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Mindfulness Education

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1 Mindfulness Education
Why Education Needs Meditation and Yoga

2 Meditation is not what you think.
Types: Mindfulness Well-being Reflection/Journaling Yoga/Awareness According to Miller (1996) meditation is: “the unwavering attention to a single thread of thought-a continuous flow of the same thought uninterrupted by any extraneous idea. The Sanskrit word dhyana, referring to meditative practices in Buddhism, was translated into Chinese as ch’an, which became zen in Japanese.” (p. 96) Thurman (2006) agreed and expanded by saying: “meditation translates from the Sanskrit dhyana, bhavana, and even samadhi, which all designate organizations of the mind-body complex considered different from sensory and intellectual receptive states (as in learning) and intellectual reflective or discursive states, though they include the state sometimes.” (p. 1765)

3 Meditation According to Haynes (2004) there are two major types of meditation practices one is called objective, focused, or concentration meditation and the other is called subjective, unfocused, or insight meditation (p. 19). History Growth and Change Generational Influence Baby-boomers & Generation-X Buddhism Hinduism

4 Yoga is not what you think
Patanjali Sutras The 8 Limbs of Yoga 1. Yama - restraints 2. Niyama -observances 3. Asana - postures 4. Pranayama - breath 5. Pratyahara - looking inward 6. Dharana - concentration 7. Dhyana - meditation 8. Samadhi - super consciousness one with the object of meditation

5 Classical Theories Theorists and Focus
Fowler, James ( ) Faith Development Jung, Carl ( ) Consciousness Maslow Abraham ( ) Motivation Montessori, Maria ( ) Education Iyengar, B.K.S. ( ) Yoga / Meditation Patanjali (500 and 200 B.C.?) Yoga / Meditation

6 Classical Theories Themes Worldly Philosophical Theory Themes: Thought
Faith, Belief, Love, Spirit Looking Within, Self Relationships, Culture, and Environment Character, Right and Wrong Educational Theory Themes: Educational Development Imagination Methods and Motivation

7 Thought Jung (2003) explained that we are in a world created by our own psyche (p. 63). The practice of yoga calls that awareness the observer and true self. Patanjali (Patanjali & Iyengar, 1993) Montessori (1967) a child absorbs it directly into its life (p. 25). Greatness at Birth (p.4). Fowler (1981) the stages of structural development coincide with the psychosocial stages (p. 107). Maslow (1954) knowledge about oneself (p. 7). Gain knowledge and understanding described and organized into a hierarchy of needs (p. 83). Allowing thoughts to pass by, only then will true understanding take place. Understand thoughts, impulses, and decisions will help guide our behaviors through needs that will foster the awareness, growth, development, and the unraveling of beliefs, love, and faith.

8 Faith, Believe, Love, and Faith
Fowler (1981) defined faith as the shaping of our lives (p. 93). The evolving experiencing of self (p. 22) Faith is deeper then belief (p. 22). Faith is a way of moving into the energy of life (Flower, 1992 p. 4), Jung (2003) faith comes from something happening to them in the first place, which instilled small parts of trust and loyalty (p.161). Belief is a way that faith expresses itself (Fowler, 1981 p. 12). Belief means to set the heart upon, to hold dear, to love, cherish (p.12). Faith completes understanding (Jung, 2003 p. 160). Montessori (1967) service and energy is love beyond the personal or material (p. 283). The Montessori (2005) mission statement, which reads: “Help us, God, to enter into the secret of childhood, so that we may know, love and serve the children accordance with the laws of thy justice and following thy holy will.” (p. 286). On the Maslow (1954) hierarchy of needs, love itself is near the top but love for oneself is the ultimate desire, as one is becoming everything they are capable of becoming and reaching their full potential as being self actualized (p. 92). The word love is not just an emotion but also an energy. Iyengar (1979), Patanjali’s Sutras are a systematic and philosophical practice that can break down habitual ways of believing, thinking, and acting

9 Looking Within, Self Jung (2003) “Originally we were all born out of a world of wholeness, and in the first years of life, are still completely contained in it. Later we lose it, and call it progress when we remember it again.” (p. 99) Self, Personality, external world - relates to inner reality Patanjali’s 196 sutras, or aphorisms, cover all aspects of life starting with a code of conduct and ending with the vision of true self (Patanjali & Iyengar, 1993 p. 1). Samadhi - full absorption Yoga means to yoke, unite, bind, join, and direct one’s attention (Iyengar, 1979 p. 19). Pratyahara is the fifth limb of yoga and is the turning inward and bringing the attention within oneself (p. 45). Self-actualization is defined as the acceptance and expression of the inner core or self, an actualization of latent capacities, and potentialities, a display of human essence (Maslow, 1968 p. 218). Montessori (1967) indicated the greatest danger lies in the ignorance of the self (p. 240).

