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Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom The International Frame - Some Aspects.

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1 Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom The International Frame - Some Aspects

2 A Presentation by 3 September 2007

3 Struggle for Tamil Eelam Struggle for Tamil Eelam is a National Question… Struggle for Tamil Eelam … and it is therefore an Inter – National Question

4 The Struggle of Tamil Eelam for freedom is lawful & just "Throughout the ages the Sinhalese and Tamils in the country lived as distinct sovereign people till they were brought under foreign domination.. We have for the last 25 years made every effort to secure our political rights on the basis of equality with the Sinhalese in a united Ceylon. It is a regrettable fact that successive Sinhalese governments have used the(ir) power …to deny us our fundamental rights and reduce us to the position of a subject people…I wish to announce to my people and to the country that I consider the verdict at this election as a mandate that the Tamil Eelam nation should exercise the sovereignty already vested in the Tamil people and become free." - Statement by Gandhian Tamil Leader S.J.V.Chelvanayagam Q.C. M.P. 7 February 1975 "Throughout the ages the Sinhalese and Tamils in the country lived as distinct sovereign people till they were brought under foreign domination.. We have for the last 25 years made every effort to secure our political rights on the basis of equality with the Sinhalese in a united Ceylon. It is a regrettable fact that successive Sinhalese governments have used the(ir) power …to deny us our fundamental rights and reduce us to the position of a subject people…I wish to announce to my people and to the country that I consider the verdict at this election as a mandate that the Tamil Eelam nation should exercise the sovereignty already vested in the Tamil people and become free." - Statement by Gandhian Tamil Leader S.J.V.Chelvanayagam Q.C. M.P. 7 February 1975We have for the last 25 years made every effort to secure our political rights on the basis of equality with the Sinhalese in a united Ceylon.to deny us our fundamental rights and reduce us to the position of a subject peopleTamil Eelam nation should exercise the sovereignty already vested in the Tamil people and become free S.J.V.ChelvanayagamWe have for the last 25 years made every effort to secure our political rights on the basis of equality with the Sinhalese in a united Ceylon.to deny us our fundamental rights and reduce us to the position of a subject peopleTamil Eelam nation should exercise the sovereignty already vested in the Tamil people and become free S.J.V.Chelvanayagam

5 The Struggle of Tamil Eelam for freedom is lawful & just …because democracy means the rule of the people, by the people, for the people and therefore, no one people may rule another; and …because democracy means the rule of the people, by the people, for the people and therefore, no one people may rule another; and …because the struggle of the people of Tamil Eelam is about securing freedom from alien Sinhala rule… …because the struggle of the people of Tamil Eelam is about securing freedom from alien Sinhala rule…alien Sinhala rulealien Sinhala rule

6 Sinhala rule is alien rule … … because the Sinhala people speak a different language to that of the Tamil people; because they trace their history to origins different from that of the Tamil people; and because their cultural heritage is different to that of the Tamil people. … because the Sinhala people speak a different language to that of the Tamil people; because they trace their history to origins different from that of the Tamil people; and because their cultural heritage is different to that of the Tamil people. different languagethat of the Tamil peoplethey trace their history to originsthat of the Tamil peoplethat of the Tamil people different languagethat of the Tamil peoplethey trace their history to originsthat of the Tamil peoplethat of the Tamil people

7 …it is alien Sinhala rule … because the political consciousness of the Sinhala people and the way they exercise their vote, is clearly determined by their separate language, by their separate history and by their separate cultural heritage - in short by their own separate Sinhala national identity … because the political consciousness of the Sinhala people and the way they exercise their vote, is clearly determined by their separate language, by their separate history and by their separate cultural heritage - in short by their own separate Sinhala national identitypolitical consciousness of the Sinhala people their separate historypolitical consciousness of the Sinhala people their separate history

8 …it is alien Sinhala rule … because no Tamil has ever been elected to an electorate which had a majority of Sinhala voters and no Sinhalese has ever been elected to an electorate which had a majority of Tamil voters; and … because no Tamil has ever been elected to an electorate which had a majority of Sinhala voters and no Sinhalese has ever been elected to an electorate which had a majority of Tamil voters; and …because a Sinhala Buddhist ethno nation masquerading as a civic ' multi ethnic Sri Lankan nation', will always have a Sinhala Buddhist as the executive head of government. …because a Sinhala Buddhist ethno nation masquerading as a civic ' multi ethnic Sri Lankan nation', will always have a Sinhala Buddhist as the executive head of government.ethno nationcivicmulti ethnic Sri Lankan nationethno nationcivicmulti ethnic Sri Lankan nation

