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S OMEWHERE... O VER THE BRAINBOW... The Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, the Neuron, and other stuff!

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Presentation on theme: "S OMEWHERE... O VER THE BRAINBOW... The Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, the Neuron, and other stuff!"— Presentation transcript:

1 S OMEWHERE... O VER THE BRAINBOW... The Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, the Neuron, and other stuff!

2 F UN F ACTS ABOUT L E B RAIN. Neurons: Milky Way 100 Billion- 300 Billion- 15ft- 10 minutes- No pain 4 times around the earth! Convolutions are Key!!! Gyri and Sulci

3 O UTLINE : H ERE ’ S WHAT WE ’ RE GOING TO LEARN ! THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: The Purpose of the Nervous System The different parts of the CNS/PNS Anatomy of a neuron Synapse Transmission of a signal Major Parts/Function of the brain

4 W HAT IS THE P URPOSE OF THE N ERVOUS S YSTEM ? 1. It acts as a network with all the nerve cells throughout your whole body. 2. It controls all the systems in your body by sending messages in between your brain and your body. 3. It stores memories, and allows you to think.

5 O RGANIZATION OF THE N ERVOUS S YSTEM CNS: The Brain and spinal cord PNS: Sensory and motor neurons Subdivided into Autonomic + Somatic Nervous system Autonomic is subdivided into Sympathetic + Parasympathetic

6 S OMATIC N ERVOUS S YSTEM : V OLUNTARY N ERVOUS S YSTEM Smiling Walking Arm Wrestling Sensing stimuli Responding to stimuli

7 T HE A UTONOMIC N ERVOUS S YSTEM : I NVOLUNTARY NERVOUS SYSTEM consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons that run between the central nervous system and various internal organs such as the: heart lungs glands (both exocrine and endocrine)exocrineendocrine Monitors different aspects of homeostasis, adjusts as necessary. Metabolism Temperature Regulation Heart beat, etc. Controls contraction of smooth and cardiac muscle


9 Sympathetic stimulates heartbeatheartbeat raises blood pressureblood pressure dilates the pupils dilates the trachea and bronchitrachea and bronchi shunts blood away from the skin and viscera to the skeletal muscles, brain, and heart inhibits peristalsis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract inhibits contraction of the bladder and rectum Parasympathetic slowing down of the heartbeat (as Loewi demonstrated) lowering of blood pressure constriction of the pupils increased blood flow to the skin and viscera peristalsis of the GI tract

10 N EURON A NATOMY Sensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous system. Motor neurons (motoneurons) carry signals from the central nervous system to the outer parts (muscles, skin, glands) of your body. Interneurons connect various neurons within the brain and spinal cord.

11 B REAK IT DOWN. Cell Body (Soma)- Control center / Recycling center Dendrites- Receive signals from other neurons Axon- Conducts signals away from the cell body to terminals Myelin Sheath- Speeds neural signaling Dendrites Axon Cell Body Myelin Sheath Terminal I have many entry points to receive signals, and one point to send a signal!

12 Neuron Photoshoot! Neurons and astrocytes isolated from rat hippocampus stained for DNA (blue), neuronal-specific βIII-tubulin (green) and astrocyte-specific GFAP (red)

13 L ARGEST N EURONS : I “C EPHA - LOVE ” GIANT AXONS ! UP TO 1 MM THICK!!!!!! Unbelievable.

14 S YNAPSE : S IGNALING JUNCTION Neurotransmitters: Acetylcholine Inhibitory Endorphin Dopamine Seratonin Excitatory Norepinephrine Epinephrine

15 L IGHTS, C AMERA, ACTION POTENTIAL! STEPS FOR AP! 1. Action Potential arrives at axon terminal 2. Ca channels open, Ca enters axon terminal 3. Ach is released into cleft, Ca is pumped out of axon terminal 4. Ach binds to receptors 5. Action Pot. is generated and propogated 6. Causes release of Ca ions 7. Ca ions trigger muscle contraction watch?v=yQ-wQsEK21E

16 THE BRAIN!!!!! A NICE, SWEET MEAT ! Separated into two hemispheres Right= Creative Left= Analytical Connected by Corpus Collosum Consists of 4 lobes Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe

17 F RONTAL L OBE : Functions of the frontal lobe! Emotions Reasoning Planning Movement Parts of speech Creativity Judgement Problem-solving Planning

18 T EMPORAL L OBE : Functions of the Temporal Lobe: Hearing Memory Meaning Language Emotion Learning Interpreting and processing auditory stimuli

19 P ARIETAL L OBE : Functions of the Parietal Lobes: Processing of nerve impulses related to senses Touch Pain Taste Pressure Temperature Language

20 O CCIPITAL L OBE : Functions of the Occipital Lobe: Object Recognition Vision

21 O RDER OF THE B RAIN : T AKE T WO ! Medulla Oblongata Unconscious, essential functions Circulation, muscle control, breathing, digestion etc. Cerebellum Motor coordination, balance Enlarged in birds Pons Connects forebrain and hindbrain Sleep and arousal

22 F ORE B RAIN, M ID B RAIN, H IND B RAIN  The Brain uses more oxygen and energy than any other organ  Midbrain and Hindbrain - Brainstem  Connects CNS and PNS  Homeostasis and coordination  Forebrain  Cerebrum  Greatly enlarged in mammals  Information processing


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