10 Looking Within, Self Fowler “Stages of Faith”. Fowler (1981)
Stage one, “intuitive projective faith”, trust about the self and the spirit inside your body (p. 128). Stage two, “mythical-literal faith”, belief in justice and reciprocity (p.134). Stage three, “synthetic-conventional faith”, conformity of values and information (p. 172). Stage four, “individuative-reflective faith”, own identity of self and the outlook ideology with critical reflection about self-fulfillment within yourself and a group (p 182). Stage five, the “conjunctive stage of faith”, recognize life’s truths and paradoxes (p. 198). Stage six, “universalizing faith”, overcoming of the paradoxes, inclusive of all beings (p. 200). Faith, belief, and love can be seen and measured in stages and levels, which correlate to, but are not dependant upon physiological development. Not being separate from the whole, but has the ability to interact with others and the environment.

11 Relationships, Culture, and Environment
Faith is giving meaning to conditions both social and relational (Fowler, 1981 p. 92). Flower (1992) faith forms our view of life in relation to the environment making links to other images (p ). Faith impacts our perception, relationships, and responses (Fowler, 1991 p. 28) stage zero, stage two. Flower (1981) perception is built on our experiences through stories, images, and symbols to create an ultimate environment (p.136). Stage three, we are clearly defined, and all about our relationships and roles (Fowler, 1987 p. 66). Maslow (1954) we express our affections through culture while using complex societal roles (p. 45, 63). A culture does not create a human, rather it permits and encourages what is present within and helps it become real (Maslow, 1968 p. 176). Maslow (1954) also reiterated that a culture is not the seed, but is more like the food and water for the seed (p. 176). Maslow (1954) expressed that a sound friendship allows the expression of passivity, relation, childishness, and stillness where we can be ourselves (p. 315). Maslow (1954) said, “Self-actualizing people are independent of the opinions of other people” (p. 229).

12 Relationships, Culture, and Environment
Jung (1990) collective unconscious is made up of archetypes (p. 42). These archetypes are engraved roles within experiences and situations (p. 48). Jung (1990) described the concept of the unconscious as the state of represented and forgotten contents (p. 3). Hence, there is a continuous movement of energy going from unconsciousness to consciousness. Iyengar (1993) samadhi (absorption), to define yoga as the movement of consciousness and is the full contemplation and the restraint of citta, which means consciousness but is understood as three components: mind, intelligence, and ego (p. 9). Montessori - attracted to a part and set of the environment that obtain a certain advantage at that time (Lillard, 2005 p.122). Control over their environment it has shown to befit their performance (Lillard 2005, p. 97). Education’s focus should be on the biological and social development, which means to help the natural development of the individual needs and preparing the child for the environment as a part of social focus (p. 215).

13 Character, Right and Wrong
Montessori (1964) described this action and movement as preparing students for life, by helping them to develop habits to practice and perform in society to befit the community (p. 87). Fowler (1981) stage two, “mythic-literal faith”, sorting out of cause and effect relationships begin to develop out of the coordination of their own experiences through stories and images compared to the fairy tales and fantasies learned from stage 1 (p. 136). All stages of faith are the development and shaping of our actions, reactions, and responses to life, which ultimately builds our character and helps the reasoning with modes of knowing and valuing the relationship between imagination and moral judgment (p. 92, 99). Fairness, forgiveness, and protection are concepts that are made clear through symbols and pictures, which are solidified through stage two, which compares those symbols to stories all the while trying to belong to a community (p. 147). Emotional bank account (p. 147, 149).

14 Character, Right and Wrong
As needs develop, the consequences of our actions and responsibility of civic duties increase (Maslow, 1954, p 149). Malsow (1954) normalcy as a practical guide and framework Formal religion All people are simultaneously good and bad (p. 40) Most people are ruled by their own character than by the rules of society, and displays a detachment and independence, a self–governing character and tendency to look within for guiding values and rules to live by (Maslow, 1968 p. 201). Jung (2003) system of behaviors that make up the persona is partially dictated by society and experiences or wishes of oneself (p. 67). The persona is a mask or characteristics of an individual This personality develops in slow stages through the conventions of moral, social, political, philosophical, or religious ideas (p. 114). The personality can be described in terms of acting out archetypes (Jung & Hoffman, 2003 p. 72). It is important for young people to shape their egos and educate their will while using the other parts to experiences their own inner being and social usefulness (p. 104).

15 Educational Development
Education, family, and raising children have been known to control the darker forces within (Maslow, 1954 p. 354). Education and culture can both foster and inhibit growth and development (Maslow, 1968 p. 231). Montessori (1967) nothing is more important then a child’s mind that can absorb and influence various cultures and environments (p. 63). To influence society, the child should be the center by making schools the most important part of society (p. 66, 288). Montessori (1964) said with this type of environment, proper materials, and through liberty, students can release the natural tendencies for school and education, which will continue to help and give back to the society and help us all develop through education (p. 104). Jung (2003) personal soulful experience (p. 56, 216). Jung (2003) also stated we think we are born without a history, but we all carry with us a relation to all things (p. 203). Jung (2003) explained that there are many types of archetypes, however the five main ones are: The Persona, the Ego, the Shadow, the Anima/Animus, and the Self (p ).