9 it is alien Sinhala rule … …because the record proves and proves beyond any reasonable doubt that the practise of democracy within the confines of a single state has resulted in genocidal rule by a permanent Sinhala majority… …because the record proves and proves beyond any reasonable doubt that the practise of democracy within the confines of a single state has resulted in genocidal rule by a permanent Sinhala majority…proves and proves beyond any reasonable doubt a permanent Sinhala majorityproves and proves beyond any reasonable doubt a permanent Sinhala majority

10 the charge is genocide – the struggle is for freedom … “…Communal riots in which Tamils are killed, maimed, robbed and rendered homeless are no longer isolated episodes; they are beginning to become a pernicious habit." Paul Sieghart, International Commission of Jurists and British Section, Justice, March 1984 [see 1956, 1958, 1961, 1974,1977, 1983] “…Communal riots in which Tamils are killed, maimed, robbed and rendered homeless are no longer isolated episodes; they are beginning to become a pernicious habit." Paul Sieghart, International Commission of Jurists and British Section, Justice, March 1984 [see 1956, 1958, 1961, 1974,1977, 1983]

11 “Secession/partition of the two communities is the best outcome overall” … "...The problem in nationally divided societies is that the different groups have different political identities, and, in cases where the identities are mutually exclusive (not nested), these groups see themselves as forming distinct political communities... if the minority group seeks to be self-governing, or to secede from the larger state, increased representation at the centre will not be satisfactory. The problem in this case is that the group does not identify with the centre, or want to be part of that political community...One conclusion that can be drawn is that… secession/partition of the two communities, where that option is available, is the best outcome overall..." Normative Justifications for Liberal Nationalism - Margaret Moore,2001 "...The problem in nationally divided societies is that the different groups have different political identities, and, in cases where the identities are mutually exclusive (not nested), these groups see themselves as forming distinct political communities... if the minority group seeks to be self-governing, or to secede from the larger state, increased representation at the centre will not be satisfactory. The problem in this case is that the group does not identify with the centre, or want to be part of that political community...One conclusion that can be drawn is that… secession/partition of the two communities, where that option is available, is the best outcome overall..." Normative Justifications for Liberal Nationalism - Margaret Moore,2001Normative Justifications for Liberal Nationalism - Margaret Moore,2001Normative Justifications for Liberal Nationalism - Margaret Moore,2001

12 Inviolability of borders against outside invasion must be separated from right to statehood of a people within a state's borders… “… the principle of territorial integrity protects a state only against invasion of its borders and not against internal rebellion... Lord Robert Cecil once justly observed that the main cause of recurrence of wars was precisely the permanent freezing of state frontiers. In a recent New York Times article, human rights activist Yelena Bonner (widow of Andrei Sakharov) writes that "the inviolability of a country's borders against invasion from the outside must be clearly separated from the right to statehood of any people within a state's borders." Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran in The Tamils' Quest for Statehood “… the principle of territorial integrity protects a state only against invasion of its borders and not against internal rebellion... Lord Robert Cecil once justly observed that the main cause of recurrence of wars was precisely the permanent freezing of state frontiers. In a recent New York Times article, human rights activist Yelena Bonner (widow of Andrei Sakharov) writes that "the inviolability of a country's borders against invasion from the outside must be clearly separated from the right to statehood of any people within a state's borders." Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran in The Tamils' Quest for StatehoodThe Tamils' Quest for StatehoodThe Tamils' Quest for Statehood

13 Restrictions on self-determination threaten democracy… “... Restrictions on self-determination threaten not only democracy itself but the state which seeks its legitimation in democracy...Let us accept the fact that states have lifecycles similar to those of human beings who created them. … hardly any Member State of the United Nations has existed within its present borders for longer than five generations. The attempt to freeze human evolution has in the past been a futile undertaking…" Self Determination & the Future of Democracy - Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein, 2001 “... Restrictions on self-determination threaten not only democracy itself but the state which seeks its legitimation in democracy...Let us accept the fact that states have lifecycles similar to those of human beings who created them. … hardly any Member State of the United Nations has existed within its present borders for longer than five generations. The attempt to freeze human evolution has in the past been a futile undertaking…" Self Determination & the Future of Democracy - Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein, 2001Self Determination & the Future of Democracy - Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein, 2001Self Determination & the Future of Democracy - Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein, 2001

