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EL PROJECT 2015 Wong Yi Jie (26) Daniel Lim (4) Ong Li Han (19) Nigel Wong (18) Lam Jing Siang (10)

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Presentation on theme: "EL PROJECT 2015 Wong Yi Jie (26) Daniel Lim (4) Ong Li Han (19) Nigel Wong (18) Lam Jing Siang (10)"— Presentation transcript:

1 EL PROJECT 2015 Wong Yi Jie (26) Daniel Lim (4) Ong Li Han (19) Nigel Wong (18) Lam Jing Siang (10)

2 ADAM SMITH!!!

3 ADAM SMITH 16 June June 1790 Philosopher Economist Best known for lying foundations of classical free market theory (not for his moral philosophies)

4 ADAM SMITH Core idea: sympathy to others ●Morality located in how sympathetic their actions are to an impartial spectator; a person should try his best to sympathise and be sympathetic ●Form of moral sentimentalism; different from Kantianism or Consequentialism ●Based on feelings instead of rules Moral Sentimentalism Kantianism/Consequentialism

5 ADAM SMITH ●Harshness of punishment based off motivation and consequences of punishment  A victim would feel resentment, which would be sympathetic, justifying the motivation  But it is hard to say at what point is his resentment overboard, and thus unjustified  Also need to take into consideration the feelings of sadness that come with consequences ●JUDGEMENT relies on impartial feelings

6 EDWARD SNOWDEN

7 March 2012: Moves to Hawaii to work at a NSA facility as Dell employee. Dec. 1, 2012: Reaches out to Glenn Greenwald, a lawyer and columnist for The Guardian. Jan. 2013: Reaches out to Laura Poitras, a documentary filmmaker.

8 EDWARD SNOWDEN May 20, 2013: Arrives in Hong Kong from Hawaii. June 5, 2013: First revelations are published in a Guardian article about NSA’s collection of domestic and telephone metadata as part of even broader collection effort. June 6, 2013: The Guardian and the Washington Post each publish an article about the NSA program PRISM, which forces biggest US internet companies to hand over data on domestic users.

9 EDWARD SNOWDEN June 8, 2013: The Guardian publishes NSA slides on Boundless Informant, which shows NSA collected nearly 3 billion pieces of intelligence inside the U.S. in February 2013 alone. June 14, 2013: The U.S. Justice Department charges Snowden June 23, 2013: Snowden leaves Hong Kong for Ecuador but is stranded at Sheremetyevo International Airport in Moscow after passport is rescinded August 1, 2013: Granted temporary asylum by Russian authorities

10 LIBERAL (WASHINGTON POST ) WORDFREQUENCY CONTEXT Snowden148Description; minimal accusation US48Describes domestic actions surveillance36Described as an action asylum32Describes Snowden’s actions; discussion on legality treason31Discussion; rarely used for accusation whistleblower20Chosen for neutrality

11 LIBERAL AMERICAN(WASHINGTON POST) “Snowden” is mostly used in the context of elaborating on Edward Snowden’s background and his action, showing an objective and hence more neutral stance to the issue. LIBERAL (WASHINGTON POST)

12 “U.S.” is used in conjunction with terms like “surveillance”, “intelligence” and “government”, indicating that the focus is on the domestic decisions made by the US rather than the actions of the US in the global community. LIBERAL (WASHINGTON POST )

13 CONSERVATIVE (WASHINGTON TIMES) WORDFREQUENCYCONTEXT Mr. Snowden75Discuss punishment US48Describe action as a nation surveillance23Described as a procedure asylum20used with Snowden as passive voice; downplays Snowden leaker15negative connotation

14 “Mr. Snowden” is used to describe the punishment that Edward Snowden should receive for his actions, mostly debating about whether or not he should receive asylum from other nations, rarely about his actual actions. This indicates that the writer has already deemed Snowden’s actions as morally incorrect and now the debate lies in whether his treatment is appropriate. CONSERVATIVE (WASHINGTON TIMES)

15 The term “U.S.” is also commonly used, but in this case, by itself, referring to the country and not specific facets of it or actions by it. This shows the focus of these articles is on politics on a global scale, with the US as a nation facing off against the nations sheltering Snowden. CONSERVATIVE (WASHINGTON TIMES)