16 Educational Development
Iyengar (1993) explained that yoga brings energy into balance through patterns, principles, spirit, and material nature like images that in the future would be beneficial to further studies of the sutras with the relevance to education and children (p. 273). Consciousness refers to both the mental mind and intellectual wisdom. Mind acquires knowledge where intelligence learns through subjective experience and becomes wisdom” (p. 43). Consciousness has seven facets: emerging, restraining, created, tranquil, attentive, pure, external or divine (p. 273). The understanding of consciousness by Patanjali is similar but also different from Jung’s Fowlers (1992) stages of faith are also understood that way Both social and personal theories about the philosophy of educational development are reciprocal and influence, or react, with each other either through various experiences or built on knowledge. Educational development involves the understanding of our environment, society, self, consciousness, and the unconsciousness and how they interact and overlap.

17 Imagination and Creativity
Lillard (2005), Montessori is known as a constructivist (p. 12). Montessori (1967) cultivate creative powers because it is the beginning and root of character (p. 214, 217). Montessori (1967) stories about Heroes and Saints with hopes to influence them to become more like them is wrong (p. 159). She thought that the stories and examples may awaken an interest and create a desire to imitate and drive the effort, but training, and a deeper preparation is needed before becoming and living like that (p. 159). The act of pretending was proof of unsatisfied desire, not imagination (Montessori, 2005 p. 184). Montessori (2005) was not against creative playing, against adults creating fantasies for the children (p. 190). She thought stories could be used if they were more positive and presented real world ideas and concepts with emotional appeal just as some fairy tales did because by nature we find meaning in narrative stories (p. 190, 240). Montessori (2005) used what she called “the great stories” in her curriculum each year to stimulate the imagination, arouse curiosity, and lend to the interconnectedness of the organizational structure of knowledge so children would want to learn more about the world (p. 186, 240).

18 Imagination and Creativity
Fowler (1992) our perception, relationships, and responses are linked to the imagination (p. 28, 30). Fowler’s (1981) stage one coincides with Jung’s theories about archetypal creatures like animals from fairy tales that symbolize triumph over evil (p. 131). Fantasy and imagination an important part in a child’s educational development. Jung (2003) the greatest ideas and achievements to fantasy because all great ideas and creative work comes from the imagination, which has a source called fantasy (p. 123, 125). They come from a greater place, because man does not create his ideas, but really the ideas create him (p. 129). Education today is build out of convention and tradition, which is the reason why creative life and energy is not used to serve the greater needs of individuals or society (p. 122). Jung (2003) thought that the active imagination should be thought of as a series of fantasies projected through deliberate concentration thereby saying fantasies are ideas that want to become conscious (p. 89).

19 Imagination and Creativity
Maslow (1968) creativeness comes out of the unconscious as a process of valuing impulses guided by perception (p. 153, 229). This universal characteristic is potentially found in all at birth (p. 223). Curious - spontaneous creativity (p. 96, 224). Maslow (1968) institutionalization they learn not to be curious (p. 96). Creativity is the beginning of the thought process, (p. 159). This natural unfolding process and movement of energy from the unconsciousness to consciousness through the use of fantasy ideas to lead to imagination and the discovery of creativity is true education. This process is the learning about yourself and the world that fosters individual and group growth and development. There are many philosophies and methods on how to get to that point of development and creation, which can be done to promote true education about oneself and the world.

20 Methods and Motivation
Montessori (2005) pursue issues and interests that fascinate them allowing a general flow of learning (p. 115). The opportunity to learn by imitation, peer tutoring, and collaboration fosters a greater enthusiasm more healthy for the exchanges of spiritual energy (Montessori, 1967 p. 228). Agricultural concepts and lessons including plants and animals to contemplate nature (Montessori, 1963 p. 155). Use many different materials allowed the students to analyze the workings of things and manipulate them in ways that were necessary in real life (p. 146). Becoming more self sufficient and independent (p. 146). This idea of freedom, choice, and responsibility needs to be in balance so students can concentrate on work (Montessori, 2005 p. 97). The natural course of education of a child is not purely physical, the soul has its nature, which is intended to be perfect in the spiritual world and should be the dominating power of human existence (Montessori, 1964 p. 374). The Montessori method gives experience to the self both physical and spiritual (p. 374). Motivation of life and education.

21 Methods and Motivation
Maslow (1954) motivation is also the study of human goals, desires, needs, and supports the study of situational input, which is the integration of the environment, culture, and personality (p. 66, 75). The Maslow Hierarchy of Needs are as follows: The lowest primal physiological and biological (p. 85). The second level is safety needs (p. 85). The third level is the need for belongingness and love (p. 89). The fourth level is the esteem needs (p. 90). The fifth and highest level is the self-actualization need, which is the ultimate ability to create peace within and reach self-fulfillment (p. 91, 96). Free choice allows a wide range of possibilities, teaches a child consideration of others and awareness of their needs (Maslow, 1954 p. 349) Free choice also helps the ability to learn from unique experiences including success and tragedy (p. 364). Maslow (1954) most schools do not include free choice and most educational psychology is concerned with the means, for example, grades, degrees, credits, and diplomas (p. 364). He reiterated that we do not spend enough time on the emotional attitude because the learning of the heart and emotions has been ignored (p.364, 365).