14 Legal scholars and non-governmental organizations have been vocal in their support for the right to self determination of the people of Tamil Eelam… "We request that the delegates to the 49th Session of the Commission on Human Rights.. accord open recognition to the existence of the Tamil homeland in the North and East of the Island; and recognise that the Tamil population in the North and East of the island constitute a 'people' with the right to self determination'‘ Joint Statement by 15 NGOs consisting of the International Organisation for the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Educational Development, Centre Europe Ties Monde, International Indian Treaty Council, Fedefam, Association paur la Liberte Religiose, Codehuca, World Christian Community, Pax Christie International, International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples, Movement contra le Racisme, International Association of Educadores for World Peace, International Association against Torture, World Confederation of Labour, and International Movement for Fraternal Union among Races and Peoples. at United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Geneva 8 February 1993 "We request that the delegates to the 49th Session of the Commission on Human Rights.. accord open recognition to the existence of the Tamil homeland in the North and East of the Island; and recognise that the Tamil population in the North and East of the island constitute a 'people' with the right to self determination'‘ Joint Statement by 15 NGOs consisting of the International Organisation for the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Educational Development, Centre Europe Ties Monde, International Indian Treaty Council, Fedefam, Association paur la Liberte Religiose, Codehuca, World Christian Community, Pax Christie International, International League for the Rights and Liberation of Peoples, Movement contra le Racisme, International Association of Educadores for World Peace, International Association against Torture, World Confederation of Labour, and International Movement for Fraternal Union among Races and Peoples. at United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Geneva 8 February 1993Tamil homeland in the North and East of the Islandconstitute a 'people' Joint Statement by 15 NGOs Tamil homeland in the North and East of the Islandconstitute a 'people' Joint Statement by 15 NGOs

15 …in sum, the Struggle of Tamil Eelam for freedom is lawful & just …because it is about the democratic right of the people of Tamil Eelam to govern themselves in their homeland… and …because it is about the democratic right of the people of Tamil Eelam to govern themselves in their homeland… anddemocratic right of the people of Tamil Eelam to govern themselves in their homelanddemocratic right of the people of Tamil Eelam to govern themselves in their homeland because it is about reversion of sovereignty - a sovereignty that the Tamil people enjoyed before the British unified the administration of the island of Sri Lanka in because it is about reversion of sovereignty - a sovereignty that the Tamil people enjoyed before the British unified the administration of the island of Sri Lanka in 1833.reversion of sovereigntyreversion of sovereignty

16 but… the world is not rotating on the axis of law & justice… “ The world is not rotating on the axis of justice…It is economic and trade interests that determine the order of the present world, not the moral law of justice nor the rights of people… International relations and diplomacy between countries are determined by such interests..”– Velupillai Pirabakaran, Leader of Tamil Eelam, November 1993 “ The world is not rotating on the axis of justice…It is economic and trade interests that determine the order of the present world, not the moral law of justice nor the rights of people… International relations and diplomacy between countries are determined by such interests..”– Velupillai Pirabakaran, Leader of Tamil Eelam, November 1993Velupillai Pirabakaran, Leader of Tamil Eelam, November 1993Velupillai Pirabakaran, Leader of Tamil Eelam, November 1993

17 …and inter-state relations are not governed by the logic of morality "Inter-state relations are not governed by the logic of morality. They were and they remain an amoral phenomenon.." Jyotindra Nath Dixit Indian Foreign Secretary in 1991/94 and National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister of India 2004/05, speaking in Switzerland, February 1998 "Inter-state relations are not governed by the logic of morality. They were and they remain an amoral phenomenon.." Jyotindra Nath Dixit Indian Foreign Secretary in 1991/94 and National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister of India 2004/05, speaking in Switzerland, February 1998Jyotindra Nath DixitJyotindra Nath Dixit "We have no eternal allies and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow." British Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston ( ) years ago "We have no eternal allies and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow." British Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston ( ) years agoLord Palmerston ( )Lord Palmerston ( )

18 …inter-state relations are governed by realpolitik… '‘…When governments pretend not to notice suffering, to whom can peoples.. turn for help? The United Nations? Alas, the deeper you delve, the redder the faces. The cynicism of realpolitik extends even to the UN Commission on Human Rights... When Amnesty attended the Commission in Geneva last month to urge action on Indonesia and East Timor, we met only embarrassment. The governments to which we spoke repeated what they have been promising us for thirty years: they will pursue a policy of 'quiet diplomacy''' Amnesty in a full page advertisement in the London based Guardian on 12 March 1994 quoted in Cynicism of Real Politick, Nadesan Satyendra, March 1994 '‘…When governments pretend not to notice suffering, to whom can peoples.. turn for help? The United Nations? Alas, the deeper you delve, the redder the faces. The cynicism of realpolitik extends even to the UN Commission on Human Rights... When Amnesty attended the Commission in Geneva last month to urge action on Indonesia and East Timor, we met only embarrassment. The governments to which we spoke repeated what they have been promising us for thirty years: they will pursue a policy of 'quiet diplomacy''' Amnesty in a full page advertisement in the London based Guardian on 12 March 1994 quoted in Cynicism of Real Politick, Nadesan Satyendra, March 1994Amnesty in a full page advertisement in the London based Guardian on 12 March 1994 quoted in Cynicism of Real Politick, Nadesan Satyendra, March 1994Amnesty in a full page advertisement in the London based Guardian on 12 March 1994 quoted in Cynicism of Real Politick, Nadesan Satyendra, March 1994

