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1 CS313 Introduction to Human Computer Interaction Introduction.

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2 1 CS313 Introduction to Human Computer Interaction Introduction

3 HCI What? HCI Why? What happens when a human and a computer system interact to perform a task? task - write document, calculate budget, solve equation, learn about Bosnia, drive home, make a reservation, land a plane... Why is this important? 1. Computer systems affect every person 2. Safety, satisfaction, utility is critical 3. Product success depends on ease of use 2

4 Interfaces in the Real World Not just computers! VCR Wristwatch Phone Copier Car Plane cockpit Airline reservation Air traffic control Running shoes! 3

5 Door Knobs v Levers

6 Usability Crucial issue in this area! Combination of Ease of learning High speed of user task performance Low user error rate Subjective user satisfaction User retention over time 5

7 6 What is this class about? overview of HCI techniques Phenomena and theories of HCI Understanding of what usability is and means User interface design and development Awareness of Good and Bad design Application domain of HCI You will be able to create better user interfaces, web sites, consumer products, etc.

8 Phenomena and theories of HCI To understand human psychological architecture and processing constraints To cover new design methods and techniques available To understand the new conceptual mechanism used in HCI

9 Functionality v Interface/Mapping

10 Topics to be Covered Introduction to HCI Interaction Design Basic Usability Engineering Design Rules and Universal Design User Support Knowledge Cognitive and Perception Models Communication and Collaboration Models HCI Applications

11 10 What is HCI Short for human-computer Interaction. A discipline concerned with the study, design, construction and implementation of human-centric interactive computer systems.

12 11



15 Pictograms

16 15 What is usability? Usability can simply be thought of as the practical implementation of good HCI, but, more formally : Usability means easy to learn, effective to use and providing an enjoyable experience

17 Web applications

18 3D graphics from “” Final Fantasy XI

19 Display walls

20 Augmented and virtual reality

21 What’s wrong with each? Type of error Who is affected Impact What’s a redesign solution?

22 21 Why Study HCI? Business view :  to employ people more productively and effectively - people costs now far outweigh hardware and software costs  people now expect “easy to use” systems - generally they are not tolerant of poorly designed systems - if a product is hard to use, they will seek other products

23 Design What is HCI? Organizational & Social Issues TechnologyHumans Task

24 23 Who are “Users”? People who will use a product or web site. As opposed to the “Designers” People who create the system or web site Have to make an effort to Know The User

25 24 The Perfect User (every designer ‘s wish)

26 Above All Else… Know the User! Physical & cognitive abilities (& special needs) Personality & culture Knowledge & skills Motivation Two Fatal Mistakes: 1. Assume all users are alike 2. Assume all users are like the designer 25

27 The Human Information i/o via visual auditory haptic movement channels Information stored in memory Information processed and applied

28 “Help” “Which direction?” “Boat"

29 Underwater Communications and Hand Signals

30 Plane Director Uses Hand Signals to Give Directions to Pilots

31 Memory There are three types of memory function: Sensory memories ( buffers for stimuli: visual  iconic, auditory  echoic, touch  haptic) Short-term memory or working memory Long-term memory Selection of stimuli governed by level of arousal.

32 31 UI Development process : User Profiling Usability goals Task analysis & understanding the process Prototyping Evaluation Programming How to design and build usable UIs? DESIGN USE & EVALUATE IMPLEMENT

33 Design Evaluation “Looks good to me” isn’t good enough! Both subjective and objective metrics Some things we can measure Time to learn Speed of performance Rate of errors by user Retention over time Subjective satisfaction 32

34 33 Interaction Model The most influential model of interaction is Donald Norman’s ( : Execution-Evaluation cycle Norman divides interaction into : –Execution User activities aimed at making the system do something –Evaluation Evaluating whether the system did actually do what the user wanted

35 34 What is the “User Interface”? Everything the user encounters Functionality Content Labels Presentation Layout Navigation Speed of response Documentation & Help