22 Methods and Motivation
Jung (2003) free will, allows the art to realize its potential through him and enables him to discover the unconsciousness flowing through him (p. 126). Incredible teachers are the ones who bring gratitude and touch on human feelings with warm emotions that are vital to the growing soul of a child (p. 94). He said in order to rise above the conflict of our educational influences that set our limits we need “to live the life that is independent and creative.” (p. 97) In the East, yoga is a method, art, and philosophy that includes and encompasses many levels of motivation. Patanjali (1993) Sadhana (practice) of the yogic discipline is the pursuit of a goal; the quest for self-realization and striving for knowledge and is itself a system of motivation (p. 20). Combining the senses and perceptions into a course of action known as sadhana (practice) (p.20). This method is challenging the process of knowing ourselves and giving us the techniques to analyze our thoughts to create radical change (p. 25), which is what education should be.

23 Current Theories Research and Studies
Discussion, analyzation, and critique of: Methods and Measurements Data and Results Limits and Problems Creating and Validating Meditation Tools Programs and Classes that Implement Meditation and Yoga Yoga Helps Attention Teachers that Meditate Future Implications

24 Creating and Validating Mediation tools
Lau et al. (2006) “The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: Development and Validation” Warner (2005) “Awareness and Cognition: The Role of Awareness Training in Child Development” The Lau et al. (2006) create and validate a self-reported mindfulness scale (p.1449). The Warner (2005) training of awareness through Transcendental Meditation (TM) and World of Wisdom Meditation, concentrating on Working Memory and Attention, and Development of awareness relating to cognitive accomplishment (p ). The Lau et al. (2006) study used participants with no meditation skills and with meditative skills, Warner (2005) study only used participants from schools that utilized Transcendental Meditation or World the Wisdom meditation.

25 Creating and Validating Mediation tools
Methods and measurements The Lau et al. (2006) eight tests not including the “Toronto Mindfulness Scale” (TMS) to validate and correlate data back to the (TMS) to check its reliability and usefulness. Those tests would include: 1) The Tellegan Absorption Scale, which measures absorption and imagery; 2) The Situational Self-Awareness Scale, to measure situational self-awareness; 3) The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, to measure cognitive failures; 4) The Dissociative Experiences Scale, to measure dissociative experiences; 5) The NEO-Five Factor to Inventory, to evaluate openness to experiences; 6) The Psychological Mindedness Scale, to measure psychological mindedness; 7) The Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, to measure style of self-focused attention; and 8) The Marlow-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, to measure socially desirable responding (p. 1450, 1451). Warner (2005) psychological tests measuring Working Memory and Attention and the development of cognitive accomplishment (p. 49). Figure Intersection Test (FIT) and the Backward Digit Span test (p. 51). To test and measure Attention the Karp’s Cancellation Test was used (p. 51). Two types of mental capacities were measured called Reflectivity and Flexibility both measured reaction time and variance reaction time on the Figure Intersection Test (FIT) (p. 52). Verbal Intelligence was measured through a Vocabulary sub-test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and Performance Intelligence was measured through the Cattell Culture Fair test. (p. 52). Home Background Measure questionnaire assessed the home background and social economic status of the participants (p. 53).

26 Creating and Validating Mediation tools
Data and results Lau et al. (2006) and Warner (2005) studies stated that they were successful. The “Toronto Mindfulness Scale” (TMS) has “the capacity to invoke a mindfulness state.” (p. 1460). The Warner (2005) study claimed, “there was a significant relationship between the number of months of practice” and achievement on cognitive variables (p. 55). Warner (2005) states that the analysis of the cognitive measures reveal that children who use meditation “perform at a more advance level than those who do not.” (p. 58). Meditation training supports and advances “the development of mental capacities and cognitive performance.” (Warner, 2005 p. 58) Lau et al. (2006) concludes that their “findings show the TMS is reliable and a valid measure of mindfulness.” (p. 1462)

27 Creating and Validating Mediation tools
Limits and problems Both Lau et al. (2006) and Warner (2005) significant variations in the duration of meditation sessions. Warner (2005) study the length of time spent in meditation (p. 49, 50). Warner (2005) different times of the day and year (p. 53). Lau et al. (2006) both pre and post measurement tests were taken immediately preceding and following a meditation session. Age and the selecting of participants specifically are also common issues among both. Lau et al. (2006) is not age specific enough, (p.1449). Warner (2005) the randomness of every third child alphabetically and the other school chose participants selected by teachers according to availability. Warner (2005) were not age specific or standardized for age, (p. 60).

28 Creating and Validating Mediation tools
Limits and problems (cont.) Parental or other environmental and social issues. Warner (2005) bring attention to the fact that parental involvement at home could be a factor because one of the tests measured and concentrated on home background information and socioeconomic status, (p. 59). Lau et al. (2006) study does not mention anything about environmental or social practices at home except for the fact when the participants were chosen in the beginning (p.1449).

