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Similarities Among Temples: Temple Typology Mike Harbrecht.

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1 Similarities Among Temples: Temple Typology Mike Harbrecht

2 From the Eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea to the Eastern border of Iran. (see the map here - “The Cradle of Civilization.” Scholars range from 4,000 B.C. to 400 B.C.

3 Patternism “Patternism is a method of comparing the teachings of the religions of the Ancient Near East whereby the similarities between these religions are assumed to constitute an overarching pattern…While supporters are unified in their belief that the similarities result from the fact that the religions of the ancient near east are related, patternists vary widely in their views about how closely related these religions are and why.” Source:

4 What do temples from the Ancient Near East have in common? Central, organizing, and unifying unit. 1 1 The law and the temple shared a relationship. 2 2 Having a temple seemed to indicate prosperity to the society, and not having a temple seemed to indicate tougher times. 3 3 The temples and its rituals were guarded by secrecy. 4 4 The temple is a key to the economic center. 5 5 Social & Societal

5 The temples and its rituals were guarded by secrecy 1 Corinthians 2:6-7 “Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought: But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory.”

6 Instructions & Beliefs Associated with the creation of the cosmos. 6 Associated with a pre-earthly war where the good is victorious. 7 Often associated with the realm of the dead. 8 Associated with the Tree of Life and gardens. 9 What do temples from the Ancient Near East have in common?

7 Associated with the creation of the cosmos

8 Often associated with the realm of the dead D&C 138:54 “Including the building of the temples and the performance of ordinances therein for the redemption of the dead, were also in the spirit world.”

9 Associated with the Tree of Life and gardens

10 Rituals Sacred clothing was used Washings & Anointings were performed Rituals were performed where initiates were symbolically entered into God’s presence A place of sacrifice Gifts are offered to God to gain favor What do temples from the Ancient Near East have in common?

11 Initiates were symbolically entered into God’s presence

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14 A place of sacrifice We learn about the Savior’s sacrifice and make covenants about putting the Lord first in the temple. Not to mention it takes great sacrifice to be worthy to enter the temple.

15 Structure Oriented toward the 4 cardinal directions and to celestial bodies Represented the cosmic mountain Located on sacred and set apart space Indicated a successive ascent toward heaven The plan of the temple was revealed by God to the king which must be followed carefully What do temples from the Ancient Near East have in common?

16 Structure What do temples from the Ancient Near East have in common? A place of pilgrimage Was seen as the “sacred center,” or the “point of origin” and a “goal toward which mankind strives.” Seen as the house of Deity Was a cosmogram (model of the universe), “often focusing on the welding of heaven and earth.” 23 23

17 Oriented toward the 4 cardinal directions and to celestial bodies The temples usually face the cardinal directions. The angel Moroni faces East.

18 Oriented toward the 4 cardinal directions and to celestial bodies

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20 Represented the cosmic mountain D&C 133:13 “And let them who be of Judah flee unto Jerusalem, unto the mountains of the Lord’s house.” Isaiah 2:2-3 “And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the L ORD ’s house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the L ORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the L ORD from Jerusalem.”

21 “Utah” Utah = “People of the Mountains” Utah = “Top of the Mountains” Utah = “The Mountain People” Sources:

22 Represented the cosmic mountain D&C 133:13 “And let them who be of Judah flee unto Jerusalem, unto the mountains of the Lord’s house.” Isaiah 2:2-3 “And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the L ORD ’s house shall be established in Utah, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the L ORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the L ORD from Jerusalem.”

23 Elder Legrand Richards “How literally [Isaiah 2:3] has been fulfilled, in my way of thinking, in this very house of the God of Jacob right here on this block! This temple [Salt Lake], more than any other building of which we have any record, has brought people from every land to learn of his ways and walk in his paths.” 24 24

24 Conference Center “I believe that prophecy applies to the historic and wonderful Salt Lake Temple. But I believe also that it is related to this magnificent hall [the new conference center located north of Temple Square]. For it is from this pulpit that the law of God shall go forth, together with the word and testimony of the Lord.” 25 25

25 Located on sacred and set apart space

26 The Hebrew root “qds” in English translates “to sanctify.” The most important root for the english word “temple” is “qds” and basically means “separation” of the sacred from the profane

27 Indicated a successive ascent toward heaven

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30 Sacred center or the point of origin

31 The House of Deity

32 “…often focusing on the welding of heaven and earth.” “I can feel the pow’r of Heaven as I stand on holy ground And the spirit whispers what I long to learn. Eyes are touched with understanding I can see beyond this world. It’s the place I reach for Heaven and it reaches in return.” 27 27

33 Heaven Earth Where Heaven Meets Earth

34 Cosmogram: Model of the Universe

35 Cosmogram: Model of the Universe

36 FootnoteSource Information 1 Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1994.

37 FootnoteSource Information 7 Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1994.

38 FootnoteSource Information 12 Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 1994.

39 FootnoteSource Information 17 Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Lundquist, John M. "What Is a Temple? A Preliminary Typology." Temples of the Ancient World: Ritual and Symbolism, edited by Donald W. Parry. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, Carrol, James L. "A Revised Temple Typology." In Hagion Temenos, 2nd ed., Provo, Utah: BYU Press, 2005.

40 FootnoteSource Information 24 Richards, Legrand. “In the Mountain of the Lord’s House,” Ensign, April Hinckley, Gordon B. “The Great Millennial Year,” Ensign, November Brown, Francis, Samuel R. Driver, Charles A. Briggs. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Translated by Edward Robinson. Oxford: Clarendon, Stated in Donald W. Parry. "Ritual Anointing with Olive Oil in Ancient Israelite Religion." In The Allegory of the Olive Tree: The Olive, the Bible, and Jacob 5, edited by Stephen D. Ricks and John W. Welch. Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book Company, Perry, Steven Kapp. “Strength Beyond My Own.” In Seminary Music: Doctrine and Covenants. Lyrics can be found at: https://www.lds.org/music/text/other/strength-beyond-my- own?lang=eng. https://www.lds.org/music/text/other/strength-beyond-my- own?lang=eng


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