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The U.S. Constitution and the New Republic

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1 The U.S. Constitution and the New Republic

2 Themes The first Constitution’s achievements and problems
The Constitutional Convention (1787) Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances Washington’s Administration John Adams and war with France

3 Articles of Confederation
From the Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to discuss a government without a monarch. Delegates agreed upon the Articles of Confederation Created a national legislature Unanimous support was required to pass major pieces of legislation National government had no power to levy taxes *Power belonged to the states*

4 Slavery post-American Revolution
1780 – Pennsylvania's legislature enacted a gradual emancipation law. Slaves born by a slave mother would be free at the age of 28. Rhode Island and Connecticut adopted gradual emancipation laws in 1784. States such as Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia rejected the emancipation laws. In the deep South- Carolinas and Georgia believed that emancipation was unthinkable

5 Ordinance of 1785 (AoC) Dealt with land in Northwest Territory
Public land was divided into townships Each township was divided into 36 sections Each sections could be purchased for $1 per acre Goal: Raise money for the new found government

6 Ordinance of 1785 (AoC)

7 Ordinance of 1785 (Result) Didn’t help raise as much money as the government hoped for, but: Established precedent for surveying and selling public land Impacted landscape by “checkerboard” pattern

8 Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Provided process by which new states could join the Union Territories received one Representative in Congress when population reached 5,000 voters (white males) Territories could apply for statehood when total population reached 60,000 Freedom of religion and trial by jury were protected; slavery was prohibited in Northwest Territory *Most important accomplishment of the Articles*

9 Land Ordinances (Interesting Side Note)
Thomas Jefferson originally proposed creating 14 new states out of western lands One state named- - Metropotamia

10 Problems with Articles of Confederation
1. Each state had one vote (regardless of its population); unanimous support was needed for major pieces of legislation Why should Virginia (pop.750,000) have an equal amount of votes as Delaware (pop.60,000)? 2. Each state had the power to negotiate treaties, coin their own money and declare war *Problems led to Shay’s Rebellion*

11 Problems with Articles of Confederation
Military payrolls were not being paid to soldiers during the war and after the war With congress having no way to pay back the soldiers, members saw this as an opportunity to plead for the government to have the right to tax Robert Morris, a Philadelphia merchant, pleaded from 1781 – 1786 for the states to give the government to power to tax

12 Shay’s Rebellion ( ) Farmers in Massachusetts faced economic hardships after American Revolution Taxes were too high; ONLY states have control over taxes Daniel Shays led an army of 2,000 men marched on the tax courts to prevent more foreclosures of land General led a massive force to stop the rebellion Impact: Demonstrated the weakness of the national government

13 Shay’s Rebellion ( ) Shay’s Rebellion provoked fear and hope that the government would do away with the Articles of Confederation Knowing the problem would not stop with Shay, delegates agreed to meet in Philadelphia in 1786 to discuss what their next course of action would be

14 Constitutional Convention (Philadelphia, 1787)
Included 55 delegates from all states EXCEPT Rhode Island Attendance: - George Washington (Chair) - Benjamin Franklin (Diplomat) - James Madison (Father of the Constitution) - Alexander Hamilton (New York) Not in Attendance: - Thomas Jefferson (Ambassador to France)

15 Virginia Plan (Madison)
Eliminate the Articles of Confederation Separate the government into 3 branches: In order to protect the individual liberties of citizens, the government power must be divided: Legislative (most powerful) Executive Judicial Representation in the legislative branch would be determined entirely by a state’s population Small states vs. Large States

16 The New Jersey Plan Delegates from New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware, and New Hampshire proposed the New Jersey Plan Legislature: Maintained the existing single-house congress in which each state had ONE vote Executive: Called for a plural presidency to be shared by three men elected by congress

17 Great Compromise Benjamin Franklin – “Great Compromiser”
- Separate the Legislative Branch into two sections: the House of Representatives and the Senate House of Rep – each state was given at least one Representative; representation was then based on population Senate – Two for each state *Both the New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan were used*

18 3 Branches of Government (Checks and Balances)
Executive Branch – President and his administrative staff Job: Enforces Laws Checks: Nominates Supreme Court Justices and Federal Justices Checks: Can propose legislation Legislative Branch – House of Representatives and Senate (Congress) Job: Writes Laws Checks: Senate confirms or rejects judicial nominations Checks: Passes legislation Can declare war Judicial Branch – Supreme Court and Federal Courts Job: Interprets Laws Checks: Can declare Presidential actions to be unconstitutional Checks: can declare legislation unconstitutional

19 Impeachment and Removal
Impeachment: to bring official charges against an individual (majority vote in HoR) Trial/Removal: The individual stands trial (Senate acts as jury; 2/3 majority vote needed for removal

20 Constitutional Convention and Slavery
Should slaves be counted when determining a state’s population??

21 Constitutional Convention and Slavery
States with a large number of slaves argued yes (Southern states) States with a small population of slaves opposed (Northern states) *After the American Revolution states such as Massachusetts and Pennsylvania began to slowly abolish slavery* Agreement: 3/5 Compromise by Roger Sherman (Conn.) - One slave is equal to 3/5 of a person when determining a state’s population

22 Constitutional Convention and Slavery
Fugitive Slave Law allowed for return of runaway slaves Congress could not outlaw African Slave Trade until 1808

23 Fight for Ratification
Federalists: Supporters of the new Constitution (pro-strong central government) Anti-federalist: Remained opposed due to concerns over civil liberties New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify in June 1788

