Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer 10.21.2011 Name a part of your brain that you remember reading about and write down anything you remember about it (e.g. where it’s located,"— Presentation transcript:
1Bell RingerName a part of your brain that you remember reading about and write down anything you remember about it (e.g. where it’s located, it’s function, etc.).
2Unit 3: Biological Bases of Behavior AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier
3Neuropsychologists:psychologists who explore the relationships between brain/nervous systems and behavior.aka: biological psychologists, biopsychologists, behavioral geneticists, physiological psychologists, and behavioral neuroscientists.
4ORGANIZATION OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM All of the neurons in your body are organized into your nervous system.The two major subdivisions are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
5ORGANIZATION OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System (CNS): made up of the brain and spinal cord.Spinal cord: starts at the base of your back and extends upward to the base of your skull where it joins your brains.Made mainly of interneuron’s and glial cells, which are all bathed by cerebrospinal fluid produced by your glial cells.
6ORGANIZATION OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): made up the somatic and autonomic nervous systems, and spread around your body from your spinal cord outwards.Somatic Nervous System: motor neurons that stimulate skeletal (voluntary) muscle.Autonomic Nervous System: motor neurons that stimulate smooth (involuntary) and heart muscle.
7ORGANIZATION OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM The Autonomic Nervous System is divided into two parts:Sympathetic Nervous System: Responses that help your body deal with stressful events, including:Dilation of pupils, release of glucose from your liver, dilation of bronchi, inhibition of digestive functions, acceleration of heart rate, secretion of adrenalin from your adrenal glands, acceleration of breathing rate, and inhibition of secretion of your tear glands.
8ORGANIZATION OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM The Autonomic Nervous System is divided into two parts:Parasympathetic Nervous System: Calms your body following sympathetic stimulation by restoring digestive processes (salivation, peristalsis, enzyme secretion), returning pupils to normal size, stimulating tear glands, restoring normal bladder contractions, slow breathing and heart rate, etc.
9ORGANIZATION OF YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM Turn to your neighbor and explain the two major subdivisions of the nervous system.What are the 2 parts of the CNS?What are the 2 parts of the PNS?What are the 2 parts of the autonomic NS?
10Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal CordAutonomic Nervous SystemSomatic Nervous SystemSympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous System
11STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON neuron: the basic unit of structure and function of your nervous system.three major functions:receive information, process it, and transmit it to the rest of your body.
12STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON glial cells: guide the growth of developing neurons, help provide nutrition for and get rid of wastes of the neuron, and form an insulating sheath around neurons that speeds conduction.
13STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON cell body (cyton or soma): contains cytoplasm and the nucleus, which directs synthesis of neurotransmitters.
15STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON dendrites: branching tubular processes capable of receiving information.axon: emerges from the cyton as a single conducting fiber (longer than a dendrite) which branches.
16STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON DENDRITESCELL BODYAXON
17STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON terminal button (axon terminal or synaptic knob): tip of the axon.myelin sheath: fatty tissue created by glial cells that insulate the axon and speeds up transmission.
18STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON DENDRITESAXON TERMINALCELL BODYAXONMYELIN SHEATH
19STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON nucleus: holds all the genetic information of the cell.node of Ranvier: gaps between the myelin sheaths.Schwann’s cells: cells that create myelin.
20STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON DENDRITESAXON TERMINALCELL BODYSCHWANN’S CELLSNODE OF RANVIERAXONMYELIN SHEATHNUCLEUS
21STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON neurogenesis: growth of new neurons that takes place throughout life.
22Bell RingerSketch out the nervous system “tree” and briefly explain each section.HAVE YOUR NEURON HOMEWORK OUT TO BE CHECKED.
23Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain Spinal CordAutonomic Nervous SystemSomatic Nervous SystemSympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous System
24STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON DENDRITESAXON TERMINALCELL BODYSCHWANN’S CELLSNODE OF RANVIERAXONMYELIN SHEATHNUCLEUS
25STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON neurotransmitters: chemicals stored in structures of the terminal buttons called synaptic vesicles.Used by neurons to communicate with each other.
26STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON Synapse: the gap between neurons where neurotransmitters are released to attach to specific receptor sites on membranes of dendrites of your postsynaptic neurons.This is called the “lock and key concept” because each neurotransmitter has a specific match on the dendrites, like a key fitting into a lock.
28STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE NEURON IN YOUR NOTES, create a 4 column table to fill out (we will add rows together)NeurotransmitterFunctionToo Much:Too little:
29NEUROTRANSMITTERSe.g. acetylcholine (ACh) causes contraction of skeletal muscles, helps regulate heart muscles, is involved in memory, and also transmits messages between the brain and spinal cord.Lack of ACh is associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
31NEUROTRANSMITTERSdopamine: stimulates the hypothalamus to synthesize hormones and affects alertness and movement.Lack of dopamine is associated with Parkinson’s disease.Too much is associated with schizophrenia.
32NEUROTRANSMITTERSglutamate: excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information processing throughout the cortex and especially memory formation in the hippocampus.Both schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s may involve glutamate receptors.
33NEUROTRANSMITTERSSerotonin: associated with sexual activity, concentration and attention, moods, and emotions.Lack of serotonin is associated with depression.
34NEUROTRANSMITTERSendorphins: opioid peptide, considered the brain’s own pain killers.
35NEUROTRANSMITTERSGamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): inhibits the firing of neurons.Valium and anticonvulsant drugs increase activity of GABA.Huntington’s disease is associated with insufficient GABA-producing neurons in parts of the brain involved in the coordination of movement.Seizures are associated with malfunctioning GABA systems.
36NEUROTRANSMITTERSOther chemicals, like drugs, can interfere with the action of neurotransmitters.Agonists may mimic a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor site to produce the effect of the neurotransmitter.Antagonists: block a receptor site inhibiting the effect of the neurotransmitter or agonist.
37Neuron Functions All behavior begins with the actions of your neurons. A neuron gets incoming information from its receptors spread around its dendrites.The info is then sent to the cell body, where it’s combined with other incoming information.Neural impulses are electrical in nature along the neuron.
38Neuron FunctionsThe neuron at rest is more negative inside the cell membrane relative to outside the membrane.The neuron’s resting potential results from the selective permeability of its membrane and the presence of electrically charged particles called ions near the inside and outside surfaces of the membrane in different concentrations.
39Bell RingerChoose two neurotransmitters and briefly describe them (include their function, and what happens if there’s too much or too little of it).
40Neuron FunctionsWhen sufficiently stimulated (to threshold), a net flow of sodium ions into the cell causes a rapid change in potential across the membrane, known as action potential.
41Neuron FunctionsIf your stimulation is not strong enough, your neuron does not fire.The strength of the action potential is constant whenever it occurs.This is called the “all-or-none principle.”
42Neuron FunctionsThe wave of depoloarization and repolarization is passed along the axon to the terminal buttons, which release neurotransmitters.Spaces between segments of myelin are called nodes of Ranvier.Saltatory conduction: When the axon is myelinated, conduction speed is increased since depolarizations jump from node to node.
43Neuron Functions Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse. Some synapses are excitatory, meaning the neurotransmitters cause the neuron on the other side to generate an action potential (to fire).Other synapses are inhibitory, reducing or preventing neural impulses.
44Neuron FunctionsThe sum of all excitatory and inhibitory inputs determines whether your next neuron will fire and at what rate.The constant flow of neurotransmitters regulates metabolism, temperature, and respiration.It also enables you to learn, remember, and decide.
45Neuron Functionsreflex: simplest form of behavior, involving impulse conduction over a few neurons.The path across maybe three neurons is called a reflex arc.Afferent neurons: sensory neurons that transmit impulses from your sensory receptors to the spinal cord or brain.Interneurons: located entirely in your brain and spinal cord, intervene between sensory and motor neurons.
46Neuron FunctionsEfferent neurons: motor neurons transmit impulses form your sensory or interneurons to muscle cells that contract or gland cells that secrete.Effectors: muscle and gland cells.
47Neuron Functions Examples of reflexes: Neural impulses: pupillary, knee jerk, sneezing, and blinking.Neural impulses:dendritesto cell bodies axons terminal buttonsneurotransmitters synapseamong neurons from the receptor to the effector.
48TECHNIQUES TO LEARN ABOUT STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Clinical Observation (Case Study)Look at injuries, diseases, etc.
