy was destroyed What about status of 3.5 million former slaves?

3 Reconstruction: The process of putting the nation back together after the Civil War ( ) The re-building of the Union (and the South in particular)

4 13th Amendment (1865) “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Prohibited slavery.

5 Reconstruction ( ) When the North won the Civil War in 1865, the era of Reconstruction began Should the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge? What branch of government is in charge of Reconstruction? How should the North bring the South back into the Union? Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive? “Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers? Should freed blacks be given the right to vote? Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states? Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again? “New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor? How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South? How should the North rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? How should the North integrate and protect newly-emancipated black freedmen?

6 Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan:
VERY lenient… 10% of Confederate voters in southern states must: Accept emancipation Swear loyalty to the Union High ranking Confederate officials could not vote or hold office unless pardoned by the President Once these conditions were met, a state could return to the Union Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan: Radical Republicans wanted black male suffrage added & feared that Confederate leaders would take charge in the South

7 Opposition to Lincoln’s Plan
Wade-Davis Bill: In 1864, Congress wrote its own plan: 50% of state populations had to swear an oath of loyalty Confederate leaders were not eligible to vote or participate in state governments Did not require black suffrage but did enforce emancipation Lincoln killed the bill using a pocket veto (it passed in the last 10 days of the legislative session) By the end of the Civil War, the U.S. government had no plan for Reconstruction in place Congress: Congress felt the South deserved more of a punishment. Radical Republicans, led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, even proposed the theory of state suicide [the Southerners had destroyed their status as states through rebellion and had to be treated as conquered foreign lands]. This was incorporated into the Wade-Davis Bill [July 1864], which demanded that, to be readmitted, states had to have: (1) a majority of white citizens participating in the new gov’t, (2) all voters/delegates under an oath declaring they never helped the Confederates, and (3) no votes for lieutenants and above and officials. This problem was compounded in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated

8 Lincoln’s Assassination
April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth Watching the play, “Our American Cousin,” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DC The president did not live long enough to test his wartime popularity against Congress for control of Reconstruction plans. Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865, and died the next morning. John Wilkes Booth was part of a conspiracy, and others were supposed to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William Seward. A grief stricken nation mourned Lincoln’s death. White southerners were concerned. Lincoln’s death meant a change in Reconstruction plans and a new president. Some disliked Andrew Johnson and felt he was a traitor.

9 After Lincoln’s Death, 3 Men:
Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner Andrew Johnson Radical Republicans Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner were part of a group called the Radical Republicans, who were extremely against Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan.  Both believed that the South should be punished aggressively for their secession from the Union. By breaking ties with the Union, they believed that a state’s status was reverted back to an unorganized territory and therefore should be treated as one.  Their radical views resulted in their theories such as “conquered provinces theory” and “state suicide.” Stevens Sumner

10 Radical Republicans: Members of the Republican Party who wanted to:
Punish the south for causing the Civil War Fought to protect the rights of former slaves

11 Thaddeus Stevens (Radical Republican)
Member of the House of Reps Goal: economic opportunity for former slaves

12 Charles Sumner (Radical Republican)
Member of US Senate Goal: citizenship/political rights for former slaves

13 Charles Sumner vs. Preston Brooks (1857)

14 Andrew Johnson Former Senator from TN, became Lincoln’s VP
A Democrat; Reconstruction plan similar to Lincoln’s Issued 13,000 pardons Unconcerned with rights of former slaves Impeached in 1868 Johnson had lifted himself from poverty and held no great love for the South’s elite planters, and at first he seemed intent on taking power away from the old aristocracy and giving it to the yeomen and small farmers. Republican leaders thought they could work with Johnson, but they did not understand his views. Born into poverty, Johnson despised the wealthy planter class, but he held no ill will toward southerners. He supported states’ rights and limits on government power. The irony of Andrew Johnson: The 1st Reconstruction president was a Southern Democrat & fervent white supremacist Johnson was elected as VP in 1864 to balance Lincoln’s ticket He was the only southern Senator to remain loyal to the Union & hated the South’s gentry