19 …the cynicism of real politik which led US to declare in May 2000… “…As I have said in both India and Pakistan, the U.S. does not envision or support the establishment of another independent state on this island, nor do we believe other members of the international community would support it.” US Under Secretary of State, Thomas R. Pickering Press Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 29 May 2000 “…As I have said in both India and Pakistan, the U.S. does not envision or support the establishment of another independent state on this island, nor do we believe other members of the international community would support it.” US Under Secretary of State, Thomas R. Pickering Press Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 29 May 2000nor do we believe other members of the international community would support it US Under Secretary of State, Thomas R. Pickering nor do we believe other members of the international community would support it US Under Secretary of State, Thomas R. Pickering

20 …a cynicism which led the Massachusetts House of Representatives to resolve in June 1981… “..Resolved, that the Massachusetts House of Representatives hereby urges the President and the Congress of the United States to support the Struggle for Freedom by the Tamil Nation for the Restoration and Reconstitution of the separate sovereign state of Tamil Eelam and to recognise publicly the right of self determination by the Tamil people of Tamil Eelam" House of Representatives Resolution, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA, 18 June 1981 “..Resolved, that the Massachusetts House of Representatives hereby urges the President and the Congress of the United States to support the Struggle for Freedom by the Tamil Nation for the Restoration and Reconstitution of the separate sovereign state of Tamil Eelam and to recognise publicly the right of self determination by the Tamil people of Tamil Eelam" House of Representatives Resolution, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA, 18 June 1981 Struggle for Freedom by the Tamil Nation Restorationseparate sovereign stateright of self determinationHouse of Representatives Resolution, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA, 18 June 1981 Struggle for Freedom by the Tamil Nation Restorationseparate sovereign stateright of self determinationHouse of Representatives Resolution, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, USA, 18 June 1981

21 …a cynicism which led India to train Tamil militants in the 1980s… "...Most Tamil separatists from Sri Lanka had accepted the Indian offer (to provide arms and training) at its face value, thinking that New Delhi was reaching out to them out of genuine concern for their condition. However, an extraordinary revelation began to unfold as the training started. Many guerrillas realized that the training was just a subterfuge for a larger strategic game that India was attempting to play, a game in which the Tamil rebels may end up being just expendable pawns…” Narayan Swamy, M.R. - Inside an Elusive Mind - Prabhakaran Published by Literate World, Inc, USA, 2003 "...Most Tamil separatists from Sri Lanka had accepted the Indian offer (to provide arms and training) at its face value, thinking that New Delhi was reaching out to them out of genuine concern for their condition. However, an extraordinary revelation began to unfold as the training started. Many guerrillas realized that the training was just a subterfuge for a larger strategic game that India was attempting to play, a game in which the Tamil rebels may end up being just expendable pawns…” Narayan Swamy, M.R. - Inside an Elusive Mind - Prabhakaran Published by Literate World, Inc, USA, 2003for a larger strategic game Inside an Elusive Mind - Prabhakaranfor a larger strategic game Inside an Elusive Mind - Prabhakaran

22 … a cynicism which seeks cover as ‘disinterested’ good Samaritans… The ‘international community’ are not “disinterested” good Samaritans concerned primarily with securing justice for the Tamil people and bringing peace to a troubled island.… The actions of the Trilaterals (US, EU, Japan) on the one hand and India & China on the other hand, are directed to stabilise Sri Lanka in such a way so as to advance each of their own (conflicting) strategic interests in relation to the uneasy balance of power that prevails in the Indian Ocean Region. The ‘international community’ are not “disinterested” good Samaritans concerned primarily with securing justice for the Tamil people and bringing peace to a troubled island.… The actions of the Trilaterals (US, EU, Japan) on the one hand and India & China on the other hand, are directed to stabilise Sri Lanka in such a way so as to advance each of their own (conflicting) strategic interests in relation to the uneasy balance of power that prevails in the Indian Ocean Region.