29 Programs and Classes Forbes (2006) extracurricular program to help male student athletes develop beyond social constructed norms of masculinity, ethnicity, race, and relationships (p. 17). Leoni’s (2006) in a drama curriculum to help all students deal with exclusion (p. 121, 122). Commonalities found in both the Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) struggling males on the issues of masculinity Carroll (2005) a pilot class to include meditation into a theology class, which uses some of the same methods. The Carrol (2005) difficulty of overcoming the religious aspects of meditation in a theology class (p. 233). Seldon (2007) a school wide wellbeing program (p. 47, 48). Methods and measurements A common meditation method found in all studies use of insight, image, visualizing, and experiencing meditation, described by focusing attention on a word, picture, or sensation. Both Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) also utilized reflection and discussion and techniques of Jack Kornfield. however, Forbes (2006) used Kornfield’s guided meditation tapes while Leoni (2006) based her own classroom methods off of Kornfield’s techniques. All four studies on average was about minutes.

30 Programs and Classes Carroll (2005) and Seldon (2007) programs utilized the same meditation technique that involved journaling. Carroll (2005) called this journaling process of meditation “life charting,” (p. 235). Seldon (2007) on the other hand called this journaling process of meditation “blessing counting” (p. 47). Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) used the same meditation techniques, however named the technique differently. Forbes (2006) “in the zone” (p ). Leoni (2006) explained and called this same technique as “circle-time,” (p. 122, 123). Besides the obvious commonality of all four studies supporting meditation in an educational setting, and reporting similar successful results, the collection of data differed slightly.

31 Programs and Classes Data and results
All four studies report similar success. Carroll (2005) and Seldon (2007) both do not offer any measurements, results, or data to support their arguments beyond personal experience. Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) qualitative measures. Forbes (2006) primarily collected data through quotes derived from student’s in formal group discussions (p. 20). Forbes (2006) also utilized a post-questionnaire to confirm the quotes and ideas Leoni (2006) used formal interviews, and observations to collect data from her group meditations and discussions (p. 123, 124). Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) report able to reach a calm state, think before speaking, pause before acting, and ultimately own their choices and become responsible for their thoughts and actions. Both studies reported that students enjoyed meditating, wanted to do it more often, and thought these techniques could be used in other classes and situations.

32 Programs and Classes Limits and problems
Carroll (2005) and Seldon (2007) do not give data of facts to support their arguments. Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) both lacked numerical data and information. The Forbes (2006) study examined meditative practices influence on the issues regarding age, race, and gender, but was missing factual numerical data about the participants. The only numerical fact reported in the article states there were 23 young men who met once a week, for minutes to practice meditation and have group discussions during the off-season after school (p. 20). Forbes (2006) did not disclose how these 23 young men were chosen, if the whole sports team was asked to participate, was it mandatory, how long did a study last, how old were the young men, what year in school were they, and what was the racial and/or social economic demographic breakdown of the 23 in comparison to the whole school population or even the entire sports team?

33 Programs and Classes Limits and problems (cont.)
Leoni (2006) explain briefly the percentage and numbers of participants interviewed, the gender, and race with a correlation made the grade level (p. 121). No other further explanations about age, gender, or race are given when explaining the results. Ambiguous “about a year.” (p. 121). Other questions that are not addressed would include: What time of day did the interviews take place, how long after the exclusion incidence did the interview take place? How long after meditative sessions did the interviews take place? How many meditative sessions were there? Out of the students quoted what was the percentage or ratio of students who were in agreement or differed in opinion? What about results from the drama class curriculum that was implemented?

34 Yoga and Attention Peck (2005) effectiveness of yoga for improving time on task for elementary children. Ten students were chosen aged 6-10, across grade levels 1-3 (p. 417). Most students volunteered, but were ultimately recruited by the school psychologist and teachers who knew of the children’s attention problems (p. 417). Not diagnosed with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyper Disorder), but included documented attention problems and time on task (p. 417). The students were suburban upper middle class with three males, seven female, one Hispanic, nine Caucasian, two mainstreamed special education students one with learning disabilities and a speech impairment while the other eight were regular education students (p. 418).

35 Yoga and Attention Methods and measurements
Students grouped by grade level and took place in three basic stages, Baseline information, intervention data, and follow-up measurements (Peck, 2005 p. 418). Intervention immediately following the yoga exercises (p. 418). The measurements taken (Behavioral Observation Form) BOF (Peck, 2005 p. 417). Two trained school psychologists who also ran an agreement accuracy test before implementing the tests in the study (p. 417, 418). Eye contact with the teacher or assigned task taken at 10-second intervals for 10 minutes 3-5 times each week (p. 417, 418). A validity questionnaire upon age some students needed the questions read to them (p. 419) Watch and participate as instructed by the videotape, (Peck, 2005 p. 419). Two versions of the same video were implemented ages 3-6 and the other 7-12 (p. 419). The two tapes were used to ensure proper technique was instructed (p. 419).