15 Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan:
Appointed provisional state governors to lead state constitutional conventions States must declare secession illegal & ratify the 13th Amend’t Southern conventions reluctantly obeyed Johnson’s Reconstruction policy but passed Black Codes

16 The Freedman’s Bureau The Freedman’s Bureau was established in to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship: Provided emergency food, housing, medical supplies Promised “40 acres & a mule” Supervised labor contracts Created new schools

17 Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes
“Plenty to eat & nothing to do”

18 Freedmen’s Bureau School
Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats

19 Congressional Reconstruction
Following Johnson’s impeachment, Congress controlled reconstruction. Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts ( ): The former Confederate States were militarily occupied by US troops States could re-enter the Union once they ratified the 14th Amendment

20 Map 16.1: The Reconstruction of the South
Only Tennessee escaped occupation b.c ratified in 1866

21 The 14th Amendment In 1866, Congress voted to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau & passed a Civil Rights Bill to protect against Black Codes Johnson vetoed both bills, arguing that they violated states’ rights Congress overrode both vetoes (for the 1st time in U.S. history!)

22 The 14th Amendment Congress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it passed the 14th Amendment: Federal gov’t must protect the civil rights of all Americans Defined the meaning of “citizenship” for Americans Clearly defined punishments for Southern states who violated the civil rights of African-Americans

23 14th Amendment (1868) All persons born the US are citizens of the US
All citizens are guaranteed equal treatment under the law Punished states that denied adult males the right to vote

24 Johnson’s “Swing Around the Circle”
In the 1866 mid-term elections, Johnson toured the South trying to convince voters to elect Congressmen who would reject the 14th Amendment The plan back-fired & Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses of Congress & gained control of every northern state

25 Radical Reconstruction
Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, trumped Johnson by passing it its own Radical Reconstruction plan in 1867: Congress could confiscate & redistribute Southern plantations Allowed quick re-entry for states that supported black suffrage Ex-Confederates couldn’t vote Thaddeus Stevens the most influential of the “radical” Republicans; He opposed the Crittenden Compromise, led the impeachment charges against Johnson, & drafted the Radical Reconstruction plan used from 1867 to 1877

26 Created 5 military districts to enforce acts
But, Radical Reconstruction was so dependent on massive & sustained federal aid that it was not adequate to enforce equality in the South… The success of Reconstruction …and Johnson obstructed Republicans’ plans by removing sympathetic cabinet members & generals

27 The Impeachment Crisis
Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committed In Feb 1868, the House voted to impeach Johnson, but the Senate fell 1 vote short of conviction & removal from office Some Republicans refused to establish the precedent of removing a president But…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did! For violating the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Sec of War Edwin Stanton 11 week trial. Johnson was acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote)

28 Impeachment and Removal of a President
Impeachment: to bring formal charges against the President (Majority vote in the House of Reps) Trial/Removal: The President stands trial (the Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote is needed for removal)

29 Johnson and Impeachment
Johnson was impeached, but not removed from office; he was ineffective following impeachment

30 The Johnson Impeachment & Senate Trial

31 Reconstructing Southern Society
How did Reconstruction impact the South? Southern whites wanted to keep newly-freed blacks inferior Freed blacks sought equality, property, education, & the vote Many Northerners moved South to make money or to "civilize" the region after the Civil War

32 Sharecropping: A New Slavery?
The Civil War destroyed Southern land, economy, & transportation Recovering meant finding a new labor system to replace slavery: The South tried a contract-labor system but it was ineffective Sharecropping “solved” the problem; black farmers worked on white planters’ land, but had to pay ¼ or ½ of their crops

33 Sharecropping Problem: families accumulated debt to the landowner before their crop was sold; This cyclical process led to mortgages on future crops (crop lien system) By the end of 1865, most freedmen had returned to work on the same plantations on which they were previously enslaved


35 Black Codes: A New Slavery?
Violence & discrimination against freedmen by whites was common: Southerners used black codes to keep former slaves from voting, getting jobs, buying land 1,000s of blacks were murdered U.S. army did not have enough troops to keep order in the South


