An Experimental Study… 112 third and fourth graders learning about ramps Direct Instruction Good and Bad Examples; Explanations Discovery Based Learning Randomly Assigned Khlar and Nigam (2004)
Direct Instruction was more effective! Khlar and Nigam (2004)
A Quasi-Experimental Study with 1 st Year College Students 1098 First Year Students in Teacher Preparation Program Lecture (LLLL) Case-based Learning (CCCC) Lecture and Case- based Learning (LCLC) Gradual Approach Lecture- Case Based Learning (LLCC) Quasi-experimental Study Classes Randomly Assigned Baeten, Dochy, & Struyven (2013)
What is Case-Based Learning? 1.Active Involvement- Constructing Knowledge 2.Teacher is Facilitator 3.Authentic Assignments 4.Cooperative Group Work
Direct Instruction with Gradual Introduction of Case-Based Learning Worked Best! Gradual LLCC Lecture LLLL Case-based CCCC Gradual LLCC Lecture and Case-based LCLC Baeten, Dochy, & Struyven (2013)
Clark, Kirschner & Sweller (2012) Direct Instruction is BEST for Novice Learners
Expertise Reversal Effect Lee & Anderson (2013)
Direct Instruction Works Because… More efficient Reduces cognitive load Lee & Anderson (2013)
7 Strategies for Maximizing Learning via Lecturing 1.Activating Prior Knowledge 2.Capture Attention and Emphasizing Important Points 3.Effective Multi-Media Use 4.Elaboration through Examples 5.Reflection Opportunities 6.Retrieval Practice 7.Questioning for Critical Thinking
Capturing Attention Voice Gestures Emotions Interesting Content or Activities
Emphasizing Important Points: Novices vs. Experts Novices focus on the details instead of the big picture Experts make more inferences Prior knowledge increase accurate inferences Hrepic, Zollman, Rebello (2003)
Emphasizing Important Points Hogan, Rabinowitz, & Craven 2003 Important!
Brain-writing Exercise… 1.Write down one way you can emphasize main points during a lecture. 2.Pass card to your right. Write down another way you can emphasize main points. You can’t use a strategy you’ve written on another card or that you’ve read.
5 Steps to Effective Media Learning Choose relevant wordsChoose relevant picturesOrganize wordsOrganize imagesIntegrate words and images Mayer (2009)
Draw Attention to Important Concepts Mayer (2009)
The “Be Quiet” Principle (also known as the Redundancy Principle) Mayer (2009) brings attention to the fact that when you have a visual aid such as a Power Point slide that contains a lot of words (like this one!), it makes it difficult for the student to process the information. There are competing channels fighting for attention. You want to listen and you want to read. You end up trying to both and not doing either one very well. He argues that because images are so powerful it is often best to use an image as a back drop to your narration. If you need to use a lot of words on a slide, then “be quiet” (these are my words not Mayer’s words!) and let them read it. Then, you can explain it more once they are finished reading.
Use Conversational Language rather than Formal Language Mayer (2009)
Processing Time… Summarize the research on effective multi-media use.
Elaboration via Examples ExamplesMotivationLearning Wlodkowski & Ginsberg (1995)
Elaboration via Examples Simpson, Olejnik, Yu-Wen Tarn, and Supattathum (1994) 50 students randomly assigned: Verbatim rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal 3 week training; 1 hour per week Training: Rational for technique Examples Directions on how to use the strategy Activities Process check and quizzes
Elaboration via Examples Simpson, Olejnik, Yu-Wen Tarn, and Supattathum (1994)
Examples lead to Better Performance Carrol (1994) 40 High School Students Worked Example Practice
Elaboration: What Works Best? Hamilton (1997) Relational Elaboration Focusing on similarities and differences between concepts led to highest levels of achievement
Elaboration Depends on Prior Knowledge “Elaborative interrogation is most effective when the learner is able to access a well- developed knowledge base while imagery appears to be less dependent on prior knowledge.” (Willoughby, Wood, & Khan, 1994, 287) Elaborative interrogation: Why?
Brief Reflection Opportunities: How Often? Prince (2004)
The Power of Pausing Three 2 minute Pauses to Review Concepts and Share Notes Ruhl, Hughes, & Schloss (1987)
The Power of Writing Summaries During Class 79 Students randomly assigned 21 minute video lecture with two 4 minute pauses Davis & Hult (1997)
Written Summaries 978 Students in 32 Recitation Sections Sections were randomly assigned to writing or thinking conditions 5 minutes for writing or thinking Drabick, Weisberg, Paul & Bubier (2007)
Quick Quiz True or False 1.According to Mayer (2009), cognitive engagement is more important than behavioral engagement. 2.Prince (2004) suggests that a brief active learning technique is used after 30 minutes of lecturing. 3.Written summaries improved retention of information and exam performance.
Strategy 6: Using Practice Retrieval Techniques
A Research Study Roediger & Karpicke (2006) Study Technique SSSSSSSTSTTT 180 college students S = Study; T= Test Retention of Information
Retrieval is a MEMORY tool!!! Roediger & Karpicke (2006)
Quizzing Research Weekly quizzing Testing until you get it correct Landrum (2007); Di Hoff, Brosvic, & Epstein (2003); Epstein, Epstein, & Brosvic (2001)
An Alternative to the “Pop Quiz”- Random Quizzing Works! Ruscio (2001)
5 Paper Fast Pass Write down one way you use (or plan to use) retrieval practice DURING class.
More Retrieval Ideas Shout Outs Dusting off the Cobwebs Polling One Minute Papers or Presentations
Types of Questions Factual: One Correct Answer Critical Thinking: More than One Correct Answer
Learning PurposeSocratic Questions Clarifying Explanations What do you mean by….? Provide an additional example of…. How does this compare and/or contrast to….? What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of… ? Questioning Assumptions What other explanations might account for this? What are the assumptions behind this statement? Exploring Additional Evidence How can we find out more about this topic? How does this connect to the concepts we’ve discussed previously? What additional evidence can you find to support or refute this idea? Multiple Perspectives What would someone who disagrees say? What are the cultural implications? Real World Implications What are potential consequences or implications of this? Provide a real world example of…. Self-Reflective Processes Why should this issue matter? What is the importance of learning about this issue? What other questions do you now want to explore?
Teach Students How to Develop Questions King (1995) Reciprocal Peer Questioning Reading Questions Share and Compare
Questioning leads to Higher Achievement King (1991) 56 9 th Grade Honors Students Self-questioning Self-questioning and peer reciprocal questioning Discussion groups Control- independent study
Questioning leads to Higher Achievement King (1991)
Let’s Try It: Questioning Technique 1.Work with a partner to create a question related to all 7 strategies we’ve discussed. 2.Exchange questions with a different group and answer the questions posed.
Let’s Summarize What We’ve Discussed… Prior Knowledge Attention and Importance Multi-Media Examples Reflection Practice Retrieval Questioning
THANK YOU AND BEST WISHES WITH DYNAMIC LECTURING! Questions? Contact Dr. Harrington at firstname.lastname@example.org