Presentation on theme: "Maureen Maher Tatiana Patton. LIVER CELL Hepatocyte is known as the liver cell, making up 80% of the liver. Round Contains a nucleus Cellular organelles."— Presentation transcript:
LIVER CELL Hepatocyte is known as the liver cell, making up 80% of the liver. Round Contains a nucleus Cellular organelles associated with metabolic and secretory functions. ER, smooth and rough, and golgi apparatus for secretory purposes. High number of mitochondria to provide energy to support activity.
Digest fats Store nutrients reserves Filter poisons and wastes from blood Synthesize variety of proteins Regulate levels of several chemicals from bloodstream
Besides the organs known as “Endocrine”, there are non-endocrine organs that create endocrine hormones as well. Example: Liver The liver creates three different endocrine hormones. Angiotensinogen, Thrombopoietin, and Insulin like Growth Factor
Composed of glands that produce hormones that regulate growth, metabolism, sexual development, and function. Hormones are “chemical messengers” released into the blood streams
Insulin growth is controlled overall by the endocrine system, which sends out messengers throughout the whole body. Hormones regulates growth, glucose metabolism, body temperature, etc. It is released and can changes the target cells’ actions while traveling through the circulatory system.
The human growth hormone (HGH) is sent from the pituitary gland and sent into the bloodstream. It then stimulates in the liver the production of a hormone known as insulin like growth factor (IGF) Purpose of IGF: “produce growth in the cells of the body”
The signaling method is known as long distance signaling of chemical messages. Hormones are being sent through the bloodstream to target cells where a receptor receives the signal or message to trigger a function.
IGF levels are produced throughout one’s life, with the highest rates during the pubertal growth spurt. Factors varying HGH and IGF include: age, sex, genetic make up, exercise, nutrition, body mass, disease, etc.
IGF Deficiency/Hormone Insensitivity Syndrome/Growth Hormone Resistance Syndrome IGF deficiency can be caused by a lack of GH receptors or a malfunction or “block” of the growth hormone to the receptor, causing less IGF production
Cancers of the endocrine glands Excessive growth or acromegaly/gigantism High blood cholesterol or lipid abnormalities associated with heart disease High blood pressure due to endocrine dysfunctions like adrenal gland tumors pheochromocytoma Infertility Lack of growth (short stature) Menopause and its hormonal unbalances Metabolic diseases Osteoporosis and vitamin D deficiency leading to osteomalacia and rickets in children Over- or underproduction of hormones Pediatric endocrine diseases Precocious puberty
IGF has “growth-promoting effects on almost every cell.” Without IGF production, growth is affected greatly. However, some cases of IGF deficiency or more severe than others. One effect is Laron’s dwarfism.
Short Stature (Dwarfism) Resistance to diabetes and cancer CAPTION: This Ecuadorian man with Laron syndrome (shown with his children in the early 1990s) lived free of cancer and diabetes to age 87, a decade longer than the average Ecuadorian. He was killed in a car accident in 2012. Rosenbloom, Arlen. Ecuadorian Man with Laron's Disease. 1990's. Discover Magazine. Discover Magazine. Web. 23 Feb. 2015.
Laron’s Syndrome is a rare disease. Usually Laron’s syndrome comes with prominent foreheads, obese and obviously incredibly short. Complications happen, but it can be diagnosed and treated early.
Particular cell signaling that has been known for multi-cellular organisms have been traced back to uni-cellular organisms. Receptor tyrosine kinase. This example helps us to look at how cell communication originated.
Power Point will be added to School Rack for reference!!!
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