Presentation on theme: "The Crisis of Reconstruction,"— Presentation transcript:
1The Crisis of Reconstruction, 1865-1877 Chapter 16
2Results of the Civil War: Over 620,000 men diedThe South’s economy was destroyedWhat about status of 3.5 million former slaves?
3Reconstruction:The process of putting the nation back together after the Civil War ( )The re-building of the Union(and the South in particular)
413th Amendment (1865)“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”Prohibited slavery.
5Reconstruction ( )When the North won the Civil War in 1865, the era of Reconstruction beganShould the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge?What branch of government is in charge of Reconstruction?How should theNorth bring theSouth back intothe Union?Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive?“Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers?Should freed blacks be given the right to vote?Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states?Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again?“New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor?How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South?How should theNorth rebuildthe South afterits destruction during the war?How should theNorth integrateand protectnewly-emancipated black freedmen?
6Congress rejected Lincoln’s plan: VERY lenient…10% of Confederate voters in southern states must:Accept emancipationSwear loyalty to the UnionHigh ranking Confederate officials could not vote or hold office unless pardoned by the PresidentOnce these conditions were met, a state could return to the UnionCongress rejected Lincoln’s plan:Radical Republicans wanted black male suffrage added & feared that Confederate leaders would take charge in the South
7Opposition to Lincoln’s Plan Wade-Davis Bill:In 1864, Congress wrote its own plan:50% of state populations had to swear an oath of loyaltyConfederate leaders were not eligible to vote or participate in state governmentsDid not require black suffrage but did enforce emancipationLincoln killed the bill using a pocket veto (it passed in the last 10 days of the legislative session)By the end of the Civil War, the U.S. government had no plan for Reconstruction in placeCongress: Congress felt the South deserved more of a punishment. Radical Republicans, led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, even proposed the theory of state suicide [the Southerners had destroyed their status as states through rebellion and had to be treated as conquered foreign lands]. This was incorporated into the Wade-Davis Bill [July 1864], which demanded that, to be readmitted, states had to have: (1) a majority of white citizens participating in the new gov’t, (2) all voters/delegates under an oath declaring they never helped the Confederates, and (3) no votes for lieutenants and above and officials.This problem was compounded in 1865 when Lincoln was assassinated
8Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes BoothWatching the play, “Our American Cousin,” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, DCThe president did not live long enough to test his wartime popularity against Congress for control of Reconstruction plans.Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater on April 14, 1865, and died the next morning.John Wilkes Booth was part of a conspiracy, and others were supposed to kill Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William Seward.A grief stricken nation mourned Lincoln’s death.White southerners were concerned. Lincoln’s death meant a change in Reconstruction plans and a new president. Some disliked Andrew Johnson and felt he was a traitor.
9After Lincoln’s Death, 3 Men: Thaddeus StevensCharles SumnerAndrew JohnsonRadical RepublicansThaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner were part of a group called the Radical Republicans, who were extremely against Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan. Both believed that the South should be punished aggressively for their secession from the Union.By breaking ties with the Union, they believed that a state’s status was reverted back to an unorganized territory and therefore should be treated as one. Their radical views resulted in their theories such as “conquered provinces theory” and “state suicide.”Stevens Sumner
10Radical Republicans: Members of the Republican Party who wanted to: Punish the south for causing the Civil WarFought to protect the rights of former slaves
11Thaddeus Stevens (Radical Republican) Member of the House of RepsGoal: economic opportunity for former slaves
12Charles Sumner (Radical Republican) Member of US SenateGoal: citizenship/political rights for former slaves
14Andrew Johnson Former Senator from TN, became Lincoln’s VP A Democrat; Reconstruction plan similar to Lincoln’sIssued 13,000 pardonsUnconcerned with rights of former slavesImpeached in 1868Johnson had lifted himself from poverty and held no great love for the South’s elite planters, and at first he seemed intent on taking power away from the old aristocracy and giving it to the yeomen and small farmers.Republican leaders thought they could work with Johnson, but they did not understand his views. Born into poverty, Johnson despised the wealthy planter class, but he held no ill will toward southerners. He supported states’ rights and limits on government power.The irony of Andrew Johnson:The 1st Reconstruction president was a Southern Democrat & fervent white supremacistJohnson was elected as VP in 1864 to balance Lincoln’s ticketHe was the only southern Senator to remain loyal to the Union & hated the South’s gentry
15Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan: Appointed provisional state governors to lead state constitutional conventionsStates must declare secession illegal & ratify the 13th Amend’tSouthern conventions reluctantly obeyed Johnson’s Reconstruction policy but passed Black Codes
