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Pharmacology Day 1 Elizabeth Keele, RN/BSN. Course Objective #2 Describe the dynamic process between the giver and the receiver of medications, which.

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Presentation on theme: "Pharmacology Day 1 Elizabeth Keele, RN/BSN. Course Objective #2 Describe the dynamic process between the giver and the receiver of medications, which."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pharmacology Day 1 Elizabeth Keele, RN/BSN

2 Course Objective #2 Describe the dynamic process between the giver and the receiver of medications, which promotes positive medication compliance.

3 “Dynamic Process”

4 dy·nam·ic dīˈnamik/ adjective 1. ( process or system) characterized by constant change, activity, or progress.

5 “Dynamic Process” Giver Receiver

6 “Mutual process” Key characteristics: – Knowledge – Teaching – Communication – Observation skills – Evaluation skills

7 Turn to your neighbor and take turns… Describing the dynamic process between the giver and the receiver of medications, which promotes positive medication compliance. (Course objective #2)

8 Course Objective #1 Identify limitations/deficits commonly seen in D.D. clients that prevent them from asking questions or reporting adverse effects regarding medications they receive.

9 Limitations to “mutual process” of medication administration Understanding Communication Awareness Knowledge Teaching Communication Observation Evaluation

10 Limitations to “mutual process” of medication administration The NURSE must “account and compensate” for these limitations

11 Medication Administration is… Invasive Risk to benefit

12 Turn to your neighbor and take turns Identify limitations/deficits commonly seen in D.D. clients that prevent them from asking questions or reporting adverse effects regarding medications they receive. (Course objective #1)

13 Course Objective #3 Describe the importance of patient teaching with regard to prescribed medication regimen.

14 Why is patient teaching important?

15 Teaching / Learning Process Teaching – Interactive process Learning – Acquiring new knowledge Motivation – Desire

16 3 Domains of Learning Cognitive – Intellectual activities Affective – Attitudes & beliefs Psychomotor – Physical skills

17 Turn to your neighbor and… Describe the importance of patient teaching with regard to prescribed medication regimen. (Course objective #3)

18 Course Objective #4 Describe the electrochemical processes of the central nervous system, which allow CNS drugs to cause their desired effects.

19 Course objective #12 Explain how chemicals and electrical impulses interact to make up the electrochemical properties of the nervous system.

20 The nervous system consists of: Divided system – Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain & Spinal Cord – Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerves (peripheral & Cranial)

21 Nervous System Controls and coordinates the body By transmission of electrical impulses (Electrical-chemical system)

22 Nerve Impulse The nervous system is powered by electrical and chemical energy – K+ – Na+ – Cl- – (Ca+)

23 Course objective #9 Differentiate between afferent and efferent neuron.

24 Neuron Basic functional unit – Afferent neuron Sensory Carry info from PNS  CNS – Efferent neuron Motor Carry into from CNS  PNS

25 Neuron structure Cell body/ Soma – Nucleus – Neurotransmitters synthesized Dendrites – Carry impulses toward the cell body Axons – Carry impulses away from the cell body

26 Cool Fact Damaged Neuron CNS = – Irreversible PNS = – will repair itself if the cell body is not destroyed

27 Course Objective #10 Describe the role played by neurotransmitters in nerve impulse transmission within the synapse.

28 Synaptic Junction Neuron connect to each other end to end Where two neurons come together – Synaptic junction – Synapse – Inter-neuron space

29 Anatomy of the NS Synapse = the space between one neuron & the next 29 Pre-synaptic neuron Post-synaptic neuron

30 Synaptic Junction Terminal end of Axon = Pre-Synaptic Vesicles Nerve impulse reaches the vesicle  release substance  neurotransmitters (n  t) into the synaptic junction Nerve impulses must have a receptor site

31 Synaptic events Electrochemical message received Vesicle opens N  T are released into synapse N  T finds its receptor site that it fits into on the next neuron Activation of receptor  nerve impulse in post- synaptic vessel Re-uptake of N  T – MAO action