16 “Surveillance” is mostly used in conjunction with “program” or “system”, implying that it is a procedure set it place that cannot be altered easily, removing the implication that the surveillance was a possibly flawed human action. CONSERVATIVE (WASHINGTON TIMES)

17 ● Debates the morality of Snowden’s actions ● Believe in government action to achieve equality for all ● Tolerate law-breaking ● Upset by undermining government LIBERAL (WASHINGTON POST )

18 ●Snowden is a criminal; discusses morality of asylum ●Believe in personal responsibility and traditional American values ●Snowden should accept responsibility ●Fear of American secrets being leaked CONSERVATIVE (WASHINGTON TIMES)

19 SINGAPOREAN WORDFREQUENCYCONTEXT Snowden26Shows focus of articles Publish/Posted18Tone-Neutral Verbs Refering to US (US/USA) 12Shows focus of articles Asylum6Describing actions Accused5Used as a negative term

20 Generally does not take a stand Logical course of action for Singapore because of socio-politcal context SINGAPOREAN

21 COMPARATIVE STUDY Singapore, Denmark, Saudi Arabia Vastly different societal contexts Singapore: Conservative, Utilitarian Denmark: Socially Progressive Saudi Arabia: Theocracy

22 SAUDI ARABIA Widely known for its cruel ways of execution Beheading: Might seem like a relatively morally right way of execution. Western countries use guillotine that ends a person’s life in a single chop. However, in the Islamic way, beheading is done in three cuts, aiming to bring some form of pain and torture to the accused. Stoning: The worst way to be executed Tortured to death Majority of people that are stoned are female

23 SAUDI ARABIA Background: Satinah Binti Jumadi Ahmad, a 40-year old Indonesian working as a housemaid in the Gulf kingdom, sentenced to death in 2011 admitted to killing her 70-year-old female employer and stealing approximately $10,000. She said it was in self-defense as her employer had been attempting to sexually assault her at the time.

24 Indonesian government offered to pay 7 million Saudi riyals in “blood money”, a figure that had been negotiated down from an initial request of 10 million Saudi riyals, thus saving the accused from execution. SAUDI ARABIA

25 Interesting perspectives: Many people forget that some things in Islamic countries simply cannot be undone. Sharia cannot be undone, as it is impossible to cancel, for example, the Bible. After all, the Quran prescribes certain standards of behavior in everyday life. This is the word of God, and no one can cancel or change it. Religion cannot be changed The Saudi Arabian law, however, is widely known to be sexist and do not grant women the rights they deserve (according to western philosophies), despite the employer of the Indonesian maid attempting to rape her, the maid was still sentenced to death despite her claims for self- defence Sexist!! SAUDI ARABIA

26 Recommended punishment by Judge Lam: A lighter sentence should have been given in consideration of the claim of self- defense. Further investigations have to find out if she was using this opportunity to purposefully kill her employer or was it a crime of passion. If she intended to kill her employer once and for all, she deserves capital punishment. ( preferably lethal injection ) If her actions were taken under pressure or extraordinary amounts of stress, especially in a struggle for life or death, imprisonment might be a fairer punishment than execution. SAUDI ARABIA

27 SINGAPORE Death penalty for many different crimes, e.g. drugs traditional Chinese beliefs which hold that harsh punishment deters crime Usually by hanging: Fridays in Changi prison General belief that the death penalty is an effective tool (low crime rates)

28 2008: Jabing Kho and Galing Anak Kujat violently robbed construction worker Cao Ruyin and Wu Jun near Geylang Drive Bludgeoned Cao’s head with a tree branch so hard head cracked open Cao found with 14 skull fractures, died of head injuries six days later. SINGAPORE

29 2010: Kho and Galing receive the mandatory death sentence. 2011: Galing is convicted of robbery with hurt and sentenced to 18 years and six months’ jail with 19 strokes of the cane. Kho’s death sentence is affirmed by the Court of Appeal. 2013: Jabing is re-sentenced to life in prison with 24 strokes of the cane. 2015: Majority of the five-judge Court of Appeal approve the plea and impose the death penalty on Kho. SINGAPORE

30 Poorer people might not be able to hire better lawyers to defend themselves No actual guideline to determine whether a person should be sentenced to death, or receive other forms of punishment Judges have to make their own decisions SINGAPORE : CONSIDERATIONS