16The Freedman’s BureauThe Freedman’s Bureau was established in to offer assistance to former slaves & protect their new citizenship:Provided emergency food, housing, medical suppliesPromised “40 acres & a mule”Supervised labor contractsCreated new schools
17Freedmen’s Bureau Seen Through Southern Eyes “Plenty to eat & nothing to do”
18Freedmen’s Bureau School Many former abolitionists moved South to help freedmen, called “carpetbaggers” by Southern Democrats
19Congressional Reconstruction Following Johnson’s impeachment, Congress controlled reconstruction.Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts ( ):The former Confederate States were militarily occupied by US troopsStates could re-enter the Union once they ratified the 14th Amendment
20Map 16.1: The Reconstruction of the South Only Tennessee escaped occupation b.c ratified in 1866
21The 14th AmendmentIn 1866, Congress voted to extend the Freedmen’s Bureau & passed a Civil Rights Bill to protect against Black CodesJohnson vetoed both bills, arguing that they violated states’ rightsCongress overrode both vetoes (for the 1st time in U.S. history!)
22The 14th AmendmentCongress feared Johnson would allow violations of civil rights so it passed the 14th Amendment:Federal gov’t must protect the civil rights of all AmericansDefined the meaning of “citizenship” for AmericansClearly defined punishments for Southern states who violated the civil rights of African-Americans
2314th Amendment (1868) All persons born the US are citizens of the US All citizens are guaranteed equal treatment under the lawPunished states that denied adult males the right to vote
24Johnson’s “Swing Around the Circle” In the 1866 mid-term elections, Johnson toured the South trying to convince voters to elect Congressmen who would reject the 14th AmendmentThe plan back-fired & Republicans won a 3-1 majority in both houses of Congress & gained control of every northern state
25Radical Reconstruction Congress, led by Thaddeus Stevens, trumped Johnson by passing it its own Radical Reconstruction plan in 1867:Congress could confiscate & redistribute Southern plantationsAllowed quick re-entry for states that supported black suffrageEx-Confederates couldn’t voteThaddeus Stevens the most influential of the “radical” Republicans; He opposed the Crittenden Compromise, led the impeachment charges against Johnson, & drafted the Radical Reconstruction plan used from 1867 to 1877
26Created 5 military districts to enforce acts But, Radical Reconstruction was so dependent on massive & sustained federal aid that it was not adequate to enforce equality in the South…The success of Reconstruction…and Johnson obstructed Republicans’ plans by removing sympathetic cabinet members & generals
27The Impeachment Crisis Johnson argued that removal could only occur due to “high crimes & misdemeanors” but no “crime” had been committedIn Feb 1868, the House voted to impeach Johnson, but the Senate fell 1 vote short of conviction & removal from officeSome Republicans refused to establish the precedent of removing a presidentBut…Johnson did promise to enforce Reconstruction for the remainder of his term…& he did!For violating the Tenure of Office Act when he tried to fire Sec of War Edwin Stanton11 week trial. Johnson was acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote)
28Impeachment and Removal of a President Impeachment: to bring formal charges against the President (Majority vote in the House of Reps)Trial/Removal: The President stands trial (the Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote is needed for removal)
29Johnson and Impeachment Johnson was impeached, but not removed from office; he was ineffective following impeachment
31Reconstructing Southern Society How did Reconstruction impact the South?Southern whites wanted to keep newly-freed blacks inferiorFreed blacks sought equality, property, education, & the voteMany Northerners moved South to make money or to "civilize" the region after the Civil War
32Sharecropping: A New Slavery? The Civil War destroyed Southern land, economy, & transportationRecovering meant finding a new labor system to replace slavery:The South tried a contract-labor system but it was ineffectiveSharecropping “solved” the problem; black farmers worked on white planters’ land, but had to pay ¼ or ½ of their crops
33SharecroppingProblem: families accumulated debt to the landowner before their crop was sold; This cyclical process led to mortgages on future crops (crop lien system)By the end of 1865, most freedmen had returned to work on the same plantations on which they were previously enslaved
35Black Codes: A New Slavery? Violence & discrimination against freedmen by whites was common:Southerners used black codes to keep former slaves from voting, getting jobs, buying land1,000s of blacks were murderedU.S. army did not have enough troops to keep order in the South
37Republican Rule in the South In 1867, a Southern Republican Party was formed by:Northern “carpetbaggers”Southern “scalawags” interested in making money in the SouthSmall, white farmers who wanted protection from creditorsBlacks who wanted civil rightsMany Southern blacks were elected to state & national gov’tSouthern Republicans were only in power for 1-9 years but improved public education, welfare, & transportation
39Black House & Senate Delegates Black & White Political Participation “Colored Rule in a Reconstructed South”Black Republicans were accused of corruption & lack of civility
40Civil War & Reconstruction Review Examine the major political & military events listed on the “Key Events of the Civil War” timeline; Complete the missing sectionsExamine “Reconstruction Plans…” & identify the major components of each section of the chart; Be prepared to discuss your answers to the discussion questions.