23 …the prevailing uneasy Balance of Power in the Indian Ocean Region… “The dynamics of the region.. call for a balance of power approach rather than a straight alliance...” Adam Wolfe, Yevgeny Bendersky, Dr. Federico Bordonaro - India's Project Seabird and Indian Ocean's Balance of Power, PINR, 20 July 2005 “The dynamics of the region.. call for a balance of power approach rather than a straight alliance...” Adam Wolfe, Yevgeny Bendersky, Dr. Federico Bordonaro - India's Project Seabird and Indian Ocean's Balance of Power, PINR, 20 July 2005 India's Project Seabird and Indian Ocean's Balance of Power, PINR, 20 July 2005 India's Project Seabird and Indian Ocean's Balance of Power, PINR, 20 July 2005

24 … the uneasy balance of power in the Indian Ocean region has impacted on the Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom… Here, two frames may be usefully looked at… Here, two frames may be usefully looked at… One… the Strategic Significance of the Indian Ocean Region, and One… the Strategic Significance of the Indian Ocean Region, and Two… the Strategic Significance of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean Region Two… the Strategic Significance of Sri Lanka in the Indian Ocean Region Let us examine each in turn…

25 One… the Strategic Significance of the Indian Ocean Region One… the Strategic Significance of the Indian Ocean Region The Indian Ocean is nearly 6,000 miles wide at the southern tips of Africa and Australia and its area is 2.8 million square miles, about 5.5 times the size of the US. The Indian peninsula projects 1240 miles into the Indian Ocean. 50% of the Indian Ocean basin lies within a 1,000 mile radius of India. 47 countries have the Indian Ocean on their shores. The Indian Ocean is nearly 6,000 miles wide at the southern tips of Africa and Australia and its area is 2.8 million square miles, about 5.5 times the size of the US. The Indian peninsula projects 1240 miles into the Indian Ocean. 50% of the Indian Ocean basin lies within a 1,000 mile radius of India. 47 countries have the Indian Ocean on their shores.

26 … a Strategic Significance which Germany recognised in World War II "...Next to nothing has been written about the U- boat war in the Indian Ocean… The battle began in August 1943, when a German submarine arrived in the Malaysian harbour of Georgetown. In total, nearly fourty U-boats were assigned to penetrate the Indian Ocean, serving alongside troops of the occupying Imperial Japanese forces..." Lawrence Paterson - Hitler's Grey Wolves: U-Boats in the Indian Ocean Lawrence Paterson - Hitler's Grey Wolves: U-Boats in the Indian OceanLawrence Paterson - Hitler's Grey Wolves: U-Boats in the Indian Ocean

27 …German U Boats Operating in the Indian Ocean in World War II

28 Today… the Indian Ocean remains a Critical Waterway The Indian Ocean is a critical waterway for global trade and commerce… thro’ which passes half of the world’s containerized cargo, one third of its bulk cargo and two third of its oil shipment. Its waters carry heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia, and contain an estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production... The Indian Ocean is a critical waterway for global trade and commerce… thro’ which passes half of the world’s containerized cargo, one third of its bulk cargo and two third of its oil shipment. Its waters carry heavy traffic of petroleum and petroleum products from the oilfields of the Persian Gulf and Indonesia, and contain an estimated 40% of the world's offshore oil production...

29 The Sea Lanes of the Indian Ocean

30 … in the 21 st Century the destiny of the world will be decided in these waters… “…Whoever controls the Indian Ocean dominates Asia. This ocean is the key to the seven seas in the twenty-first century, the destiny of the world will be decided in these waters." US Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan quoted by Cdr. P K Ghosh in Maritime Security Challenges in South Asia and the Indian Ocean, 18 January 2004 “…Whoever controls the Indian Ocean dominates Asia. This ocean is the key to the seven seas in the twenty-first century, the destiny of the world will be decided in these waters." US Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan quoted by Cdr. P K Ghosh in Maritime Security Challenges in South Asia and the Indian Ocean, 18 January 2004Cdr. P K Ghosh in Maritime Security Challenges in South Asia and the Indian Ocean, 18 January 2004Cdr. P K Ghosh in Maritime Security Challenges in South Asia and the Indian Ocean, 18 January 2004

31 Critical Choke Points of the Indian Ocean “… The Ocean features four critically important access waterways facilitating international maritime trade - the Suez Canal in Egypt, Bab- el-Mandeb (bordering Djibouti and Yemen), Straits of Hormuz (bordering Iran and Oman), and Straits of Malacca (bordering Indonesia and Malaysia). These “chokepoints” or narrow channels are critical to world oil trade as huge amounts of oil pass through them. The role of the Indian Ocean in Facilitating Global Maritime Trade, Nazery Khalid, June 2005 “… The Ocean features four critically important access waterways facilitating international maritime trade - the Suez Canal in Egypt, Bab- el-Mandeb (bordering Djibouti and Yemen), Straits of Hormuz (bordering Iran and Oman), and Straits of Malacca (bordering Indonesia and Malaysia). These “chokepoints” or narrow channels are critical to world oil trade as huge amounts of oil pass through them. The role of the Indian Ocean in Facilitating Global Maritime Trade, Nazery Khalid, June 2005Bab- el-Mandeb Straits of HormuzStraits of Malacca The role of the Indian Ocean in Facilitating Global Maritime Trade, Nazery Khalid, June 2005Bab- el-Mandeb Straits of HormuzStraits of Malacca The role of the Indian Ocean in Facilitating Global Maritime Trade, Nazery Khalid, June 2005