31 RECOMMENDED PUNISHMENT SINGAPORE DEATH Had already achieved aim of robbing the two victims Continued to viciously bludgeon the victim Disregard for human life, making him a dangerous menace to society Deterrence Utilitarian view

32 DENMARK ●One of most socially progressive countries(emphasis on equality) ●Focuses on rehabilitation ●Solve the problem, not punish the crime

33 Peter Lundin In April 1991, strangled his mother and buried her on the beach 3 July 2000: Marianne Pedersen and her two sons were declared missing. 5 July 2000: Police discovered blood traces and Lundin was arrested. Found that Pedersen and her sons had been killed and dismembered by Ludwin DENMARK

34 1.Families might feel upset 2. Cost of rehabilitation might incur extra expenses 3. Life imprisonment can be considered inhumane too 4. Life imprisonment is expensive, due to daily living expenses 5. Violent psychopaths simply cannot be reformed DENMARK: CONSIDERATIONS

35 RECOMMENDED PUNISHMENT DEATH DENMARK Earlier strangled his own mother to death and was subsequently jailed Refused to learn from his mistakes and even caused harm to two innocent children Beyond saving and reforming as there is little chance that he could be successfully reintegrated into society Reduce costs of keeping such monsters alive in prison Prevents him from further committing such gruesome, inhuman acts. Found to not be insane, indicating that he had full knowledge that what he had done was wrong, yet continued to commit such heinous acts such as dismemberment of human corpses. Utilitarian view

36 CONCEPT MAP Key Ideas and Concepts Saudi Arabia Retributive theory Women Rights Religion Conservative Singapore Denmark For the greater good Balanced Utilitarian Consequentialist Liberal Socially Progressive Rehabilitation Human Dignity Equality

37 SOURCES Liberal American (The Washington Post) Capehart, J. (2013, June 11). Edward Snowden isn’t exactly a hero. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Miller, M. (2013, June 11). Matt Miller: Edward Snowden’s grandiosity. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Finn, P., Miller, G., Nakashima, E. (2013, June 10). Investigators looking at how Snowden gained access at NSA. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: security/investigators-looking-at-how-snowden-gained-access-at-nsa/2013/06/10/83b4841a-d209-11e2-8cbe-1bcbee06f8f8_story.htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national- security/investigators-looking-at-how-snowden-gained-access-at-nsa/2013/06/10/83b4841a-d209-11e2-8cbe-1bcbee06f8f8_story.html MsGregor, J. (2013, June 10). Edward Snowden: Hero? Traitor? Leader?. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Fisher, M. (2013, June 10). Snowden lauded in China: ‘This is the definition of heroism’. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: heroism-snowden-lauded-in-china/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/06/10/this-is-the-definition-of- heroism-snowden-lauded-in-china/ Fisher, M. (2013, June 10). Edward Snowden could strain to qualify for asylum under international law. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: snowden-could-strain-to-qualify-for-asylum-under-international-law/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/06/10/edward- snowden-could-strain-to-qualify-for-asylum-under-international-law/ Eilperin, J. (2013, June 10). White House petition to pardon Edward Snowden gathers steam The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: to-pardon-edward-snowden-gathers-steam/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/post-politics/wp/2013/06/10/white-house-petition- to-pardon-edward-snowden-gathers-steam/ Jia, L.Y. (2013, June 10). Hong Kong hotel says Edward Snowden was there, but checked out Monday. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: edward-snowden-was-there-but-checked-out-monday/2013/06/10/44baa0fa-d1af-11e2-a73e-826d299ff459_story.htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/hong-kong-hotel-says- edward-snowden-was-there-but-checked-out-monday/2013/06/10/44baa0fa-d1af-11e2-a73e-826d299ff459_story.html Wemple, E. (2013, June 10). Edward Snowden: ‘Leaker,’ ‘source’ or ‘whistleblower’? The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: source-or-whistleblower/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2013/06/10/edward-snowden-leaker- source-or-whistleblower/ Nakashima, E. (2013, June 9). From obscurity to notoriety, Snowden took an unusual path. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: snowden-took-an-unusual-path/2013/06/09/dc2e4274-d15b-11e2-9f1a-1a7cdee20287_story.htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/from-obscurity-to-notoriety- snowden-took-an-unusual-path/2013/06/09/dc2e4274-d15b-11e2-9f1a-1a7cdee20287_story.html Lee, T. B. (2013, June 9). Has the US become the type of nation from which you have to seek asylum?. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: become-the-kind-of-nation-from-which-you-have-to-seek-asylum/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/06/09/has-the-us- become-the-kind-of-nation-from-which-you-have-to-seek-asylum/ Wemple, E. (2013, June 9). NSA source ID’d: 29-year-old Edward Snowden. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: identified/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/erik-wemple/wp/2013/06/09/nsa-source-edward-snowden- identified/ Gellman, B. (2013, June 9). Code name ‘Verax’: Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: name-verax-snowden-in-exchanges-with-post-reporter-made-clear-he-knew-risks/2013/06/09/c9a25b54-d14c-11e2-9f1a-1a7cdee20287_story.htmlhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/code- name-verax-snowden-in-exchanges-with-post-reporter-made-clear-he-knew-risks/2013/06/09/c9a25b54-d14c-11e2-9f1a-1a7cdee20287_story.html Gellman, B., Markon, J. (2013, June 10). Edward Snowden says motive behind leaks was to expose ‘surveillance state’. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Matthews, D. (2013, June 12). No, Edward Snowden probably didn’t commit treason. The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: didnt-commit-treason/http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/06/12/no-edward-snowden-probably- didnt-commit-treason/ Conservative American (The Washington Times) Boyer, D. (2013, June 10). Support grows for petition to pardon NSA leaker Edward Snowden. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: nsa-leaker-edward-sn/http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jun/10/support-grows-petition-pardon- nsa-leaker-edward-sn/ Sherfinski, D. (2013, June 9). Whistleblower behind leak emerges as intel chiefs in Congress defend NSA surveillance.The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: congress-intelligence-committees-defend-surv/http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jun/9/heads- congress-intelligence-committees-defend-surv/ Waterman, S. (2013, June 17). NSA leaker says audits on gov’t snooping don’t work.The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: dont-work/http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jun/17/nsa-leaker-says-audits-govt-snooping- dont-work/