41Gaining Rights for Blacks In 1870, the 15th Amendment gave all men the right to vote regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”Freedmen fought for civil rights:Legalized marriageUsed courts to assert claims against whites & other blacksSaw education as their 1st opportunity to become literateWomen’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
42Reconstruction in the Grant Administration (1869-1877)
43The Election of 1868 Arkansas Tennessee Louisiana Alabama South CarolinaFloridaNorth CarolinaGeorgiaIn 1867, Thaddeus Stevens’ Radical Reconstruction plan was in place & a southern Republican party hoped to build a New SouthBy 1868, 8 of the 11 former Confederate states were accepted back into the Union after creating state constitutions & ratifying the 14th Amendment
45The Election of 1868 But, the U.S. had lots of problems: Excessive printing of greenbacks during the Civil War led to high inflation which hurt both the Northern & Southern economiesSouthern “Redeemers” & secret societies tried to undermine Congressional attempts to reconstruct the South
46The 1868 Presidential Election Democrats refused to re-nominate Johnson & chose NY governor Horatio SeymourRepublicans nominated Civil War hero Ulysses S. Grant who had the support of Republicans in the North & South as well as Southern freedmen who voted for the 1st time
47Southern Democratic Strategy Southern Republican Strategy In the election of 1868, both parties “waved the bloody shirt” to remind voters why the Civil War was foughtKeeping freed blacks inferior was the most important goal of Southern DemocratsRepublican goal: Keep ex-Confederate leaders from restoring the “Old South”Southern Democratic StrategySouthern Republican Strategy
48Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan Deflations hurt indebted farmers the mostGrant’s National Reconstruction PlanIn 1876, the Greenback Party was formed to support keeping “soft” moneyWhen Grant was elected, he supported:Shifting back to gold (“sound” or “hard” money) to deflate American currencyUsing a limited number of U.S. soldiers in the South to enforce Reconstruction effortsCivil rights for freed blacks…but not enough to encourage widespread resentment among the Southern populationEnough troops should be sent to work with state militias to protect blacks’ rights, reduce violence, & support Republican leaders in Southern state governments…
49Grant’s National Reconstruction Plan Republicans sought equal protection for blacks; ratified the 15th Amendment in 1870:Prohibited any state from denying men the right to vote due to raceBut…the amendment said nothing about literacy tests, poll taxes, & property qualificationsLucy Stone supported the 15th Amendment calling it the “ Negro’s Hour”; Women could afford to wait for their turn. Others were very upset with this obvious “oversight”
50A Reign of Terror Against Blacks From 1868 to 1872, southern Republicans were threatened by secret societies like Ku Klux KlanHoped to restore the “Old South”Sought to restrict black votingOppose Republican state gov’tsThe KKK was successful in its terror campaigns, helping turn GA, NC, & TN to the Democratic Party
51The “Invisible Empire of the South” “Of course he wants to vote for the Democratic ticket”
53A Reign of Terror Against Blacks In 1870, Congress passed the Force Acts (the “KKK Acts”):Made interference in elections a federal crimeGave the president the military power to protect polling placesAllowed for high black turnout & Republicans victories in 1872“Redeemer” Democrats openly appealed to white supremacy & laissez-faire government
54A Reign of Terror Against Blacks The KKK responded by becoming more open with its terror tactics:Northerners grew impatient with federal Reconstruction efforts & “corrupt” Southern state gov’tsGrant began to refuse to use military force against KKK terrorist attacksBy 1876, only SC, FL, & LA were controlled by Republicans
55In the Slaughterhouse Cases (1873), the court ruled that the 14th Amendment protects only national citizenship rights & does not protect citizens from discrimination by the statesCongress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to protect freedmen:Outlawed racial discrimination in public places & in jury selectionBut the Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional & weakened the 14th & 15th Amendments, leaving southern blacks defenseless against discriminationThe 1875 Civil Rights ActIn U.S. v Reese (1876) & U.S. v Cruikshank (1876), the court weakened the KKK Act by stating that the 14th Amendment does not protect against actions by individuals
