Presentation on theme: "P3. * Wingate (1982): “Any influence that disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body” * McGrath (1970): “A substantial imbalance between demand (physical/psychological)"— Presentation transcript:
* Wingate (1982): “Any influence that disturbs the natural equilibrium of the body” * McGrath (1970): “A substantial imbalance between demand (physical/psychological) and response capability, under conditions where failure to meet the demand has important consequences” * Allen (2013): “A physical/ Psychological response to a stimulus that evokes fear of failiure” You need to find 3 separate definitions…
Seen as the ‘ Negative aspect of stress’… What does your description say?? Is it more emotional or physiological?
Eustress / Good stress Distress / Bad stress Stress Gives us energy and direction - Keeps us fulfilled and happy Causes discomfort and can lead to illness/depression Stress is typically described as negative and is associated with a negative affect on an individual and their performance. (pre game???) But stress can also serve as a mental and physical energy to motivate us to do something and do it well (pre game???)
Demands e.g an important race. Athletes Perception Of the demands Increased Arousal May lead to Outcome Positive (challenging) Increase in motivation and energy Enhanced performance Negative (threatening) Increase in anxiety and negative thoughts Impaired performance Woods (1998)
People with high trait anxiety will usually experience higher levels of state anxiety How will this affect an athletes performance?
All varied to the individual Divided into 4 categories: Internal- The things that we think about: past memories/experiences (how would injury affect motivation?) self worth etc… External- Our surroundings/environment, competition, weather etc… Sporting environment- Similar to external factors: the level of competition, bearing on the outcome, weather, pitch. Occupational factors- Our working conditions and the job a person does. Within a team it could be team mates/coaches etc…
Cause of stress Individual view of whether the situation is threatening Stress response: physical and psychological changes Positive/ negative changes in performance
Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Increased Adrenaline Decreased Adrenaline Increased HR Slowed HR Increased Breathing rate Slower breathing rate Increased Metabolism Slower metabolism Increased Heat production Lower body temp Muscle tension Muscle relaxation Dry mouth Dry skin Dilated pupils Smaller pupils Hairs on skin stand up Digestion system slows Digestion system speeds Diversion of blood to working muscles and away from organs Fight or Flight Response: - A stress response that varies depending on the ‘perceived’ threat. Physiological changes that prepare us to turn and fight the danger or run away as fast as possible. Sympathetic: -Provide body with as much energy as possible to confront or run away from threat. -Releases stress hormones, cortisol and adrenaline… Parasympathetic: - Provides relaxation response and conserve energy after threat has passed.
Stress/ Anxiety has a 3 fold effect upon the body- causing COGNITIVE (mental), SOMATIC (physical) and BEHAVIOURAL responses.
Cognitive SymptomsSomatic SymptomsBehaviour Symptoms -Reduced concentration - Less interested - Unable to make decisions - Sleep disturbances - Making mistakes - Unable to relax - Quick losses of temper - Loss of sense of humour - Loss of self- esteem - Loss of enthusiasm - Racing heart rate - Faster breathing - Headaches - Butterflies - Tight chest - Muscular aches - Increased sweating - Skin irritations - Talking/Eating/ Walking fast -Interrupting conversations - Fidgeting - Lethargy - Moodiness - Clumsiness - Accidents - Nervousness - Poor presentation
* Cognitive and somatic anxiety levels may vary before, during and after competition Level of anxiety High Low Time During competitionBefore competitionAfter competition Somatic anxiety Cognitive anxiety
Fear of failure: - Negative affect on performance? Place too much pressure on losing and forget about the process of trying to win? Nervous system: - Increase within the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response). Loss of self confidence and concentration: Confidence correlates to positive performance, what happens when this is lacking? Negative mental state: Linked to confidence, what is it and how does it contribute to performance?
Fear of failure: ANXIETY Process of performance is forgotten and performer becomes more fascinated on directing behaviour to avoid losing, rather than successful performance to win… ANXIETY Decreased expectations of success: How does this affect performance… will performer try as hard to be successful if already in doubt of potential success? Loss of self confidence and concentration: Confidence correlates to positive performance, what happens when this is lacking?