32 80% of Japan’s & 60% of China’s Oil shipped through Malacca Straits Oil-tanker traffic through the narrow strait, which already carries most of North Asia's oil imports, is projected to grow from 10 million barrels a day in 2002 to 20 million barrels a day in much of that oil will be destined for the fast-growing market of China. Oil-tanker traffic through the narrow strait, which already carries most of North Asia's oil imports, is projected to grow from 10 million barrels a day in 2002 to 20 million barrels a day in much of that oil will be destined for the fast-growing market of China. “ 80% of Japan’s oil supplies and 60% of China’s oil supplies are shipped through the Straits of Malacca. US$ 70 billion worth of oil passes through the straits each year.” India, the Indian Ocean and Geo-politics Posted on by Jaffna in the Indian National Interest India, the Indian Ocean and Geo-politics Posted on by Jaffna in the Indian National Interest

33 US, India & China: Strategic Interest in Malacca Straits & Andaman Sea… In recent years, in addition to the US, whose navy has long had a presence in the Indian Ocean and has been stealthily sailing the waters of the Bay of Bengal, China has also shown a considerable interest in utilizing the Andaman Sea as an outlet to the Indian Ocean in the near future. India bids to rule the waves, Ramtanu Maitra, 19 October 2005, Asia Times In recent years, in addition to the US, whose navy has long had a presence in the Indian Ocean and has been stealthily sailing the waters of the Bay of Bengal, China has also shown a considerable interest in utilizing the Andaman Sea as an outlet to the Indian Ocean in the near future. India bids to rule the waves, Ramtanu Maitra, 19 October 2005, Asia TimesIndia bids to rule the waves, Ramtanu Maitra, 19 October 2005, Asia TimesIndia bids to rule the waves, Ramtanu Maitra, 19 October 2005, Asia Times

34 China & India scrambling for advantage in the Indian Ocean Region “… Let this be clear: the two major powers of the region, China and India, are scrambling for advantage around the Indian Ocean's rim. China is building military and naval links with Bangladesh and Myanmar. The cooperation between China and African countries is now getting more and more visible, particularly after the China-Africa summit in Beijing in November Reports available indicate that both India and the United States are studying intensely this rise in Chinese activity. Atul Dev on The Indian Ocean: Current Security Environment, 25 May 2007 “… Let this be clear: the two major powers of the region, China and India, are scrambling for advantage around the Indian Ocean's rim. China is building military and naval links with Bangladesh and Myanmar. The cooperation between China and African countries is now getting more and more visible, particularly after the China-Africa summit in Beijing in November Reports available indicate that both India and the United States are studying intensely this rise in Chinese activity. Atul Dev on The Indian Ocean: Current Security Environment, 25 May 2007China-Africa summit in Beijing in November 2006Atul Dev on The Indian Ocean: Current Security Environment, 25 May 2007China-Africa summit in Beijing in November 2006Atul Dev on The Indian Ocean: Current Security Environment, 25 May 2007

35 Indian Ocean Strategic Landscape is being transformed… "…the emergence of new powers like China and India is expected to transform the regional strategic landscape in a fashion that could be as dramatic as the rise of Germany in the 19th century and the United States in the 20th century" Barry Desker, Director IDSS, Singapore in Maritime Balance of Power in the Asia-Pacific - Report of a Conference Organised by the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore, 8th – 9th March 2005 "…the emergence of new powers like China and India is expected to transform the regional strategic landscape in a fashion that could be as dramatic as the rise of Germany in the 19th century and the United States in the 20th century" Barry Desker, Director IDSS, Singapore in Maritime Balance of Power in the Asia-Pacific - Report of a Conference Organised by the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore, 8th – 9th March 2005Maritime Balance of Power in the Asia-Pacific - Report of a Conference Organised by the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore, 8th – 9th March 2005Maritime Balance of Power in the Asia-Pacific - Report of a Conference Organised by the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore, 8th – 9th March 2005

36 Indian Ocean Region has become Strategic Heartland of 21 st Century… Indian Ocean Region has become Strategic Heartland of 21 st Century… "…The Indian ocean region has become the strategic heartland of the 21st century, dislodging Europe and North East Asia which adorned this position in the 20th century.. the developments in the Indian Ocean region are contributing to the advent of a less Western centric and a more multi-polar world..." Donald L. Berlin, Asia Pacific Centre for Security Studies, Hawaii, 13 December 2006 "…The Indian ocean region has become the strategic heartland of the 21st century, dislodging Europe and North East Asia which adorned this position in the 20th century.. the developments in the Indian Ocean region are contributing to the advent of a less Western centric and a more multi-polar world..." Donald L. Berlin, Asia Pacific Centre for Security Studies, Hawaii, 13 December 2006Donald L. Berlin, Asia Pacific Centre for Security Studies, Hawaii, 13 December 2006Donald L. Berlin, Asia Pacific Centre for Security Studies, Hawaii, 13 December 2006

