Presentation on theme: "Bellwork 11/20/13 Hypothesize: What substances can invisible ink is made of? TSWBAT utilize a Patriot war strategy EQ: Why and how did the Patriots use."— Presentation transcript:
Bellwork 11/20/13 Hypothesize: What substances can invisible ink is made of? TSWBAT utilize a Patriot war strategy EQ: Why and how did the Patriots use invisible ink?
Objective and Scales: The student will be able to utilize a Patriot war strategy in constructing a letter to George Washington using invisible ink with 80% accuracy Where does this fit in to the LGS
The Basics of Invisible Ink: There are two categories into which invisible inks fall: organic fluids and sympathetic inks. Organic fluids can include: lemon juice, vinegar, milk, sweat, saliva, onion juice, and diluted blood, to name a few. These organic invisible inks can be developed through heat, such as with fire, irons, or light bulbs, and some can be seen when placed under ultraviolet light. The organic fluids alter the fibers of the paper so that the secret writing has a lower burn temperature and turns brown faster than the surrounding paper when exposed to heat. Sympathetic inks are more complicated chemical concoctions. Sympathetic inks contain one or more chemicals and require the application of a specific “reagent” to be developed, such as another chemical or a mixture of chemicals. So this type works be producing a chemical reaction. Yup it’s SCIENCE
The History of Invisible Ink: The history of invisible ink is mainly the history of war, for it is during such times that intrigue, espionage, and spying is at its most vital and necessary.
Revolutionary War: During the Revolutionary War, both the British and the Americans used invisible ink. The British used both organic fluids and common sympathetic inks But George Washington wanted something more, an ink that could only be revealed by a unique, specially formulated reagent. Sir James Jay answered the general’s call. Jay, brother of American patriot John Jay and a physician that dabbled in chemistry, created a “sympathetic stain,” which he supplied to Washington. Washington would then pass it on to the Continental Army’s spymaster, Major Benjamin Tallmadge who in turn provided it to the members of the famous Spy Ring: Abraham Woodhull, Nathan Hale and Robert Townsend. To avoid suspicion, Washington instructed his spies to write seemingly ordinary letters between the lines of their secret messages, or to inscribe them “on the blank leaves of a pamphlet... a common pocket book, or on the blank leaves at each end of registers, almanacs, or any publication or book of small value.” Patriots used invisible ink to pass battle plans or strategies and alert high ranking officers of British actions
Hiding Secrets…. In the newly declared United States, Gen. George Washington was desperate for information on the British. In August 1776, the Continental Army suffered substantial losses at the Battle of Long Island. Washington knew that if he were to defeat the British, he needed to know the current status of their troops and supplies as well as have foreknowledge of their intentions. He needed a volunteer to enter the British lines and spy. Nathan Hale agreed to go. Unfortunately, Hale was recognized as a rebel and arrested. Incriminating notes were found hidden in his boots and Hale confessed to being a soldier in the Continental Army. He was accused of spying and immediately sentenced without a trial to hang the next morning. But, what if Nathan Hale wouldn’t have been caught…what news could he have brought Washington?
Secret Dispatch Writing Assignment You are going to compose a dispatch to Washington using invisible ink as you are relaying British battle plans and actions…being caught with such is punishable by death! You can choose any scenario to compose your dispatch: 1. Writing as Nathan Hale you will inform Washington of Burgoyne's Campaign of 1777 as you have overheard it. How was he going to isolate the New England colonies. You can even draw a map. (Albany Plan) 2. Writing as Daniel Morgan you can inform Washington of your actions in Saratoga and describe you plan to defeat Burgoyne’s men as you are heavily out numbered (Saratoga) 3. Writing as Daniel Morgan you can inform Washington of your actions at Cowpens and your plan to defeat Banastre Tarleton. Describe the trap. You can also draw a map. 4. Writing as a spy you can inform Washington of Cornwallis’ actions in Yorktown and describe how he has created a defense plan.
Hints: You may want to lightly sketch the dispatch in pencil first to act as an outline. This is a graded in class activity Let me give you an example of how to get started:
To my courageous commander George Washington, I have arrived in Saratoga on the eve of October 10 th, 1777. I have been informed that Burgoyne and his 6,000 men are marching on to Albany. General Horatio Gates has sent myself, Benedict Arnold, and my marksmen to Saratoga to stop Burgoyne from reaching Albany. If he does, New York will surely be taken. And I fear the war will be lost. I regret to report to you that we will be sorely outnumbered in battle and I fear a loss. However, I have devised a plan that I hope will find success and stop Burgoyne. For the past five days my men and I have been falling timber strategically to herd Burgoyne's men to Saratoga. One of my marksmen; acting as a scout, has reported that Burgoyne is using savages as guides. I do need to disclose; speaking honestly, that this campaign is personal to me. Years ago in the French and Indian War Johnny was my superior and had me whipped; almost to death, I might add for a disagreement that resulted with my fist connecting with his jaw. Allow me to describe my plan in the hopes that I can use Burgoyne’s large forces against him.