38 SOURCES Chumley, C. K. (2013, June 14). Lawmakers downplay Edward Snowden: ‘He was lying’ about NSA.The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Chumley, C. K. (2013, June 12). NSA leaker Edward Snowden goes dark, believed to be in safe house.The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Chumley, C. K. (2013, June 11). Booz Allen fires NSA leaker Edward Snowden.The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Sherfinski, D. (2013, June 24). Hong Kong, Russia, Cuba? Ed Snowden’s true motive is to injure national security, White House says. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Waterman, S. (2013, June 24). Irony: Edward Snowden chooses havens that repress Internet freedoms. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Boyer, D. (2013, June 24). White House slams Hong Kong, China for shielding leaker.: shielding-leaker/http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/jun/24/white-house-slams-hong-kong-china- shielding-leaker/ Lambro, D. (2013, July 3). LAMBRO: The foolish wager of Edward Snowden. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Pruden, W. (2013, June 25). PRUDEN: Barack Obama’s enduring ineptitude. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Deflem, M. (2013, June 26). LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Don’t give Snowden what he wants. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Sherfinski, D. (2013, July 8). Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg: Edward Snowden is right to flee U.S.. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Yost, P. (2013, July 26). Eric Holder says U.S. won’t seek death penalty for NSA leaker Edward Snowden. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from: Tyrell, R. E. (2013, July 11). TYRRELL: Edward Snowden’s just rewards. The Washington Times. Retrieved 7 February 2015 from:

39 SOURCES Singaporean (2014, September 24). Whistle Blower Edward Snowden wins Swedish rights prize. The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2015, February 9). US firm that vetted Edward Snowden files for bankruptcy. The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2015, January 19). China calls Edward Snowden's stealth jet hack accusations 'groundless'. The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2014, October 11). Edward Snowden and girlfriend reunited in Moscow, new documentary shows. The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2014, May 28). Edward Snowden says he was trained 'as a spy'. The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2014, July 31). Edward Snowden a recluse one year on from Russia asylum.The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2013, June 26). Edward Snowden's father says son 'did what he knew was right'.The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2013, June 15). Hong Kong protesters brave rain to support Snowden.The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from: (2014, Oct 21). Outgoing UK spy chief Iain Lobban rejects Snowden mass surveillance claims. The Straits Times. Retrieved 12 February 2015 from:

40 THANK YOU!


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