Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Approach The way I think is the way I behave…"— Presentation transcript:
Cognitive Approach The way I think is the way I behave…
Focuses of Cognitive Approach The PROCESSES of thinking and memory Attention Imagery Creativity Problem solving Language use
Different from Learning approach (Behaviorists) Concerned with mental processes Concerned with what humans can perceive and communicate Focused on the mind. Literature frequently refers to the BLACK BOX of mental processing (we can’t see mental processing…) Use animals for MEMORY research
Big-deal Cognitive folks Noam Chomsky –Theories of language acquisition, He was a linguist that suggested that humans have an inborn or native propensity to learn to talk. All languages are equal Norbert Wiener –computer simulations of thought… worked with cybernetics… tried to get computers to respond to different situations. Wolfgang Kohler –Gestalt theory… our mind fills in the blanks of perception (see next slide)
Gestalt Theory Gestalt is a german word that means Pattern Shape Figure Form Whole It is a theory that suggests we look at things as a whole… and we process information as a whole…
The following story is the ‘Billy’ story… Describe how each approach (Biological, Learning, Cognitive) would diagnose Billy and how each approach would treat Billy.
Billy was the third child of loving but busy parents. When he was growing up, he thought that his parents favored his older siblings. When Billy was 4, his parents divorced, and he remained with his father. His brother and sister moved with his mother to a distant city. Billy rarely saw them. Feeling inadequate in raising his son alone, Billy’s father responded by providing the child with costly toys and frequent trips to amusement parks. As Billy grew older and attended school, he had trouble focusing and was taken to a doctor for an appraisal of his abilities and disabilities. Billy’s medical evaluation showed symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, but Billy’s father dismissed the diagnosis. Because of these difficulties in school, Billy had trouble making friends and was ridiculed by his classmates. This diminished his self-confidence. By the time Billy was an adolescent, he had difficulty forming lasting relationships despite his expertise in athletics. He was capable of high academic achievement, but his grades were below average. Teachers said that he needed too much attention. Personally he felt doomed to fail…
Gestalt Theory- everything is viewed in context… The mind insists on finding patterns in things. This is where schemas develop.
Groups-Chapter 4 Approaches book. Present your topic with a visual. NO READING TO US! NO Posters! As always, singing is 10 points e.c. Introduction ALFANO, BRUMMEL, DIXON, DOETKOTT Perception learning memory EATON GAYNOR HELDE HOILAND Short,long term memory INTROWITZ- JOHNSTON, KELLY KREFTING Forgetting LI, D MALCHOW, MARTON,T MASSALIM Memory… as re- construction MATHESON MCKEE, L MULLIGAN, NAVIA, P Problem solving NOVACHECK, PRATT RASMUSSEN REVORD, Language SALAMI, SARGENT SKAGER SMITH, Attitudes etc… SPIROV, VONIDERSTINE, WASSERMAN-
Groups-Chapter 4 Approaches book. Present your topic with a visual. NO READING TO US! NO Posters! As always, singing is 10 points e.c. Introduction ASHENBRENER, BERGLUND, BLAZAR, DESBOIS, Perception learning memory ERICKSON, M FASSETT-CA GOLDSTEIN GRIMM Short,long term memory HARLOW HETLAND HOLDAHL HUPP ISENBERG, Forgetting JOHNSTON, KELLER, EVA LAIS, LANGFELDT, LOCKBEAM, Memory… as re- construction MCGRAW- SCHUCHMAN, MINGE, ALEX MOLLERUD MONROE MONSEIN Problem solving NOOTHED, PETTIJOHN, POLING, ELLIS PRENTICE, ROTH, Language RUMPPE SCHLAEFER SYVERSON, THEISEN, JON VELIE Attitudes etc… WEST WILSON CARROL HANSEN
Thinking VS Learning Thinking More complex than learning Manipulates representations of the environment Applies perceptions, makes associations, furthers current cause Stimulus-stimulus reactions Learning Learning is stimulus- response interactions.
Two types of thinking Non-directed thinking Has no destination Reverie Free association Mind-wandering fantasy Directed thinking Aims toward a goal Problem solving Critical thinking Creativity Reasoning
Problem solving Convergent thinking Searches for one solution to a problem. Uses logic to find the ‘one right answer’ like in math problems Categorize events, and filter out the correct answer Divergent thinking Used in playing chess (several options must be considered…) Imagines many solutions Creativity is often measured by how many different solutions someone can come up with for a problem.
Set and information processing Humans have an incredible amount of information thrown at them everyday. Information is categorized in sets if it is important, Unimportant information is ignored.
Test… Try to remember the facts of the following story…
Assume that you are the engineer of a passenger train. At the first station, 20 passengers get on. At the next station, 5 passengers get off and 15 get on. At the next station, 10 passengers get off and 12 get on. At the next station, 7 get off and 10 get on. At the next station, 20 passengers get off and 5 get on. At the next station, 8 passnegers get off and 3 get on.
Test 1. How old is the engineer on the train? 2. How many stations were there? 3. How many passengers are left on the train? 4. Altogether, how many total passengers got off of the train? 5. Altogether, how many passengers boarded the train?
Conclusions We attend to information selectively We group information and give attention to what we think is most important We have a limited capacity to store and process incoming information.
Memory/Memories How do you make them? How do you retrieve them?
Sensory Register Sensory Register: short lived recording of the experience. Starts in the senses. Sensations remain for a fraction of a second (1/15 th ) If the information is DIFFERENT or MEANINGFUL, it will be stored into short-term memory
Short term memory Information stored until it is needed, and then forgotten (unless there is an interruption.) Generally, people can remember 7 items at a time…
Long Term memory Memory of permanent knowledge or experience Takes time to put things into long-term memory
Long term memory If information is interesting or important to you, you will place it into long term memory. Otherwise, you can do some strategies: Rehearse or repeat the information Encode it (tie it into an image…or try to find a pattern to the information, or boil the information down to the essentials)
Piaget stressed that children do not just passively receive information from their environment, they actively construct their own cognitive world.
Photo by Fenichel: Aaron Beck, Albert Ellis Magnificent Journeys - A Conversation on Mind and Psychology with Aaron T. Beck and Albert Ellis
First Step: The depressed clients are shown how to identify self-labels, that is, how they view themselves.
2 nd step: They are taught to notice when they are thinking distorted or irrational thoughts. The National Mental Health (NMH) institute supports the belief that this therapy is an effective treatment of depression.
3 rd step: They learn how to substitute appropriate thoughts for inappropriate ones
4 th Step: They are given feed- back and motivating comments from the therapist to stimulate their use of these techniques.