2Stress Definitions… Wingate (1982): “Any influence that disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body”McGrath (1970):“A substantial imbalance between demand (physical/psychological) and response capability, under conditions where failure to meet the demand has important consequences”Allen (2013):“A physical/ Psychological response to a stimulus that evokes fear of failiure”You need to find 3 separate definitions…
3ANXIETY ANXIETY ANXIETY Definitions… Seen as the ‘Negative aspect of stress’…Is it more emotional or physiological?What does your description say??
4Types of STRESS Distress/ Bad stress Eustress/ Good stress Stress Gives us energy and direction- Keeps us fulfilled and happyCauses discomfort and can lead to illness/depressionStress is typically described as negative and is associated with a negative affect on an individual and their performance.But stress can also serve as a mental and physical energy to motivate us to do something and do it well (pre game???)Types of STRESS
5Increase in motivation and energy Enhanced performance Demandse.g an important race.AthletesPerceptionOf the demandsIncreasedArousalMay lead toOutcomePositive(challenging)Increase in motivation and energyEnhanced performanceNegative(threatening)Increase in anxiety and negative thoughtsImpaired performanceWoods (1998)
6Types of ANXIETY Trait Anxiety: - A person experiences anxiety as part of their personality. Feelings of nervousness come in a variety of situations…State Anxiety:- Anxiety felt in response to a specific situation encountered.People with high trait anxiety will usually experience higher levels of state anxietyHow will this affect an athletes performance?Types of ANXIETY
7Causes of STRESSDivided into 4 categories:Internal-The things that we think about: past memories/experiences (how would injury affect motivation?) self worth etc…External-Our surroundings/environment, competition, weather etc…Sporting environment-Similar to external factors: the level of competition, bearing on the outcome, weather, pitch.Occupational factors-Our working conditions and the job a person does. Within a team it could be team mates/coaches etc…All varied to the individualHow would Type A and type B personalities find situations stressful or not?
84 stage STRESS process… Cause of stress Individual view of whether the situation is threateningStress response: physical and psychological changesPositive/ negative changes in performance4 stage STRESS process…
9Physiology of the STRESS response… Fight or Flight Response:- A stress response that varies depending on the ‘perceived’ threat. Physiological changes that prepare us to turn and fight the danger or run away as fast as possible.Sympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous SystemIncreased AdrenalineDecreased AdrenalineIncreased HRSlowed HRIncreased Breathing rateSlower breathing rateIncreased MetabolismSlower metabolismIncreased Heat productionLower body tempMuscle tensionMuscle relaxationDry mouthDry skinDilated pupilsSmaller pupilsHairs on skin stand upDigestion system slowsDigestion system speedsDiversion of blood to working muscles and away from organsSympathetic:Provide body with as much energy as possible to confront or run away from threat.Releases stress hormones, cortisol and adrenaline…Parasympathetic:- Provides relaxation response and conserve energy after threat has passed.
10Symptoms of STRESS & ANXIETY Stress/ Anxiety has a 3 fold effect upon the body- causing COGNITIVE (mental), SOMATIC (physical) and BEHAVIOURAL responses.Symptoms of STRESS & ANXIETY
11- Racing heart rate - Faster breathing - Headaches - Butterflies Cognitive SymptomsSomatic SymptomsBehaviour Symptoms-Reduced concentration- Less interested- Unable to make decisions- Sleep disturbances- Making mistakes- Unable to relax- Quick losses of temper- Loss of sense of humour- Loss of self-esteem- Loss of enthusiasm- Racing heart rate- Faster breathing- Headaches- Butterflies- Tight chest- Muscular aches- Increased sweating- Skin irritations- Talking/Eating/ Walking fast-Interrupting conversations- Fidgeting- Lethargy- Moodiness- Clumsiness- Accidents- Nervousness- Poor presentation
12Cognitive and somatic anxiety levels may vary before, during and after competition HighCognitive anxietyLevel of anxietySomatic anxietyLowBefore competitionDuring competitionAfter competitionTime
13Affect of STRESS on sports Performance Fear of failure:- Negative affect on performance? Place too much pressure on losing and forget about the process of trying to win?Nervous system:- Increase within the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response).Loss of self confidence and concentration: Confidence correlates to positive performance, what happens when this is lacking?Negative mental state: Linked to confidence, what is it and how does it contribute to performance?
14Affect of ANXIETY on sports Performance Fear of failure:Process of performance is forgotten and performer becomes more fascinated on directing behaviour to avoid losing, rather than successful performance to win… ANXIETYDecreased expectations of success:How does this affect performance… will performer try as hard to be successful if already in doubt of potential success?Affect of ANXIETY on sports PerformanceLoss of self confidence and concentration: Confidence correlates to positive performance, what happens when this is lacking?