32 Neurotransmitters Synthesized in the soma Special Properties – Excitability – Inhibitory 30+ neurotransmitters

33 Course objective #11 Describe the role played by monoamine oxidase in nerve impulse transmission within the synapse.

34 Monoamine oxidase (MAO) ENZYME Released into the synaptic space Action – breakdown or inactivates N  T  Result –  N  T levels 34

35 Course Objective #5 Differentiate between the following neurotransmitters: – Acetylcholine – Norepinephrine – Dopamine – Serotonin – Gamma-aminobutyric acid – Glycine

36 Neurotransmitters Synthesized in the soma Special Properties – Excitability – Inhibitory 30+ neurotransmitters

37 Excitatory Neurotransmitters Serotonin – Sleep – Sensory perception – Temperature – Mood – Inhibits pain

38 Excitatory Neurotransmitters Dopamine – Subconscious movement – Fine motor skills – Emotional responses

39 Excitatory Neurotransmitters Norepinepherine – Maintains arousal – Overall activity – Mood Acetylcholine – Vital for short term memory

40 Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Cholinergic – Stabilizers

41 Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Gammaamniobutyricacid GABA – #1 –  concentration in brain – Stop/slow firing of neurons Glycine –  concentration in Spinal Cord

42 Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Dopamine – Basal Ganglia – Dopamine & Acetylcholine are opposites which work together to create homeostasis

43 Course Objective #6 Identify psychiatric disorders that appear to be related to the body’s inability to regulate the availability of neurotransmitters.

44  or  Neurotransmitters Imbalance  disease or disorder

45 Schizophrenia  dopamine

46 Depression  Serotonin

47 Alzheimer’s Disease  acetylcholine

48 Generalized Anxiety Disorder Norepinephrine Serotonin

49 ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) Imbalance – Norepinephrine – Dopamine

50 Drug Addictions Affects dopamine areas of the brain

51 Alcohol Interacts with GABA receptors

52 Course Objective #7 Describe the ‘principle of opposition’ between the operation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system.

53 The nervous system consists of: Divided system – Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain & Spinal Cord – Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerves (peripheral & Cranial)

54 Nervous System CNSPNS Autonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System

55 Peripheral Nervous System PNS comprised of Cranial and Spinal Nerves Somatic Nervous System Process: Voluntary Function: Respond to changes in external environment Effector site: skeletal muscle Autonomic Nervous system Process: Involuntary Function: Respond to changes in the internal environment Effector sites: Internal organs Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS

56 Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Chemical process: – Adrenergic Function – Energize Parasympathetic Nervous System Chemical Process – Cholinergic Function – Stabilize

57 Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS Rate Heart rate Dilates Vessels of Skeletal muscles 0 Dilates Bronchi Constricts secretions Lung secretions secretions Peristalsis Salivary secretions

58 Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS Closes Anal sphincter Opens Relaxes Bladder Contracts Closes Urinary sphincter Opens Dilate Pupil Constrict far vision Eye accommodation near vision secretions Pancreas secretions Release glucose Liver 0 secretions Adrenal Medulla 0

59 Principle of Opposition SympatheticParasympathetic “Fight or Flight”“Rest & Digest” EnergizesStabilizes AdrenergicCholinergic (Adrenal gland)  Epinephrine Norepinephrine Acetylcholine

60 Adrenergic vs. Cholinergic Agents AdrenergicCholinergic Sympathetic N.S.Parasympathetic N.S. Norepinephrine / Epinephrine Acetylcholine Adrenergic AgentCholinergic Agent Drug that mimics Sympathetic stim. Drug that mimics Parasymathetic stim.

61 Course Objective #8 Differentiate between an agonistic drug and an antagonistic drug.

62 Agonist Bind with receptor  Enhances response

63 Antagonist Binds with receptor  Blocks response

64 Course objective #13 Describe the variable responses seen depending on the fit of drugs to receptor sites.

65 Drug Action “Target” cells

66 Drug Action Rx fits / “binds” receptor site  Influences reaction Mimics natural body chemicals

67 “BIND” – Similar shape – Closer the fit  Stronger the effect

68 Types of Antagonists Competitive “Push off” agonist  dose  Block action of agonist Non-competitive Does not “push off an agonist from receptor  dose …


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