36 Yoga and Attention Data and results
Peck (2005) ran numerous accuracy and integrity validity agreement tests (p ). The quantitative measurements between the mean and baseline, as well as, the follow-up data all show increases of time on task, while the peer comparison data essentially remained unchanged during all three phases of the tests (p. 420). Some on task levels decreased slightly at the follow-up measurement but still remain higher than baseline levels (p. 420). T he argument given by Peck (2005) describing this event is called a “behavior trap” and is when data does dip but does not return to baseline levels after withdrawal of treatment (as cited in Peck, 2005 p. 420). The social validity questionnaire in the follow-up phase demonstrated that “students liked and engaging in the yoga fitness exercises, the frequency and duration of the yoga, and the overall effect of the treatment on their ability to focus in the classroom.” (p. 419) Although in one of the surveys, one child’s response was “disliked it very much”, was to the “statement: doing the yoga twice a week for three weeks.” (p. 422) later the experimenter asked the participant about that response and the child said, “she wanted to do much more yoga than twice a week.” (p. 422)

37 Yoga and Attention Limits and problems
Peck (2005) A potential bias due to the researcher serving “dual roles” (p. 422). Type of activity that was measured following the yoga practice was in consistent different classroom settings and activities (p. 422). The time of day varied by a group in relation to when the yoga practices took place, which was due to scheduling conflicts within the building (p.418). Students recruited - school psychologists and teacher recruited the students, (p. 417). Race and gender were not calculated or segregated.

38 Teachers that Meditate
Miller (2005) article outlines and highlights a qualitative study done in 2002 Demonstrates and supports positive long-term effects of teachers that meditate. Teachers who utilize the techniques of meditation allow a teacher to teach from the “original self” (Miller, 2005 p. 43). A class and program was created to introduce and incorporate numerous types of meditation and contemplation methods and techniques (Miller, 2005 p. 44). Students were required to keep a journal about how the process of meditation was going and record sensations felt during meditation with the intention to focus upon themselves (p. 44). End of the program most students were encouraged to meditate 30 minutes a day (p. 44). Over 1200 teachers enrolled and took this meditation class and program in the last four years (p. 44). 182 letters were then sent out to people who lived in the area, so they could participate in the face-to-face interview process, asking participants who might be interested in partaking in this study (p. 45). 21 students ended up being eligible to participate, 17 women and four men, 11 of which taught elementary or secondary level, four taught at the postsecondary level, four were administrators, and two were consultants (p. 45).

39 Teachers that Meditate
Methods and measurements Miller (2002) study utilized interviewing those teachers described above between one to four years after they took the medication course (p.44). Each interview lasted between 30 and 90 minutes concentrating on questions such as: “What is the nature of your meditation practice? Have you ever engaged in any meditation instruction since the class? What have been the effects of your practice on your personal and professional life? Have you experienced any difficulties or problems with the practice?” (Miller, 2005 p. 44) However, along with those questions they also requested the meditation journals from the class, summary reflections, and interviewers reflections on the interviews (p. 45). The remainder and largest part of both Miller (2005 & 2005) articles concentrate on the responses and commentary in regards to how meditation has impacted the personal and professional lives of those interviewed.

40 Teachers that Meditate
Data and results Quotes and paraphrases of things said during the interview process. Out of the 21 students interviewed only one had discontinued the meditation practices (Miller, 2005 p. 45). Some of the comments participants made included paraphrases like: Students became more aware of a conscious shift, which allowed a softer and calmer nature to emerge, allowing people to be more present during meetings (p. 45). One person said she was “convinced that meditation is very important for leaders” so they are able to cope and balance their heavy demands (p.46). Another student said she still continues to meditate minutes a day and she is now able “to be more mindful and care about people, nature, and everything around her” more because of these techniques (p. 46). That same person said there is a change that also comes from the inside and allows the experience of appreciating everything as grace, which allows her to listen to others more effectively (p. 46, 47). The last highlighted student utilized the walking and breathing meditation, as well as, repeated mantras to bring mindfulness into her daily life (p. 47). She also explained that meditation allows her to focus on the moment just as young children do naturally (p. 48). Overall, the comments and responses quoted and paraphrased in both articles outline positive effects on both personal and professional experiences in regards to meditation techniques and its relation to education. “not all participants commented this strongly.” (Miller, 2002 p. 191)

41 Teachers that Meditate
Limits and problems Poor turnout of participant responses. Only 21 participants were utilized out of 182 letters that were sent out to potential participants. Live in the area because of the face-to-face interview. Only three of the 21 were quoted or commented on within the article. Paraphrased and quoted results lack evidence. How did the administrator and teacher in the study know that the staff and students were responding to them in a positive way due to their implementation of meditation? Further detailed explanations and data to support the individual responses and opinions is needed. The class that students participated in and learned how to meditate was missing a lot of information, including: the duration of the course, the length of the session, the number of sessions or classes, who taught and implemented these classes, and was the class sponsored through a university? Length of time between the class and this qualitative study was not controlled The information was just presented as taking place ranging from 1-4 years, More data in numerical format would have supported the paraphrases and quotes.