37 Setting the Stage for a New Cold War "..China, which has been a net oil importer since 1993, is the world's number two oil consumer after the U.S. and has accounted for 40 percent of the world's crude oil demand growth since 2000…China is stepping up efforts to secure sea lanes and transport routes that are vital for oil shipments.."Setting the Stage for a New Cold War: China's Quest for Energy Security - PINR, 25 February 2005 "..China, which has been a net oil importer since 1993, is the world's number two oil consumer after the U.S. and has accounted for 40 percent of the world's crude oil demand growth since 2000…China is stepping up efforts to secure sea lanes and transport routes that are vital for oil shipments.."Setting the Stage for a New Cold War: China's Quest for Energy Security - PINR, 25 February 2005 Setting the Stage for a New Cold War: China's Quest for Energy Security - PINR, 25 February 2005 Setting the Stage for a New Cold War: China's Quest for Energy Security - PINR, 25 February 2005

38 US Strategic Interests in the Indian Ocean Region… “US strategic interests in Sri Lanka are intertwined with its military objectives in South Asia and Asia … Central to the US strategic objective in Asia is the desire to “preclude the rise of a regional or continental hegemon.” The US believes that no nation in Asia poses such a threat to it at the moment. But it believes that China, India and Iran have the potential to develop into continental hegemons either on their own or as partners of regional coalitions including Russia that could threaten US interests in Asia and, in the long run, in the world.” US Strategic Interests in Sri Lanka - Dharmaretnam Sivaram, 30 July 2005 “US strategic interests in Sri Lanka are intertwined with its military objectives in South Asia and Asia … Central to the US strategic objective in Asia is the desire to “preclude the rise of a regional or continental hegemon.” The US believes that no nation in Asia poses such a threat to it at the moment. But it believes that China, India and Iran have the potential to develop into continental hegemons either on their own or as partners of regional coalitions including Russia that could threaten US interests in Asia and, in the long run, in the world.” US Strategic Interests in Sri Lanka - Dharmaretnam Sivaram, 30 July 2005 US Strategic Interests in Sri Lanka - Dharmaretnam Sivaram, 30 July 2005 US Strategic Interests in Sri Lanka - Dharmaretnam Sivaram, 30 July 2005

39 Indian Ocean – US & Diego Garcia “ The (US) base improvements will allow its new class of SSGN nuclear submarines to operate from Diego Garcia.. the SSGNs.. carry up to 154 Tactical Tomahawks, robot kamikaze jets which can be remotely piloted to strike locations a thousand miles inland..." US Navy builds Stingray-esque base in Indian Ocean - Frogmen, mini-subs to operate from nuke motherships - Lewis Page, 7 April 2007US Navy builds Stingray-esque base in Indian Ocean - Frogmen, mini-subs to operate from nuke motherships - Lewis Page, 7 April 2007

40 Indian Ocean – US & Diego Garcia

41 US – India: a Strategic Partnership or… At the last meeting of the Indo-US Defence Joint Working Group held in New Delhi (on 10 April 2007), China's 'growing naval expansion in the Indian Ocean' was noted with concern. The meeting also noted: ''China is rapidly increasing military and maritime links with countries such as Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius and Madagascar… The 200 years of the Anglo-Saxon presence in the region has now been replaced by the US-China presence to further and protect their interests. Isn’t it time for the ‘owners’ of the Indian Ocean to get together to protect their own interests? " Atul Dev in the Mauritius Times, 25 May 2007 At the last meeting of the Indo-US Defence Joint Working Group held in New Delhi (on 10 April 2007), China's 'growing naval expansion in the Indian Ocean' was noted with concern. The meeting also noted: ''China is rapidly increasing military and maritime links with countries such as Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Seychelles, Mauritius and Madagascar… The 200 years of the Anglo-Saxon presence in the region has now been replaced by the US-China presence to further and protect their interests. Isn’t it time for the ‘owners’ of the Indian Ocean to get together to protect their own interests? " Atul Dev in the Mauritius Times, 25 May 2007MyanmarBangladeshSri LankaMaldives Mauritius Times, 25 May 2007MyanmarBangladeshSri LankaMaldives Mauritius Times, 25 May 2007