49TECHNIQUES TO LEARN ABOUT STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Over 150 years ago people were studying patients with brain damage and linked loss of structure with loss of function.Essentially losing brain tissue caused brain damage.
50TECHNIQUES TO LEARN ABOUT STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Phineas Gage was a level-headed, calm foreman of a railroad crew in 1848.An explosion shot an iron rod through his head, severing the connections between his limbic system and his frontal cortex.Gage became hostile, impulsive, and unable to control his emotions or his obscene language.Autopsy revealed that the relationship between frontal lobes and control of emotional behavior.
52Broca’s areaPaul Broca (1861) did an autopsy on a patient named Tan, who couldn’t speak even though there was no physical damage and he could understand language.Tan’s brain showed loss of tissue in part of the frontal lobe of the left central cerebral hemisphere (as did several other similar cases).
53Broca’s areaIt was concluded that damage to this so-called Broca’s area caused a loss of ability to speak, known as expressive aphasia.
54Wernicke’s areaCarl Wernicke found another brain area involved with understanding language in the left temporal lobe.Destruction of Wernicke’s area results in loss of ability to comprehend written and spoken language, known as receptive aphasia.
55DO NOW:Briefly explain who Phineas Gage was and why he is important to Psychology.
56Lesions Precise destruction of brain tissue. Enabled more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications.
57LesionsE.g. Surgery to relieve epilepsy cuts neural connections at the corpus callosum, between cerebral hemispheres.Studies of patients with “split brains” have shown that the left and right hemispheres do not perform exactly the same functions.
58Bell RingerIn your own words, briefly explain how an action potential happens and how a message is passed along a neuron.
61Manipulating the brain Scientists can electrically, chemically, or magnetically stimulate various parts of the brain and note effects.Researchers have electrically stimulated different cortical areas of the brain during surgery.
62Manipulating the brain It has enabled scientists to observe results, like:the frontal cortex at particular sites caused body movement for different body parts enabling mapping of the motor cortex.New research has found that you can magnetically lesion parts of the brain (temporary and so far has shown no harm)
63DO NOWTell me at least three functions of the left hemisphere and three functions of the right hemisphere of the brain.
64Brain ImagingComputerized axial tomography (CAT or CT): two-dimensional x-ray slices that are passed through various angles of the brain, arranged to show the extent of a lesion.
65Brain Imagingmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI): a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
66Brain ImagingPutting one’s head into a strong magnetic field aligns the spinning atoms.A pulse of a radio wave disorients the atoms briefly.When the atoms return to their normal spin, they release signals that give us a detailed image of the body.
67Measuring brain function Scientists can stick a tiny microelectrode into a single neuron to measure its activity.
68Measuring brain function electroencephalogram (EEG): an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain’s surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
69Measuring brain function The amplified tracings are called evoked potentials when the recorded changes in voltage results from a response to a specific stimulus presented to the subject.Repeated study of the read- out can help researchers filter out brain activity and find the electrical wave caused by the specific stimulus.
70Measuring brain function functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI scans show brain functions.
71Measuring brain function Researchers compare images taken less than a second apart, they can see which parts of the brain “light up” with increased blood flow.
72Measuring brain function positron emission tomography (PET) scan: a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
73Measuring brain function Active neurons hog the glucose (the brain’s chemical fuel), and the PET scan tracks where in the brain the radioactive glucose goes.
74Measuring brain function Researchers can have participants think about certain topics or do activities to see where the glucose goes (thereby showing what part of the brain is active during that activity).
75The BrainCovered by protective tissue called meninges and housed in your skull.The evolutionary perspective studies how the human brain has evolved. One theory breaks the brain into three sections:The reptilian brain is similar to the brainstem in humans, and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis and instinctive behavior.
76The BrainThe old mammalian brain roughly corresponds to the limbic system that controls emotional behavior, memory, and vision.The new mammalian brain or cerebral cortex, accounts for 80% of the brain’s volume and is associated with higher functions of judgment, decision-making, abstract thought, foresight, hindsight, and insight.
77The BrainThe surface of the cortex has peaks (gyri) and valleys (sulci), which form convolutions that increase the surface area of your cortex.Deeper valleys are called fissures.
78The BrainThe last evolutionary development of the brain is localization of functions on different sides of your brain.