42 Future Implications Rockefeller (2006) said, “The truth about meditation should be carefully researched and studied in the university and college so that Americans can develop an informed understanding of its history, varied nature, proper uses, and social value.” (p. 1780) Thurman (2006) said we should be “encouraging individual scholars in the natural and social sciences to expand their research into psychological effects of various meditative disciplines.” (p. 1773) Furthermore, meditation can guide and direct us toward the most important goal of education, which according to Seldon (2007) is “to ensure that its children leave knowing more about who they are; what they want to do with their lives; how to manage and look after themselves; and how to relate well to others and to their environment around them.” (p. 45) All of which is in accordance to the methods of Montessori education and falls in the parameters and usage of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Education has a strong responsibility and influence on society and the world. There are many existing programs, concepts, and ideas that could be expanded, tested, and researched to enhance greater social change. The use of meditation and yoga has found its way into many educational systems as an extracurricular program, class, and lesson, which could be expanded further to increase higher levels of development. The future studies and implications of meditation and yoga must include: the proper methods and measurement tools; proper development of programs, classes, and lessons; integration of yoga; and investigating and measuring the effects meditation has on students who are taught by teachers who meditate, practice yoga, and are mindfully awake.

43 Future Implications Improvements, possibilities and research on mindfulness and awareness tools The Warner (2005) involve other types, methods, and techniques of meditation to investigate which type, method, and technique holds the most benefits. Lau et al. (2006) disaggregate or test the methods of meditation that participants used or regulate and test each method separately. Warner (2005) and Lau et al. (2006) adding a qualitative measurement to support the quantitative measurements. For example: adding an interview, observation, or survey/questionnaire. Both studies could have been improved also by investigating the development curve, which could have been measured through a pre, middle, and post-measurement rather than just a pre and post-test (Warner, 2005 p. 59). Warner (2005) study could have used a truer randomness participant selection, as well as, adding a control group to test people who did not meditate. A larger number of participants, added a follow-up measure further down the road and disaggregated age, and race. Future research could be done by combining these two studies by researching multiple methods of meditation separately, one at a time, having the participants practice at the same time and at the same length, use the same guidelines for each group, create a control group, collect data at the same time, have a minimum of three measurements including a pre, middle, and post-test, combined qualitative and quantitative measurements, and use a true random participant sample while disaggregating age and race. Include how or where the participants learned meditation, from who, and why. Most, if not all the studies bring attention to these factors, but have a difficult time discussing the results and the clarity of truth to display effects.

44 Future Implications Improvements and possibilities of research about programs, classes, and lessons Forbes (2006) and Leoni (2006) studies were purely qualitative and based on a questionnaire, interview, and observation, which could have benefited from adding more than one qualitative measurement tool and adding a numerical qualitative test for more information. Similar studies in the future could include a broader range or also focusing on the older or very young students. Both studies also concentrated on a small portion of the student population. Forbes (2006) concentrated on an after school program and dealt with only males who were involved in sports Leoni (2006) concentrated on a program dealing with both female and male excluded students. Further research could include other sports teams, both genders, and the entire general school population. Disaggregate race.

45 Future Implications Improvements and possibilities of research on yoga
Peck (2005) a larger sample of student participants Include all students, be implemented in a whole classroom setting rather than small groups An academic achievement measurement A follow-up measure to test long-term effects A future study could also include older students. Peck (2005) have a live yoga teacher teach the classes.

46 Future Implications Improvements, possibilities and research on teachers who meditate (cont.) Miller (2002) “It is possible to introduce spiritual practices into academic environments in a non-threatening manner that can have long-term holistic effects.” (p. 191) Add a quantitative numerical based measurement tool, which would address many of the limits and problems discussed earlier. A larger percentage explained then the 3/21 (14%) Miller (2005) sample could better represent the results. Add a questionnaire or detailed analysis of the responses given would generate percentages and levels of success Future implications and studies should include: Adding meditation classes to a required curriculum for certified teachers at the college level; Adding or creating a meditation program for teachers to take during an Institute day; Create meditation strategies and lessons that could be utilized in all subject areas; Researching and studying the methods, tools, and teachers who use these practices by making the results known.

47 Future Implications Summary of future implications and research
Education is highly responsible for the development of our society and world and should center its attention on the development of happiness, wellbeing, and help students discover themselves. These tasks can be achieved through the practice of yoga and meditation, which has been shown to have numerous benefits through countless studies. The benefits of meditation and yoga in education has been around for a while, however now is reaching a new critical point with the advent of new technologies and measurement tools which could impact future research. New meditation research would include: Creating and refining other or new measurement tools; introducing new programs, classes, and lessons; researching the implementation and testing of programs that use meditation; study the implications of yoga in education beyond health benefits; and develop new research studying how meditation done by a teacher can impact students attention, time on task, behavior, and academics. Much research on meditation has already been done, however that just points the way to further research and programs where education and schools should lead the way.

48 Activity Samples Listening/Journaling/Discussion Breath Movement
Silence Word / Picture / Mantra

49 Activity Samples Possible activities in other academic areas:
Physical Education Health English Math Art Drama Technology Foreign Language History It is rather simple and easy to reap the benefits and utilize meditation and yoga techniques in the classroom. Much of the time many educators use these techniques, but do not realize the full potential and power of these lessons. It only takes a slight shift in focus and perception. Enjoy!