57Corruption in Grant’s Administration The Republicans experienced rampant corruption during Grant’s 1st term as president:Grant’s Secretary of War was impeached & Attorney General resigned due to corruptionGrant’s VP & others were ruined by the Crédit Mobilier scandal involving railroad stock in exchange for political favorsThese scandals distracted Americans from Reconstruction effortsLiberal Republicans ran on campaign to reform civil service and advocated laissez-faire economic policies like low tariffs, end to gov’t subsidies for RR, and hard money
58The Election of 1872Corruption scandals & the failure of Reconstruction in the South led to a split among Republicans:Liberal Republicans were tired of the Grant scandals & believed in reconciling with the South, not military interventionIn 1872, Liberal Republicans ran Horace Greeley against Grant
591872 Presidential Election Republicans suppressed the KKK in time for the election; Southern blacks enjoyed a voting freedom they would not see again for a century1872 Presidential ElectionGrant was the only consecutive, 2-term president from Jackson to Teddy Roosevelt, but is commonly regarded as a failure
60Grant’s Second Term ½ the nation’s RRs defaulted Over 100 banks collapsed18,000 businesses closedGrant’s Second TermUnemployment reached 15%Grant s 2nd term was plagued by economic depression & corruptionPanic of 1873 was the longest depression (until 1929); many blamed large corporations & begged Grant to create jobsWhiskey Ring—Grant’s personal secretary was caught embezzling whiskey taxesThe Grant administration did not see job creation or relief for the poor as its duties
61Essential Question: Reading Quiz 17B (p 585-598) What events from 1868 to 1876 led to the abandonment of federal reconstruction attempts in the South by 1877?Reading Quiz 17B (p )Lesson Plan for Monday, November 17, 2008: RQ 17B, Hayes videos, Finish Retreat from Reconstruction notes
62The New South & the Rise of Jim Crow Rutherford B. Hayes Video
631876 Election The winner is…? Two candidates: Samuel Tilden: Democrat; political reformer from NYRutherford B. Hayes: Republican; former OH Governor
64The Compromise of 1877In 1876, Republicans ran Rutherford B. Hayes against Democrat reformer Samuel TildenElection results were disputed in three Southern statesA special commission gave the disputed votes to Hayes, but Democrats in Congress blocked this decision by filibusterA filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or prevent a vote on its passage
65Problem: voter irregularities in yellow states; both accused the other side of cheating and both claimed victory in each of those statesCommission established
671876 Election Compromise of 1877: A commission was established to determine winner:Compromise of 1877:Hayes became PresidentMilitary occupation of the South endedThe rights of former slaves were not protectedThe Compromise of 1877:Southern Democrats agreed to end the filibuster & elect Hayes if Republicans agreed to pull U.S. troops out of the SouthHayes’ was elected president & the entire South came under the control of white DemocratsReconstruction officially ended
68A Political Crisis: The Compromise of 1877 The “Second Corrupt Bargain”President Rutherfraud B. Hayes
69The Rise of Jim CrowFrom 1877 to 1910, “Redeemer” Democrats imposed restrictions called Jim Crow Laws to limit the civil rights of African Americans187 blacks were lynched yearlyA convict-lease system & prison farms resembled slaverySegregation laws led to separate railroads, streetcars, & public facilities“Black codes” were laws passed from 1865 to 1877 to keep freed slaves from gaining rights & voting“Jim Crow laws” were passed after Reconstruction ended to obstruct rights given to black Americans in the 14th & 15th Amendments
72The “Unfinished Revolution” Reconstruction lasted only 12 years from 1865 to 1877:Reconciliation between the North & South occurred only after Reconstruction endedBy the late 1880s, “reunion” was becoming a reality but at the expense of the blacks’ rightsReconstruction remained an “unfinished revolution”
73How effective was the U. S How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions?How did thefederal gov’tbring the Southback into theUnion?4. What branch of gov’t tookcontrol of Reconstruction?2. Was theSouthtransformedinto a“New South”?3. How werenewly- emancipated black freedmenprotected?
