Presentation on theme: "Somewhere Over the brainbow . . ."— Presentation transcript:
1Somewhere . . . Over the brainbow . . . The Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, the Neuron, and other stuff!
2Fun Facts about Le Brain. Neurons: Milky Way100 Billion-300 Billion-15ft-10 minutes-No pain4 times around the earth!Convolutions are Key!!!Gyri and Sulci
3Outline: Here’s what we’re going to learn! THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:The Purpose of the Nervous SystemThe different parts of the CNS/PNSAnatomy of a neuronSynapseTransmission of a signalMajor Parts/Function of the brain
4What is the Purpose of the Nervous System? 1. It acts as a network with all the nerve cells throughout your whole body.2. It controls all the systems in your body by sending messages in between your brain and your body.3. It stores memories, and allows you to think.
5Organization of the Nervous System CNS: The Brain and spinal cordPNS: Sensory and motor neuronsSubdivided into Autonomic + Somatic Nervous systemAutonomic is subdivided into Sympathetic + Parasympathetic
6Somatic Nervous System: Voluntary Nervous System SmilingWalkingArm WrestlingSensing stimuliResponding to stimuli
7The Autonomic Nervous System : Involuntary nervous system consists of sensory neurons and motor neurons that run between the central nervous system and various internal organs such as the:heartlungsglands (both exocrine and endocrine)Monitors different aspects of homeostasis, adjusts as necessary.MetabolismTemperature RegulationHeart beat, etc.Controls contraction of smooth and cardiac muscleAutonomic implies “independent” of the conscious mind. The ANS is likened to a team of horses. It will follow the leader. The breath is the only part of the ANS that is consciously controllable so we put the breath as lead horse and the rest of the team will follow.
9Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic stimulates heartbeatraises blood pressuredilates the pupilsdilates the trachea and bronchishunts blood away from the skin and viscera to the skeletal muscles, brain, and heartinhibits peristalsis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tractinhibits contraction of the bladder and rectumParasympathetic•slowing down of the heartbeat (as Loewi demonstrated)•lowering of blood pressure•constriction of the pupils•increased blood flow to the skin and viscera•peristalsis of the GI tract
10Neuron AnatomySensory neurons carry signals from the outer parts of your body (periphery) into the central nervous system.Motor neurons (motoneurons) carry signals from the central nervous system to the outer parts (muscles, skin, glands) of your body.Interneurons connect various neurons within the brain and spinal cord.
11Break it down. Cell Body (Soma)- Control center / Recycling center I have many entry points to receive signals, and one point to send a signal!Cell Body (Soma)- Control center / Recycling centerDendrites- Receive signals from other neuronsAxon- Conducts signals away from the cell body to terminalsMyelin Sheath- Speeds neural signalingDendritesAxonMyelin SheathTerminal
12Neuron Photoshoot!Neurons and astrocytes isolated from rat hippocampus stained for DNA (blue), neuronal-specific βIII-tubulin (green) and astrocyte-specific GFAP (red)
13Largest Neurons: I “Cepha-love” giant axons! UP TO 1 MM THICK!!!!!! Unbelievable.
15Lights, Camera, ACTION POTENTIAL! STEPS FOR AP!1. Action Potential arrives at axon terminal2. Ca channels open, Ca enters axon terminal3. Ach is released into cleft, Ca is pumped out of axon terminal4. Ach binds to receptors5. Action Pot. is generated and propogated6. Causes release of Ca ions7. Ca ions trigger muscle contraction
16THE BRAIN!!!!! A nice, sweet meat! Separated into two hemispheresRight= CreativeLeft= AnalyticalConnected by Corpus CollosumConsists of 4 lobesFrontal LobeParietal LobeTemporal LobeOccipital Lobe
17Frontal Lobe: Functions of the frontal lobe! Emotions Reasoning PlanningMovementParts of speechCreativityJudgementProblem-solving
18Temporal Lobe: Functions of the Temporal Lobe: Hearing Memory Meaning LanguageEmotionLearningInterpreting and processing auditory stimuli
19Parietal Lobe: Functions of the Parietal Lobes: Processing of nerve impulses related to sensesTouchPainTastePressureTemperatureLanguage
20Occipital Lobe: Functions of the Occipital Lobe: Object Recognition Vision
21Order of the Brain: Take Two! Medulla OblongataUnconscious, essential functionsCirculation, muscle control, breathing, digestion etc.CerebellumMotor coordination, balanceEnlarged in birdsPonsConnects forebrain and hindbrainSleep and arousal
22ForeBrain, MidBrain, HindBrain The Brain uses more oxygen and energy than any other organMidbrain and Hindbrain - BrainstemConnects CNS and PNSHomeostasis and coordinationForebrainCerebrumGreatly enlarged in mammalsInformation processing