50 Educational Connection
When awareness develops about how thoughts and consciousness relate to and create faith and beliefs, the understanding of self and oneness becomes clearer. Through the understanding of the relationships, of the environment and society to the self, fosters an awareness and growth of character, morals, and values. The overall worldly philosophical theories on human development are highly dependent on each other. Thoughts build beliefs that create action of faith, which evolves through the understanding of the self within an environment that is apart of consciousness, which flows from the unconscious. This transference of energy, growth, development, and awareness about all things opens us to the unraveling of character and potential that is always within us all. Yoga and meditation within education is, and should be, the system and methods of practice for learning that allows and fosters the discovery about oneness and the development of ourselves within the world. Through the realization of creativity and use of emotion and feelings, our understanding of our desires and motivations become clearer, which all point to the same place self-fulfillment, peace, and happiness. Education utilizes many methods and motivations to reach that goal.

51 Educational Connection
Diane Zabel (2004) explained that meditation is becoming more mainstream because the evidence of numerous cover stories in common and scientific publications as of late (p.18). Haynes (2004) demonstrates this through her annotated bibliography that classrooms are becoming more aware of the power of meditation to increase mental wellbeing (p. 19). Miller and Nozawa (2005) reiterated this from a teacher perspective on education and said that if we approach teaching from a ego-based position, teaching becomes a series of frustrated battles with students, while teaching from the original self (Buddhist nature, through meditation) teaching will become more fulfilling and pleasurable for both teachers and students (p. 44). This frustration level, poor physical health, low attention levels, weak or deteriorating moral values, the increase of mental instability, the unforgiving societal roles, the fragile and fading ability to be creative, and the increase of violence and drug usage are all issues that could benefit through reflective contemplation and meditation. In the East, yoga is a method, art, and philosophy that includes and encompasses many levels of motivation. Patanjali (1993) It is the combining of the senses and perceptions into a course of action known as sadhana (practice) (p.20). It is a complex method challenging the process of knowing ourselves and giving us the techniques to analyze our thoughts to create radical change (p. 25), which is what education should be.

52 References Carroll, M. (2005). Divine therapy: Teaching reflective and meditative practices. Teaching Theology & Religion, 8(4), Dawson, J. (2003). Reflectivity, creativity, and the space for silence. Reflective Practice, 4(1), 33. Forbes, D. (2006). Finding the zone. Encounter, 19(1), Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith the psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: Harper & Row. Fowler, J. W. (1987). Faith development and pastoral care. Philadelphia: Fortress Press. Fowler, J. W. (1992). Stages of faith and religious development implications for church, education and society: S.C.M.P. Fowler, J. W. (2004). Faith development at 30: Naming the challenges of faith in a new millennium. Religious Education, 99(4), Haynes, A., & Zabel, D. (2004). Meditation and health. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 44(1), From EBSCOhost database. Iyengar, B. K. S. (1979). Light on yoga yoga dipika. New York: Schocken Books. Jung, C. G., De Laszlo, V. S., Hull, R. F. C., & Bollingen Foundation, C. (1990). The basic writings ofCc.G. Jung. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Jung, C. G., & Hoffman, E. (2003). The wisdom of carl jung. New York: Citadel Press.Jung, C. G., & Hull, R. F. C. (1990). The archetypes and the collective unconscious. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Lau, M. A., Bishop, S. R., Segal, Z. V., Buis, T., Anderson, N. D., Carlson, L., et al. (2006). The Toronto mindfulness scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), Leoni, J. (2006). Communicating quietly: Supporting personal growth with meditation and listening in schools. Support for Learning, 21(3), From EBSCOhost database.

53 References Lillard, A. S. (2005). Montessori the science behind the genius. New York: Oxford University Press. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper & Brothers. Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand. Miller, J. P., & Nozawa, A. (2005). Contemplative practices in teacher education. Encounter, 18(1), From EBSCOhost database. Miller, J. P., & Nozawa, A. (2002). Meditating teachers: A qualitative study. Journal of Inservice Education 28(1), Montessori, M. (1964). The montessori method. New York: Schocken Books.Montessori, M. (1967). The absorbent mind. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Patanjali, & Iyengar, B. K. S. (1993). Light on the yoga sutras of patanjali. London: HarperCollins. Patanjali, & Miller, B. S. (1996). Yoga discipline of freedom : The yoga sutra attributed to patanjali ; a translation of the text, with commentary, introduction, and glossary of keywords. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press. Peck, H. L., Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., & Theodore, L. A. (2005). Yoga as an intervention for children with attention problems. School Psychology Review, 34(3), From EBSCOhost database. Rockefeller, S. C. (2006). Meditation, social change, and undergraduate education. Teachers College Record, 108(9), Ryan, J. (2005). The complete yoga. ReVision, 28(2), From EBSCOhost database. Seldon, A., & Morris, I. (2007). Should schools be teaching happiness? Education Review, 20(1), From EBSCOhost database. Thurman, R. A. F. (2006). Meditation and education: India, Tibet, and modern America. Teachers College Record, 108(9), Vohra-Gupta, S., Russell, A., & Lo, E. (2007). Meditation: The adoption of eastern thought to western social practices. Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, 26(2), Warner, T. Q. (2005). Awareness and cognition: The role of awareness training in child development. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 17(1),

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