24 Constitutional Convention Ends (September 1787)

25 Judiciary Act of 1789 This act, passed by Congress, organizes the Judicial Branch Supreme Court: six members - John Jay became first Chief Justice Established federal courts in each state Authorized Supreme Court to review state court decisions

26 Constitution Ratified in 1791
The Bill of Rights were added to appease Anti-Federalists Author – James Madison who did not deem it necessary to add it but was persuaded by Thomas Jefferson while in France First Amendment: -Free speech, press, religion, assembly, petition Second Amendment: - No large standing army; people had the right to bear arms Prohibited unreasonable searches Protected the rights of the accused: Jury trials, cruel and unusual punishment

27 Signers of the Constitution
Known Masons (9): Gunning Bedford, Jr., John Blair, David Brearly, Jacob Broom, Daniel Carrol, John Dickson, Benjamin Franklin, King Rufus, George Washington Evidence of Membership/Affiliations (9): Abraham Baldwin, William Blount, Nicholas Gilman, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Read, Robert Morris, Roger Sherman Those who later became Masons (6): Jonathan Dayton, Dr. James McHenry, William Paterson, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer

28 The First President George Washington did not seek the Presidency
The colonists wanted him to become King George I but he declined the title Electoral College unanimously chose him to be President in 1789 John Adams became Vice President Each step George Washington took during his presidency would be a model for future presidents

29 Washington’s Cabinet Henry Knox (MA) - Secretary of War
Edmund Randolph (VA) -Attorney General Thomas Jefferson (VA) - Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton (NY) - Secretary of Treasury

30 Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury)
Served under Washington during Revolutionary War Hoped to concentrate debt in the national government; not the states - large investors were the key to fixing the debt US debt: $54 million Hamilton hoped to pay off foreign debt first. Then have national government assume state debt Many states in the south (ex. Virginia) were against this plan because they had already paid their debts off

31 National Debt: Compromise
Representative from the South agreed to comply by Hamilton’s plan In return, U.S. capital would be located in the South (Washington D.C.)

32 Bank of United States Hamilton supported creation of a national Bank of the United States: Provide a safe place to deposit the government’s money Help regulate state banks Jefferson – Bank is unconstitutional; This right is reserved to the states Hamilton – Bank is constitutional; Washington signed the bill into law

33 Whiskey Rebellion (1794) In order to raise revenue in America, Alexander Hamilton raised the taxes on whiskey Farmers in western Pennsylvania protested Washington was allowed to send a massive force of militia to stop the rebellion *The U.S. Constitution in action works*

34 Jay’s Treaty 1794 Treaty with Great Britain
- The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American West - A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and Canada Opened peaceful trade between Britain and the United States for ten years Angered the French

35 Treaty of Grenville (1795)

36 Treaty of Grenville (1795) A peace treaty between the United States and Indian Tribes of the Ohio River Valley Indian Tribes: Delawares, Shawnees, Ottawas, Miamis, Weas, Kickapoos, etc. Ended the warfare in the area; All prisoners on both sides returned Established a definite boundary between Indian lands and lands open to white settlement

37 Land West of Appalachian Mountains
With the land now open in the Northwest Territory, Americans are now looking for a safe passage into New Orleans With the defeat of the French during the French and Indian War, the Louisiana Territory now belongs to the Spanish

38 Spain Americans wanted to gain access to port of New Orleans
Thomas Pinckney was sent to Spain to negotiate a treaty to allow access to disputed territories Pinckney’s Treaty (1796) - Granted Americans free access to Mississippi River and New Orleans Pinckney’s Treaty was a great accomplishment for United States

39 Disputed land in the Southwest

40 End of George Washington’s Presidency (1797)
Two political parties emerged Federalists – Led by Hamilton, Washington, Adams - Location: Northeast - Interests: Strong Central Government, Pro-business, Pro-British in foreign policy Democratic-Republicans – Led by Jefferson and Madison - Location: South and West - Issues: States Rights and Small Farmers, Pro-French in foreign policy

41 Farewell Address Condemned political parties
Warned of entangling alliances Established two term limit for future presidents

42 John Adams (1797 – 1801) 2nd President of the United States
Washington’s Vice President and a Federalist Jefferson ran against Adams for Presidency Adams won the Presidency but Jefferson became Vice President because he finished 2nd *Wont be fixed until the 12 Amendment in 1804*

43 XYZ Affair (1797) France was angered by the American treaty with England (Jay’s Treaty, which called for neutrality) France began seizing American trade ships Adams sent diplomats to France but were turned away by the French government American diplomats met with XYZ; if U.S. paid $250,000 then the French would ONLY meet with them to talk Americans refused and anti-French sentiment was very popular in America

44 Quasi-War with France Americans fought French in Caribbean, yet no declaration of war Alien and Sedition Acts (1798): - President could expel any foreigner he deemed to be a threat - Foreigners could be deported or jailed by President during wartime - Residency for citizenship was increased from 5 to 14 years

45 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798)
Democratic-Republicans very angry about Alien and Sedition Acts; believe its unconstitutional If national government overstepped its powers, states could nullify laws Resolutions written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison

46 Review Accomplishments and failures of Articles of Confederation
Key provisions of U.S. Constitution Difference between the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution System of separation of powers/checks and balances Many events from the Presidencies of Washington and Adams Power of central government vs. states

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