74How effective was the U. S How effective was the U.S. in addressing these Reconstruction questions?Should the president, as commander-in-chief, be in charge?What branch of government is in charge of Reconstruction?How should theNorth bring theSouth back intothe Union?Quickly, to show Americans that they are willing to forgive?“Old South” based on cotton farming with blacks as workers?Should freed blacks be given the right to vote?Should Congress be in charge because the Constitution gives it power to let territories in as states?Slowly, to make sure the South doesn’t try to secede again?“New South” with textile factories & railroads with paid labor?How do you protect blacks against racists whites in the South?How should theNorth rebuildthe South afterits destruction during the war?How should theNorth integrateand protectnewly-emancipated black freedmen?
75Limits to Reconstruction The Civil War Amendments were a successH/e, there was no redistribution of land and most African Americans lived as sharecroppers and faced little economic opportunity
76Reconstruction: EVALUATION Some argue it was a success because slavery was abolished and African Americans were guaranteed equal treatmentOthers say it was a failure because after those rights were only in place on paper; not in reality.Your opinion: Was it a success or failure…?
77The African-American Struggle for Equality in the Post-Civil War Era Up From SlaveryThe African-American Struggle for Equality in the Post-Civil War Era
78The Hard Reality of Emancipation After the Civil War ended and the 13th Amendment abolished slavery (1865), freedmen found themselves without significant resources to start a new lifeThe Freedmen’s Bureau (est. 1865) provided direct relief, education, jobs, and medical care in an effort to give freed slaves an opportunity to adjust to their new livesDespite such efforts, many blacks ended up as tenant farmers who engaged in sharecropping – which involved pledging a share of their harvest as repayment to landowners who leased the land; debt peonage often resulted as black farmers went into debt as a result of not being able to cover costs and debt owed to creditors
79The Failure of Radical Reconstruction The Radical Republican attempt to re-engineer Southern society and politics ( ) failed due to:terrorism - as practiced by the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups; violence and intimidation kept reformers from carrying out Radical policiesredemption – Southern Democrats regained control of their state governments as a result of the Compromise of 1877, which (after the disputed election of 1876) gave Republican candidate Hayes the White House in exchange for a Republican pledge to withdraw the last federal troops from the South and end Reconstruction“Jim Crow” laws created institutionalized segregation through such measures as poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses – effectively disenfranchised blacks despite rights provided in the 14th and 15th Amendments
81The Supreme Court Limits Rights Ex parte Milligan (1866) – the Court ruled that military courts could not try civilians where civil courts were functioning – limited ability of the federal government to prosecute Southern whites who violated the lawSlaughterhouse cases (1873) – the Court created the concept of “dual citizenship” – the idea that the 14th Amendment only guaranteed national civil rights, not state civil rights; effectively limited the scope of 14th Amendment due process protectionsCivil Rights cases (1883) – the Court further weakened the 14th Amendment by declaring that it protected only against government infringement of rights, not private infringement (i.e., private businesses could still discriminate against blacks)Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – ruled segregation legal as long as facilities were “separate but equal” – not overturned until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954
82Two Views of ProgressBooker T. Washington, a former slave and the founder of Tuskegee Institute, argued that blacks would only gain acceptance by white society through education and hard work; patterned after his own life experienceEquality must first come on socio-economic terms and political equality would follow; a popular approach with white AmericansW.E.B. DuBois, a northern intellectual, argued that blacks must achieve political equality first before socio-economic equality would be fully achievedHis approach was widely adopted by civil rights leaders in the 1950s/1960sDuBois helped to lead the Niagara movement and founded the NAACP