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Presentation on theme: "Staying in Balance METABOLISM, CALORIES & STRESS."— Presentation transcript:


2 PLEASE Hold Questions until End


4 Metabolism [ sum of all chemical reactions in body] C ATABOLISM break into simplest parts F ATS : fatty acids & glycerol C ARBOHYDRATES : simple sugars glucose- fructose – galactose P ROTEIN : amino acids A NABOLISM build / repair / fuel glycerol & fatty acids = FATS Glycogen -> glucose Amino acids -> PROTEIN GLUCONEOGENESIS

5 Satiety = sa·ti·e·ty səˈtīədē/ nountechnical the feeling or state of being sated. satisfied (an appetite or desire) [physiological] Appetite = ap·pe·tite ˈ apə ˌ tīt/ Noun a natural desire to satisfy a bodily need, especially for food [psychological] synonyms: hungerhunger, ravenousness, hungriness; More Hunger = hun·ger ˈ həNG ɡ ər/ noun a feeling of discomfort or weakness caused by lack of food, coupled with the desire to eat. [ physiological]

6 Body uses energy in form of Calories Calorie = kilocalories = kcals C ARBOHYDRATES = 4 kcal/ gm [ 4.1] P ROTEIN = 4 kcal / gm [ 4.1] F ATS = 9 kcal / gm [ 9.5] A LCOHOL = 7 kcal / gm [oz]

7 How many calories do I need? Basal Metabolic Rate [BMR] = Resting Metabolic Rate [RMR] Thermic Effect of Food [TEF] = 10% of RMR Physical Activity / Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis [ NEAT ] Gender Age Anthropomorphism / Genetics Food choices

8 Mifflin St. Jeor Equation For men: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) + 5 For women: BMR = 10 x weight (kg) + 6.25 x height (cm) – 5 x age (years) – 161 TOTAL DAILY ENERGY EXPENDITURE [TDEE] Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA): This is the amount of calories burned while exercising fluctuates daily Thermic Effect of Feeding (TEF) digest food and absorb its nutrients, body uses energy in the form of calories.

9 to estimate Daily caloric needs – Underweight Adults body weight [lbs] x 18 Normal Weight Adults body weight [lbs] x 16 Overweight Adults body weight [lbs] x 14 Muscle uses 6 calories / lb / day Adipose uses 2 calories / lb / day Bone uses 1 calorie / lb / day Internal organs use 24.4 calories / lb / day

10 a calorie is a calorie is a calorie –or is it?

11 Liquid calories Must chew to stimulate satiety signals Sweetened drinks: the more consumed the higher risk of CVD, obesity, diabetes Soup – stimulates satiety

12 Chocolate calories Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar 210 calories 26 grams of carbs / 24 grams of sugar 13 grams of fat / 8 grams of sat.fat 43 -gm serving [ 1 bar] Chocolove’s Extra Strong Dark Chocolate 77% cocoa 170 calories 11 grams of carbs / 6 grams of sugar 13 grams of fat / 8 grams sat fat 30-gram serving [ 1/3 of bar]

13 Insulin Made in pancreas Released in response / anticipation : food ingestion Assists in cellular uptake of fats & carbohydrates & protein Turns on brain satiety signals

14 Stress E USTRESS VS D ISTRESS S TRESSOR : anything that knocks you out of balance [ HOMEOSTASIS ] P HYSICAL – SOCIAL – PSYCHOLOGICAL S TRESS RESPONSE : what body does to re-establish balance same response for all stressors A CUTE VS C HRONIC

15 Basic Stress Response Brain receives information that in danger [ physical, social or psychological source] It releases CRH [blunts appetite] and Noradrenaline CRH [ sec ]-> ACTH [ seconds ] -> Cortisol [stimulates appetite / suppresses sensitivity to leptin] [minutes ]-> glucose & fatty acids Noradrenaline [ seconds] -> Adrenaline [ minutes] - > affects body systems Pancreas releases Glucagon -> glucose Leptin: hormone released by adipose tissue in response to increased stores of fatty acids – suppresses appetite

16 Stress hormones Glucocorticoids primarily Cortisol – made in adrenal glands. Stimulated by pituitary hormone [ACTH] which is triggered by CRH [ hypothalamus] in response to noradrenaline Glucagon - made in pancreas. Breaks down glycogen in liver Adrenaline / Noradrenaline [ epinephrine / norepinephrine] - Sympathetic Nervous System response – triggers adrenal glands, and affects body systems [ FIGHT – FLIGHT – FREEZE ]

17 Cortisol [produced in Adrenal Cortex; highest levels in AM; produced as a result of Sympathetic Nervous System activation] A CUTE S TRESS Quick burst of energy [ survival] Heightened memory functions Increased Immunity Lower pain sensitivity Assists with homeostasis Appetite Suppressor C HRONIC S TRESS fatigue Impaired cognitive performance Blood sugar imbalances High Blood Pressure Decreased Immunity and Inflammatory response; slow wound healing Increased abdominal adiposity Appetite Stimulant [ 75% US population]


19 Any type is effective in decreasing stress, anxiety and depression Suppresses release of Cortisol and Adrenaline Stimulates release of Endorphins Improves Sleep & Increases Energy Enhances self Image; Self Confidence

20 Questions?

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