2 Test your knowledge Which of the following events can cause stress? Taking out a loanFailing a testGraduating from collegeWatching a hockey gameALL FOUR. Stress-producing factors can be pleasant or unpleasant and can include physical challenges and goal achievement as well as events that are perceived as negative.
3 Test your knowledgeModerate exercise can stimulate which of the following:Analgesia (pain relief)Birth of new brain cellsRelaxationALL THREE. Regular exercise is linked to improvement in many dimensions of wellness
4 Test your knowledgeWhich of the following can be a result of chronic stress?ViolenceHeart attackStrokeALL THREE. Chronic stress can last for years. People who suffer from long-term stress may ultimately become violent toward themselves or others. They also run a greater than normal risk for certain ailments, especially cardiovascular disease.
5 WHAT IS STRESS? Stress refers to two different things: Situations that trigger physical and emotional reactions stressorA first dateA final examThe reaction itself stress responseSweaty palmsPounding heartStress describes the general physical and emotional state that accompanies a stress response.
6 Physical Responses to Stressors Systems in our body responsible for physical response to stressors:Nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves.Endocrine system glands, tissues and cells
7 Actions of the Nervous System Somatic nervous system: under conscious supervisionMoving your arm away from a flameAutonomic nervous system: not under conscious supervisionHeart rate, breathing, blood pressure
8 Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic divisionIn control when you are relaxedAids in digestion, storing energy, promoting growth.Sympathetic divisionActivated during times of arousal, including exercise and when there is an emergency.Sympathetic nerves use the neurotransmitter norepinephrine to exert their actions on emergency related organs.
9 Actions of the Endocrine System During stress, the sympathetic nervous system triggers the endocrine system.Functions by releasing hormones and other chemical messengers into the bloodstream to influence metabolism and other body processes.Is specific, acting on target organs
10 Nervous and Endocrine System Work Together Chemical messages and actions of sympathetic nerves cause the release of key hormones that trigger physiological changes:Heart and respiration rates increaseHearing and vision become more acuteThe liver releases extra sugar into the bloodstreamPerspiration increases to cool the skinThe brain releases endorphins – chemicals that inhibit or block sensations of painFight or flight reaction
11 Return to homeostasisOnce the stressful situation ends, the parasympathetic division of the autonomous nervous system takes command and restores homeostasis.The parasympathetic nervous system calms your body down, slowing a rapid heartbeat, drying sweaty palms and returning breathing to normal.
12 The fight or flight reaction and modern life Is a survival mechanismBecomes inappropriate in some circumstances:ExamsSpeechesStop lights or traphicWhen someone bothers you.
13 Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors The physical response to stressors may vary in intensity from person to person.Several factors help to explain these differences, all related to your cognitive (mental ) appraisal of a potential stressor.This appraisal is:Highly individualStrongly related to emotionsThe facts of a situation typically are evaluated consistently from person to person, but the personal outcome varies
14 Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors Effective and ineffective responsesCommon emotional responses to stressors include anxiety, depression and fearBehavioral responses to stressors are entirely under our control. (Somatic Nervous System)Effective responsesIneffective responsesTalkingLaughingExercisingMeditatingLearning time-management skillsOvereatingHostilityUsing tobacco, alcohol or other drugs.
15 Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors Personality and StressPersonality is the sum of cognitive behavioral and emotional tendenciesClearly affects how people perceive and react to stressors.
16 Personality types: Type A Type B Type C Ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive andeven hostileReacts explosively to stressorsand are upset by events thatothers would consider onlyannoyancesType BRelaxed and contemplativeLess frustrated by daily events and more tolerant of the behavior of others.Type CCharacterized by anger suppression, difficulty expressing emotions, feelings of hopelessness and despair and an exaggerated response to minor stressors.
17 Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors Gender and StressBehavioral responses to stressors, such as crying or openly expressing anger may be deemed more appropriate for one gender than other.Strict adherence to gender roles can limit one’s response to stress and can itself become a source of stress.
18 Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors Past ExperiencesCan profoundly influence the evaluation of a potential stressor.
19 The Stress Experience as a Whole Physical, emotional and behavioral responses to stress are intimately interrelatedSymptoms of Excess StressPhysical symptomsEmotional SymptomsBehavioral SymptomsDry mouthExcessive perspirationFrequent illnessesGastrointestinal problemsGrinding of teethHeadachesHigh blood pressurePounding heartStiff neck or aching lower backAnxiety or edginessDepressionFatigueHyper vigilanceImpulsivenessInability to concentrateIrritabilityTrouble remembering things.CryingDisrupted eating habitsDisrupted sleeping habitsHarsh treatment of othersProblems communicatingSexual problemsSocial isolationIncreased use of tobacco, alcohol or other drugs.