37 Republican Rule in the South
In 1867, a Southern Republican Party was formed by: Northern “carpetbaggers” Southern “scalawags” interested in making money in the South Small, white farmers who wanted protection from creditors Blacks who wanted civil rights Many Southern blacks were elected to state & national gov’t Southern Republicans were only in power for 1-9 years but improved public education, welfare, & transportation


39 Black House & Senate Delegates Black & White Political Participation
“Colored Rule in a Reconstructed South” Black Republicans were accused of corruption & lack of civility

40 Civil War & Reconstruction Review
Examine the major political & military events listed on the “Key Events of the Civil War” timeline; Complete the missing sections Examine “Reconstruction Plans…” & identify the major components of each section of the chart; Be prepared to discuss your answers to the discussion questions.

41 Gaining Rights for Blacks
In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave all men the right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” Freedmen fought for civil rights: Legalized marriage Used courts to assert claims against whites & other blacks Saw education as their 1st opportunity to become literate Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!

42 Reconstruction in the Grant Administration (1869-1877)

43 The Election of 1868 Arkansas Tennessee Louisiana Alabama
South Carolina Florida North Carolina Georgia In 1867, Thaddeus Stevens’ Radical Reconstruction plan was in place & a southern Republican party hoped to build a New South By 1868, 8 of the 11 former Confederate states were accepted back into the Union after creating state constitutions & ratifying the 14th Amendment

44 Re-Admission of the South

45 The Election of 1868 But, the U.S. had lots of problems:
Excessive printing of greenbacks during the Civil War led to high inflation which hurt both the Northern & Southern economies Southern “Redeemers” & secret societies tried to undermine Congressional attempts to reconstruct the South

46 The 1868 Presidential Election
Democrats refused to re-nominate Johnson & chose NY governor Horatio Seymour Republicans nominated Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant who had the support of Republicans in the North & South as well as Southern freedmen who voted for the 1st time

47 Southern Democratic Strategy Southern Republican Strategy
In the election of 1868, both parties “waved the bloody shirt” to remind voters why the Civil War was fought Keeping freed blacks inferior was the most important goal of Southern Democrats Republican goal: Keep ex-Confederate leaders from restoring the “Old South” Southern Democratic Strategy Southern Republican Strategy

48 Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan
Deflations hurt indebted farmers the most Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan In 1876, the Greenback Party was formed to support keeping “soft” money When Grant was elected, he supported: Shifting back to gold (“sound” or “hard” money) to deflate American currency Using a limited number of U.S. soldiers in the South to enforce Reconstruction efforts Civil rights for freed blacks …but not enough to encourage widespread resentment among the Southern population Enough troops should be sent to work with state militias to protect blacks’ rights, reduce violence, & support Republican leaders in Southern state governments…

49 Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan
Republicans sought equal protection for blacks; ratified the 15th Amendment in 1870: Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to race But…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualifications Lucy Stone supported the 15th Amendment calling it the “ Negro’s Hour”; Women could afford to wait for their turn. Others were very upset with this obvious “oversight”

50 A Reign of Terror Against Blacks
From 1868 to 1872, southern Republicans were threatened by secret societies like Ku Klux Klan Hoped to restore the “Old South” Sought to restrict black voting Oppose Republican state gov’ts The KKK was successful in its terror campaigns, helping turn GA, NC, & TN to the Democratic Party

51 The “Invisible Empire of the South”
“Of course he wants to vote for the Democratic ticket”

52 The Failure of Federal Enforcement

53 A Reign of Terror Against Blacks
In 1870, Congress passed the Force Acts (the “KKK Acts”): Made interference in elections a federal crime Gave the president the military power to protect polling places Allowed for high black turnout & Republicans victories in 1872 “Redeemer” Democrats openly appealed to white supremacy & laissez-faire government

54 A Reign of Terror Against Blacks
The KKK responded by becoming more open with its terror tactics: Northerners grew impatient with federal Reconstruction efforts & “corrupt” Southern state gov’ts Grant began to refuse to use military force against KKK terrorist attacks By 1876, only SC, FL, & LA were controlled by Republicans