79LOCALIZATION AND LATERALIZATION OF THE BRAIN’S FUNCTION Association areas: regions of the cerebral cortex that do not have specific sensory or motor functions, but are involved in higher mental functions, such as thinking, planning, remembering, and communicating.
80LOCALIZATION AND LATERLIZATION OF THE BRAIN’S FUNCTION Contralaterality: control of one side of your body by the opposite side of your brain.The left side of your brain controls the right side of your body.The right side of your brain controls the left side of your body.
81Bell RingerIn your own words, briefly describe the different functions of each hemisphere of the brain.
82Structure of Brain: Brainstem medulla: where most fibers cross above the brain stem, resulting in contralateral (opposite side) control.regulates heart rate, blood flow, breathing, digestion, vomiting.
83Structure of Brain: Brainstem pons: right above the medulla, helps coordinate movement, and is the bridge between cerebral hemispheres and both medulla and cerebellum.
84Structure of Brain: Brainstem reticular formation: a nerve network in the brainstem (pons) that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
85Structure of Braincerebellum: coordinates motor function integrating motion and positional information from the inner ear and muscles.helps maintain balance.
86Structure of Brainbasal ganglia (basal nuclei): links the thalamus with the motor cortex and other motor areas.regulates initiation of movements, balance, eye movements, and posture.Involved in reward/punishment learning and focus.Some nuclei (neural clusters) involved in emotion.
87Structure of Brainthalamus: relay “station” for sensory pathways carrying visual, auditory, taste, and somatosensory information to/from appropriate areas of cerebral cortex.Located at the top of the brain stem.
88Structure of Brainhypothalamus: controls autonomic functions such as body temperature and heart rate via control of sympathetic and parasympathetic centers in the medulla.Sets appetite drives (e.g. thirst, hunger, sexual desire) and behavior.
89Structure of Brain hypothalamus: Integrates with endocrine system by secretion of hormones that regulate hormones from the pituitary.Helps determine biological rhythms.
90Structure of Brainamygdala: influences aggression and fear. Coordinates fight-or-flight response.important in formation of sensory memory.
91Structure of Brainhippocampus: Enables formation of new long- term memories.
92Structure of Braincerebral cortex: receives and processes sensory information and directs movement.Center for higher order process such as thinking, planning, judgment.
93Structure of BrainFrontal lobe: Motor cortex strip just in front of somatosensory cortex initiates movements and integrates activities of skeletal muscles.Contralateral: right/left hemisphere controls other side of body.
94Structure of Brain Frontal lobe: Includes Broca’s area: in left frontal lobe controls production of speech.Interpret and control emotional behaviors, make decisions, carry out plan.
95DO NOWIn your own words, briefly describe the following parts of the brain (including the function):cerebellum medullapons amygdala thalamushypothalamus
96Structure of BrainTemporal lobes: center for hearing.
97Structure of Brain Temporal Lobe: Includes Wernicke’s area: in left temporal lobe, plays role in understanding language and making meaningful sentences.
98Structure of Brain Temporal Lobe: Right temporal lobe important for understanding music/tonality.Sound from both ears is processed mostly contralaterally.
99Structure of BrainSmell processed near front of temporal lobes.
101Structure of BrainPlasticity: when one region of the brain is damaged, the brain can reorganize to take over its function.e.g. phantom limb syndrome
102DOW NOW Briefly explain how a signal travels from neuron to neuron. What is the “all-or-none” principle?
103Bell RingerChoose two parts of the brain and briefly describe their function.
104THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMendocrine system: consists of glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones in your blood.Hormones travel to target organs where they bind to specific receptors.
105THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMPineal gland: produces melatonin that helps regulate circadian rhythms and is associated with seasonal affective disorder.
106THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMpituitary gland: Sometimes called the “master gland” because it produces stimulating hormones that promote secretion by other glands including:TSH: thyroid-stimulating hormoneACTH: adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulates adrenal cortex
107THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM pituitary gland: FSH: stimulates egg or sperm productionProduces ADH (antidiuretic hormone) to help retain water in your body and HGH (human growth hormone).
108THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMThyroid gland: produces thyroxine, which stimulates and maintains metabolic activities.Lack of thyroxine in children can result in mental retardation.
109THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMParathyroids: Produce parathyroid hormone that helps maintain calcium ion level in blood necessary for normal functioning of neurons.
110THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEMadrenal glands: adrenal cortex, the outer layer, produces steroid hormones such as cortisol, which is a stress hormone.Adrenal medulla, the core, secretes adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which prepare the body for “fight or flight,” like the sympathetic nervous system.
115GENETICS & EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY nature-nurture controversy: the debate about whether your behavior is determined by your heredity or history/environment.
116GENETICS & EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Evolutionary psychologists: study how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to survival and spread of our ancestors’ genes, and may currently contribute to our survival into the next generations.They look at behaviors that are universal shared by all people.
117GENETICS & BEHAVIORbehavioral geneticists: study the role played by our genes and our environment in mental ability, emotional stability, temperament, personality, interests, etc.They look at the causes of our individual differences.They believe that genes predispose our behavior.
118GENETICS & BEHAVIORTwin studies are used to study the contributions of heredity and environment.identical twins: two individuals who share all the same genes/heredity because they develop from the same fertilized egg or zygote.a.k.a. monozygotic twins
119GENETICS & BEHAVIORfraternal twins: siblins that share about half of the same genes because they develop from two different fertilized eggs or zygotes.a.k.a. dizygotic twins
120GENETICS & BEHAVIORHeritability: the proportion of variation among individuals in a population that is due to genetic causes.Schizophrenia and general intelligence are more similar in monozygotic twins are behaviorally more similar than dizygotic twins.
121GENETICS & BEHAVIOR Heritability: If monozygotic twins are separated at birth and raised in different environments (adoption studies), behavioral differences may reveal the contribution of environment to behavior; similarities may reveal the contribution of heredity.
122GENETICS & BEHAVIORAdoption studies assess genetic influence by comparing resemblance of adopted children to both their adoptive and biological parents.The children must have been adopted as infants without contact with their biological parents.
123GENETICS & BEHAVIOR Adoption studies If the children resemble their biological parents, but not their adoptive families, with respect to a given trait, researchers infer a genetic component for that trait.Alcoholism, schizophrenia, and general intelligence have shown both genetic and environmental components.
124Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Heredity characteristics are passed down by biological process.Each DNA segment of a chromosome that determines that determines a trait is a gene.Chromosomes carry information stored in genes to new cells during reproduction.
125Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Normal human body cells have 46 chromosomes, except for eggs and sperms that have 23 chromosomes.Males have 44 chromosomes, plus X and Y.Females have 44 chromosomes, plus X and X.
126Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics At fertilization, 23 chromosomes from the sperm unite with 23 chromosomes from the egg to form a zygote with 46 chromosomes.If the male contributes a Y chromosome, the baby is male.Fertilization with the wrong amount of chromosomes results in an individual with chromosomal abnormalities.
127Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Turner Syndrome: girls with only one X chromosome (XO) who are short, often sterile, and have difficulty calculating.
128Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Klinefelter’s syndrome: males with an XXY zygote. They lack male secondary sex characteristics at puberty, develop breast tissue, and tend to be passive.
129Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Down syndrome: individuals with three copies of chromosome-21. They are typically mentally retarded and have a round head, a flat nasal bridge, a protruding tongue, small round ears, a fold in the eyelid, and a poor muscle tone and coordination.
130Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics genotype: the genetic makeup for a trait of an individual.phenotype: the expression of the genes.
131Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics homozygous gene: the condition when both genes for a trait are the same.heterozygous: also called hybrid, the condition when genes for a trait are different.dominant gene: the expressed heterozygous gene.recessive gene: a gene that is hidden or not expressed when the genes for a trait are different.
132Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Tay-Sachs syndrome: caused by a recessive gene and can result in progressive loss of nervous function and death in a baby.Albinism: recessive trait that produces lack of pigment and involves quivering eyes and inability to perceive depth with both eyes.
133Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Phenylketonuria (PKU): a recessive trait that results in severe, irreversible brain damage unless the baby is fed a special diet low in phenylalanine within 30 days of birth.Huntington’s disease: a dominant gene defect that involves degeneration of the nervous system characterized by tremors, jerky motions, blindness, and death.
134Transmission of Hereditary Characteristics Sex-linked traits: recessive genes located on the X chromosome with no corresponding gene on the Y chromosome, which result in expression of recessive trait more frequently in males.e.g. color blindness: sex-linked trait with which individual cannot see certain colors, most often red and green.