20 STRESS AND WELLNESSStress can increase vulnerability to many affectionsSeveral theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between stress and diseaseThe general adaptation syndromeAllostatic loadPsychoneuroimmunology
21 The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) Hans Selye (1930 – 1940)Described an universal and predictablee response pattern to all stressorsRecognized that stressors can be either pleasant (eustress) or unpleasant (distress).The sequence of physical responses occurs in three stages:Distorted perceptionsDisorganized thinkingFight- or-flight reaction
22 Allostatic Load Long term overexposure to stress hormones such as cortisol has been linked with health problems.The long – term wear and tear of the stress response is called allostatic load.Depends on many factors including genetics, life experiences, and emotional and behavioral responses to stressorsWhen your allostatic load exceeds your ability to cope, you are more likely to get sick.
23 Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) The study of the interactions among the nervous system, the endocrine system and the immune systemStress, through the actions of the nervous and endocrine systems, impairs the immune system and thereby affects health.Hormones and chemical messengers released during stress response influence the immune system by affecting the number and efficiency of immune system cells or lymphocytesNeuropeptides, the biochemical language between brain and the immune system (also language of emotions) can strongly influence the functioning of the immune system.
24 Links between stress and specific conditions CVDDuring stress response, blood pressure risesEmotional responses increase a person’s risk of CVDAltered functioning of the immune systemChanges in the immune system function include vulnerability to colds and other infections, asthma, allergy attacks, susceptibility to cancer and flare – ups chronic diseases (HIV, herpes).Other health problemsDigestive problemsTension headaches and migrainesInsomnia and fatigueInjuriesMenstrual irregularities, impotence and pregnancy complicationsPsychological problems: depression, anxiety, panic attacks, eating disorders, post traumatic stress disorder.
25 COMMON SOURCES OF STRESS Major life changesNew jobs, graduation, marriage, moving out.Daily hasslesLosing your keys or walletCollege stressorsAcademic stressInterpersonal stressTime pressuresFinancial concernsWorries abut the future
26 COMMON SOURCES OF STRESS Job-related stressorsTight schedules and overtimeWorries about performance, salary, job security and interactions with bosses, coworkers and customers.Helping professionsInterpersonal and social stressorsCommunity and societyPrejudice and discriminationLanguageOther stressorsEnvironmental stressors: loud noises, unpleasant smells, industrial accidents, violence and natural disasters.Internal stressors: personal goals, evaluate our progress and performance, physical and emotional states such as illness and exhaustion.
28 MANAGING STRESS The best way to manage stress is by pursuing a wellness lifestyle:Being physically active and doing exercisePeople who exercise react with milder physical stress responses before, during and after exposure to stressorsEating wellHealthy, balanced diet helps to cope with stressGetting enough sleepLack of sleep can be both a cause and an effect of excess stress
29 Managing stress Finding social support Sharing fears, frustrations and joys makes life richer and seems to contribute to the well being of body and mind.Communicating in an assertive wayRespect the rights of others as well as your own rights to prevent potentially stressful situations from getting out of controlStriving for spiritual wellnessSpiritual wellness is associated with greater coping skills and higher levels of overall wellness.
30 Managing stress Learning to manage your time Set priorities Schedule tasksSet realistic goalsBudget enough timeBreak up long term goals into short term onesVisualize the achievement of your goalsKeep track of the tasks you put off.Consider doing your least favorite tasks first.Consolidate tasks when possibleIdentify quick transitional tasksDelegate responsibilitySay no when necessaryGive yourself a breakAvoid your personal “time sinks”Stop thinking or talking about what you’re going to do and just do it
31 Managing stress Changing destructive thinking Writing a diary Reduce hostile, critical, suspicious and self-deprecating thoughtsModify your expectationsLive in the presentGo with the flowCultivate your sense of humorWriting a diaryHelpful for those who are shy or introverted and find it difficult to open up to others.
33 Managing stress Other techniques Biofeedback: Measure of stress (heart rate, skin temperature or muscle tensions) mechanically monitored. Feedback is given using sound.Hypnosis and self-hypnosis:An attentive perception and concentration, which leads to controlled imagination.Lets participants choose to feel something other than anxiety or stress or pain.Massage:Reduces the stress response, depression and even increases alertness.
34 GETTING HELP Peer counseling Professional help Student health center or counseling centersProfessional helpPsychotherapyFind out if it’s stress or something more serious such as depression, anxiety or other emotional problems.Symptoms for depression includeNegative self conceptPrevasive feelings of sadness and hopelessnessLoss of peasure in usual activitiesPoor appetite and weight lossInsomnia or disrturbed sleepRestlessness or fatigueThoughts of worthlessness and guiltThrouble concentrating or making decisionsThroughts of death or suicide.
35 LAB LAB 10,1 Identify your stress level an key stressors LAB 10.2 Stress-management techniquesLAB 10,3Developing spiritual wellness