36 The Computer a computer system is made up of various elements each of these elements affects the interaction input devices - text entry and pointing output devices - screen, audio paper input and output memory - RAM, permanent storage media processing - speed of processing, networks

37 Keyboards cont

38 37 What is “Usability”? = Quality! Learnability Efficiency Productivity Memorability Little “re-learning” required Satisfaction Pleasurable

39 Skinput: Appropriating the Body as an Input Surface CHI’2010 Chris Harrison, HCII, Carnegie Mellon University, USA Desney Tan (formerly CMU), Dan Morris, Microsoft Research, USA Use a tiny projector on body to show menus Microphones to listen to taps on hand/arm Signal processing and machine learning to differentiate positions 38

40 39 Why are Interfaces Important? Sit-down-and-use computers and software Don't read the manuals Usability is critical to software sales: In magazine ratings "User friendly" HCI-trained people build better interfaces Programmers don't think like end-users Exposure to different kinds of interfaces, problems User model, not system model

41 40 Problem Appliances are too complex

42 41 Problem Too many remotes

43 42 Problem

44 43 Good UIs on Successful Products Palm succeeded where other handhelds had failed due to a focus on usability: Fit into pocket Reliable gestural text input Commands immediately available Apple iPod lauded for design and user interface Apple iPhone – Wii controller, vs. XBox, PS3 graphics & power

45 44 Why Hard to Design UIs? “It is easy to make things hard. It is hard to make things easy.” User Interface design is a creative process Designers have difficulty thinking like users Often need to understand task domain Can’t “unlearn” something

46 45 Why Difficult Tasks and domains are complex Word 1 (100 commands) vs. Word 2007 (>2000) MacDraw 1 vs. Illustrator BMW iDrive adjusts over 700 functions Existing theories and guidelines are not sufficient Too specific and/or too general Standard does not address all issues. Adding graphics can make worse Pretty  Easy to use Can ’ t just copy other designs Legal issues

47 Course Materials: Books Sl.No.TitleAuthor(s)Publisher 01.Human Computer InteractionAlan Dix, Janet Finlay, Gregory Abowd, Russel Beale Prentice Hall, NJ 02.Human Computer InteractionJenny Preece, Yvaonne Rogers, Helen Sharp, David Benyan, Simon Holand, Tom Carey Addison Wesley (UK) 03.Human Computer Interaction: Issues and Challenges Qiyang ChenIdea Group Publishing, NY 04.Human Computer Interaction in the new millennium John M. CarrolAddison Wesley Publishing 05.Collaboration, Communication and Commerce in the 21 st Century Joe ClabbyPrentice Hall, NJ 06.User Interface Design: Strategies for Effective Human Computer Interaction Ben ShneidermanAddison Wesley, NJ 07.Object Modeling and User Interface Design Mark Van HarmelenAddison Wesley, NY 08.Voice Communication between Human and Machine David B. Roe, Jay G. WilponNational Academy Press

48 Subject : Structure CS313 Human Computer Interaction 2 credits, 2 hours a week lecture + 2 hours a week lab (2 groups) choose one

49 Evaluation Plan Mid-Semester Test 15-20% End-Semester Test 70% Teacher’s Evaluation 10-15% Project A/ Report Project B / seminar Attendance (Minimum 75% is must)

50 Course Materials: Internet Links Web site maintained by the course instructor %D8%AA%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B9%D9%84- %D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86- %D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A8-%D8%B3-313 Alexandria University site Email:

51 Your first task Work individually Take a picture of one badly designed object you can find here Prepare a PowerPoint / report to explain why do you think the object is badly designed

52 Group Project Design and evaluate an interface 0 - Team formation & topic choice 1 - Understand the problem space 2 - Exploring the design space 3 - Prototype 4 - Evaluation Presentation, documentation 51

53 Topic Ideas Mobile/handheld (cars, tour guides, etc.) Wedding planner GIS Calendar agent (speech) Audio / Web sites Domain that you know well 52


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