55 In the Slaughterhouse Cases (1873), the court ruled that the 14th Amendment protects only national citizenship rights & does not protect citizens from discrimination by the states Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to protect freedmen: Outlawed racial discrimination in public places & in jury selection But the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional & weakened the 14th & 15th Amendments, leaving southern blacks defenseless against discrimination The 1875 Civil Rights Act In U.S. v Reese (1876) & U.S. v Cruikshank (1876), the court weakened the KKK Act by stating that the 14th Amendment does not protect against actions by individuals

56 Corruption in Grant’s Administration

57 Corruption in Grant’s Administration
The Republicans experienced rampant corruption during Grant’s 1st term as president: Grant’s Secretary of War was impeached & Attorney General resigned due to corruption Grant’s VP & others were ruined by the Crédit Mobilier scandal involving railroad stock in exchange for political favors These scandals distracted Americans from Reconstruction efforts Liberal Republicans ran on campaign to reform civil service and advocated laissez-faire economic policies like low tariffs, end to gov’t subsidies for RR, and hard money

58 The Election of 1872 Corruption scandals & the failure of Reconstruction in the South led to a split among Republicans: Liberal Republicans were tired of the Grant scandals & believed in reconciling with the South, not military intervention In 1872, Liberal Republicans ran Horace Greeley against Grant

59 1872 Presidential Election
Republicans suppressed the KKK in time for the election; Southern blacks enjoyed a voting freedom they would not see again for a century 1872 Presidential Election Grant was the only consecutive, 2-term president from Jackson to Teddy Roosevelt, but is commonly regarded as a failure

60 Grant’s Second Term ½ the nation’s RRs defaulted
Over 100 banks collapsed 18,000 businesses closed Grant’s Second Term Unemployment reached 15% Grant s 2nd term was plagued by economic depression & corruption Panic of 1873 was the longest depression (until 1929); many blamed large corporations & begged Grant to create jobs Whiskey Ring—Grant’s personal secretary was caught embezzling whiskey taxes The Grant administration did not see job creation or relief for the poor as its duties

61 Essential Question: Reading Quiz 17B (p 585-598)
What events from 1868 to 1876 led to the abandonment of federal reconstruction attempts in the South by 1877? Reading Quiz 17B (p ) Lesson Plan for Monday, November 17, 2008: RQ 17B, Hayes videos, Finish Retreat from Reconstruction notes

62 The New South & the Rise of Jim Crow Rutherford B. Hayes Video

63 1876 Election The winner is…? Two candidates:
Samuel Tilden: Democrat; political reformer from NY Rutherford B. Hayes: Republican; former OH Governor

64 The Compromise of 1877 In 1876, Republicans ran Rutherford B. Hayes against Democrat reformer Samuel Tilden Election results were disputed in three Southern states A special commission gave the disputed votes to Hayes, but Democrats in Congress blocked this decision by filibuster A filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or prevent a vote on its passage

65 Problem: voter irregularities in yellow states; both accused the other side of cheating and both claimed victory in each of those states Commission established

66 1876 Presidential Election

67 1876 Election Compromise of 1877:
A commission was established to determine winner: Compromise of 1877: Hayes became President Military occupation of the South ended The rights of former slaves were not protected The Compromise of 1877: Southern Democrats agreed to end the filibuster & elect Hayes if Republicans agreed to pull U.S. troops out of the South Hayes’ was elected president & the entire South came under the control of white Democrats Reconstruction officially ended

68 A Political Crisis: The Compromise of 1877
The “Second Corrupt Bargain” President Rutherfraud B. Hayes

69 The Rise of Jim Crow From 1877 to 1910, “Redeemer” Democrats imposed restrictions called Jim Crow Laws to limit the civil rights of African Americans 187 blacks were lynched yearly A convict-lease system & prison farms resembled slavery Segregation laws led to separate railroads, streetcars, & public facilities “Black codes” were laws passed from 1865 to 1877 to keep freed slaves from gaining rights & voting “Jim Crow laws” were passed after Reconstruction ended to obstruct rights given to black Americans in the 14th & 15th Amendments


