Presentation on theme: "Self -concept, Self-esteem and Identity Development"— Presentation transcript:
1 Self -concept, Self-esteem and Identity Development Self-concept development from infancy to adolescenceSelf-esteem: its development, social contributors andimportanceIdentity developmentRole of teachers and parents in identity development.
2 Self Concept and Self Esteem Who am I?Do you think newborns have a sense of self?Newborns have no sense of self (Freud & Piaget)Infants have a “psychological birth” (Margaret Mahler).Subjective and Objective SelfSubjective self or the inner sense that, “I am” or “I exist”.Objective self or the set of properties or qualities that are objectively known or knowable about a person, (E.g. physical characteristics, temperament, skills etc.)
3 Self-concept refers to the “me” aspect, which is a collection of ideas or beliefs each of us have about our own qualities. It is one’s perception of one’s unique combination of attributes. It is the “I” that creates the self-concept. In answering the question, “Who am I?” it is “me” you are describing, and “I” who is doing the describing.Self-Concept DevelopmentInfancy- Develop a sense of personal agency (9-12 mth)- Self-recognition (15-18 mth)(Eg. interact with mirror, insists on doing thingsthemselves, show behavioural changes, etc)
4 Early ChildhoodDefinitions are very concrete, mention observablecharacteristics & things they can do.see themselves in global terms especially before age 7.Example: You are likely to hear something like this from a 3-5 year old when describing themselves:“I’m Tashi. See I got this new red T-shirt. I’m 4 years old.I can brush my teeth and wash my face on my own.I can build towers with these blocks.”
5 Middle Childhoodorganize internal states and behaviours into dispositionsthat they can verbalize to others.a major developmental shiftmultiple concepts of the self come into playmention personality traits in both positive and negativeaspects. (Eg. Truthful but not pretty, good flutest but onlyaverage in studies)
6 Adolescencethere may be a re-evaluation of the selfsocial pressures to display different selves in differentrelationships result in disparities.As adolescents’ social world expands, contradictoryself-descriptions increase, and teenagers frequentlyagonize over “which is the real me.”
7 Identity Development“Who are you?“ said the caterpillar. “I – I hardly knew, Sir, just at present – at least I knew who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I‘ve changed several times since then.“-Lewis Carrol, English Writer, 19th Century.Identity development involves—searching for answers to questions such as: Who am I? What am I all about? What am I going to do with my life? How can I make it my own?
8 Identity StatusesElaborating on Erikson’s work, James Marcia and his colleagues have suggested four possible statuses for adolescent identity.Identity Achievement:Identity Diffusion:Identity Foreclosure:Identity Moratorium:
9 Self-esteem –what is it? On a scale of “0 to 10”, (where “0” no self-esteem and “10” very high self-esteem), where would you rate yourself?Have we ever had Self-esteem?If we have had Self-esteem, what has happened to it now?Sometimes this is a really hard concept to grasp, as one of the problems with having a low self esteem is a lack of knowledge of who we really are, so we don‘t know how to be real.Remember, if you are real, you can‘t be ugly.
10 One self-esteem or many? By 6 to 7 years, children develop at least three separate self-esteems—academic, physical, and social—that become more refined with age.For example:academic self-worth divides into performance indifferent school subjectssocial self-worth into peer and parental relationshipsphysical self-worth into physical abilities andappeaances.
11 Educational Implications: Strategies in Dealing with Low Self-Esteem Students When students have low self-esteem, what can schools and teachers do to improve their self-evaluations? Research on this question suggests that there are four keys to improving students’ self-esteem (Bednar, Wells, & Peterson, 1995; Harter, 1990, 1998, as cited in Santrock, 2001, p. 105).Identify the causes of low self-esteem and theareas of competence important to the self.Provide emotional support and social approval.Develop children’s coping skills.
12 Suggestions for teachers for encouraging Self-Esteem: Value & accept all pupils, for their attempts as well as theiraccomplishments.Create a climate that is physically & psychologically safefor students.Make standards of evaluation clear; help students learn toevaluate their own accomplishments.Model appropriate methods of self-criticism, perseverance,& self-reward.
13 Accept a student even when you must reject a particular behavior or outcome. Students should feel confident, forexample, that failing a test or being reprimanded inclass does not make them “bad” people.Remember that positive self-concept grows from successin operating in the world & from being valued byimportant people in the environment.Set up support groups or “study buddies” in school &teach students how to encourage each other.Help students set clear goals & objectives; brainstormabout resources they have for reaching their goals.
14 ReferenceSantrock, J.W. (2001). Educational Psychology. Boston:McGraw Hill Companies.