71 Conclusion: The “Unfinished Revolution”

72 The “Unfinished Revolution”
Reconstruction lasted only 12 years from 1865 to 1877: Reconciliation between the North & South occurred only after Reconstruction ended By the late 1880s, “reunion” was becoming a reality but at the expense of the blacks’ rights Reconstruction remained an “unfinished revolution”

73 How effective was the U. S
How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions? How did the federal gov’t bring the South back into the Union? 4. What branch of gov’t took control of Reconstruction? 2. Was the South transformed into a “New South”? 3. How were newly- emancipated black freedmen protected?

74 How effective was the U. S
How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions? Should the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge? What branch of government is in charge of Reconstruction? How should the North bring the South back into the Union? Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive? “Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers? Should freed blacks be given the right to vote? Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states? Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again? “New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor? How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South? How should the North rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? How should the North integrate and protect newly-emancipated black freedmen?

75 Limits to Reconstruction
The Civil War Amendments were a success H/e, there was no redistribution of land and most African Americans lived as sharecroppers and faced little economic opportunity

76 Reconstruction: EVALUATION
Some argue it was a success because slavery was abolished and African Americans were guaranteed equal treatment Others say it was a failure because after those rights were only in place on paper; not in reality. Your opinion: Was it a success or failure…?

77 The African-American Struggle for Equality in the Post-Civil War Era
Up From Slavery The African-American Struggle for Equality in the Post-Civil War Era

78 The Hard Reality of Emancipation
After the Civil War ended and the 13th Amendment abolished slavery (1865), freedmen found themselves without significant resources to start a new life The Freedmen’s Bureau (est. 1865) provided direct relief, education, jobs, and medical care in an effort to give freed slaves an opportunity to adjust to their new lives Despite such efforts, many blacks ended up as tenant farmers who engaged in sharecropping – which involved pledging a share of their harvest as repayment to landowners who leased the land; debt peonage often resulted as black farmers went into debt as a result of not being able to cover costs and debt owed to creditors

79 The Failure of Radical Reconstruction
The Radical Republican attempt to re-engineer Southern society and politics ( ) failed due to: terrorism - as practiced by the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups; violence and intimidation kept reformers from carrying out Radical policies redemption – Southern Democrats regained control of their state governments as a result of the Compromise of 1877, which (after the disputed election of 1876) gave Republican candidate Hayes the White House in exchange for a Republican pledge to withdraw the last federal troops from the South and end Reconstruction “Jim Crow” laws created institutionalized segregation through such measures as poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses – effectively disenfranchised blacks despite rights provided in the 14th and 15th Amendments

80 Thomas Nast’s View of the Post-War South

81 The Supreme Court Limits Rights
Ex parte Milligan (1866) – the Court ruled that military courts could not try civilians where civil courts were functioning – limited ability of the federal government to prosecute Southern whites who violated the law Slaughterhouse cases (1873) – the Court created the concept of “dual citizenship” – the idea that the 14th Amendment only guaranteed national civil rights, not state civil rights; effectively limited the scope of 14th Amendment due process protections Civil Rights cases (1883) – the Court further weakened the 14th Amendment by declaring that it protected only against government infringement of rights, not private infringement (i.e., private businesses could still discriminate against blacks) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – ruled segregation legal as long as facilities were “separate but equal” – not overturned until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954

82 Two Views of Progress Booker T. Washington, a former slave and the founder of Tuskegee Institute, argued that blacks would only gain acceptance by white society through education and hard work; patterned after his own life experience Equality must first come on socio-economic terms and political equality would follow; a popular approach with white Americans W.E.B. DuBois, a northern intellectual, argued that blacks must achieve political equality first before socio-economic equality would be fully achieved His approach was widely adopted by civil rights leaders in the 1950s/1960s DuBois helped to lead the Niagara movement and founded the NAACP

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