42 or… an evolving entente… or… "...Last April, at a two-day workshop at the Indian Defense Studies Analysis (IDSA), a New Delhi-based think tank, discussions took place on emerging U.S.- Indian strategic relations. One Indian analyst pointed out that although Indians are eager to obtain U.S. technology… Indians worry that at a crucial time they might not be supplied with replacement parts if the relationship goes bad again.... A senior Indian military official delivering a luncheon address to the conference cautioned that Indo-U.S. relations.. can be better described as an "evolving entente," and argued that given its size, location, and ambitions, India will always march to the beat of its own drummer..."Geostrategic Import of the Coming Bay of Bengal Naval Exercise - Ramtanu Maitra, Executive Intelligence Review, 27 July 2007 "...Last April, at a two-day workshop at the Indian Defense Studies Analysis (IDSA), a New Delhi-based think tank, discussions took place on emerging U.S.- Indian strategic relations. One Indian analyst pointed out that although Indians are eager to obtain U.S. technology… Indians worry that at a crucial time they might not be supplied with replacement parts if the relationship goes bad again.... A senior Indian military official delivering a luncheon address to the conference cautioned that Indo-U.S. relations.. can be better described as an "evolving entente," and argued that given its size, location, and ambitions, India will always march to the beat of its own drummer..."Geostrategic Import of the Coming Bay of Bengal Naval Exercise - Ramtanu Maitra, Executive Intelligence Review, 27 July 2007Geostrategic Import of the Coming Bay of Bengal Naval Exercise - Ramtanu Maitra, Executive Intelligence Review, Geostrategic Import of the Coming Bay of Bengal Naval Exercise - Ramtanu Maitra, Executive Intelligence Review,

43 or… will India always try to march to the beat of its own drummer "...In the current international landscape, there is only one country which has a truly global agenda and also a global reach, which is the United States. However, there is also a cluster of major powers with strong regional profiles but increasingly global impact. These include the E.U., Russia, China, Japan, India, Brazil and South Africa. While U.S. pre-eminence is unlikely to be reversed in the foreseeable future, the relative importance of the other major powers is likely to increase. We are already in a world of what I would call "asymmetric multipolarity" with the asymmetry progressively diminishing over a period of time. India has an instinctive preference for multipolarity… this is a trend which is positive from India’s standpoint as an emerging power…” Shyam Saran, Special Envoy to Indian Prime Minister, Indian Foreign Secretary 2004 – 2006, Address at the Institute for South Asian Studies, Singapore, 30 August 2007 "...In the current international landscape, there is only one country which has a truly global agenda and also a global reach, which is the United States. However, there is also a cluster of major powers with strong regional profiles but increasingly global impact. These include the E.U., Russia, China, Japan, India, Brazil and South Africa. While U.S. pre-eminence is unlikely to be reversed in the foreseeable future, the relative importance of the other major powers is likely to increase. We are already in a world of what I would call "asymmetric multipolarity" with the asymmetry progressively diminishing over a period of time. India has an instinctive preference for multipolarity… this is a trend which is positive from India’s standpoint as an emerging power…” Shyam Saran, Special Envoy to Indian Prime Minister, Indian Foreign Secretary 2004 – 2006, Address at the Institute for South Asian Studies, Singapore, 30 August 2007Shyam Saran, Special Envoy to Indian Prime Minister, Indian Foreign Secretary 2004 – 2006, Address at the Institute for South Asian Studies, Singapore, 30 August 2007Shyam Saran, Special Envoy to Indian Prime Minister, Indian Foreign Secretary 2004 – 2006, Address at the Institute for South Asian Studies, Singapore, 30 August 2007

44 India in Madagascar “India is reportedly planning to set up a high-tech monitoring station in northern Madagascar … It would be the first such facility New Delhi has opened in another country.. India will pay US$2.5 million to lease the station, because it apprehends threats to its strategic naval assets and its political, economic and military interests in Africa..” Delhi all ears in the Indian Ocean - Sudha Ramachandran in Asia Times, 3 March 2006Delhi all ears in the Indian Ocean - Sudha Ramachandran in Asia Times, 3 March 2006

45 China in Gawdor, Pakistan "Four months after the U.S. ordered its troops into Afghanistan to remove the Taliban regime, China and Pakistan joined hands to break ground in building a Deep Sea Port in Gwador on the Arabian Sea… Gwadar is nautically bounded by the Persian Gulf in the west and the Gulf of Oman in the southwest “China's Naval Outpost on the Indian Ocean, Tarique Niazi, The Jamestown Foundation, 28 February 2005 "Four months after the U.S. ordered its troops into Afghanistan to remove the Taliban regime, China and Pakistan joined hands to break ground in building a Deep Sea Port in Gwador on the Arabian Sea… Gwadar is nautically bounded by the Persian Gulf in the west and the Gulf of Oman in the southwest “China's Naval Outpost on the Indian Ocean, Tarique Niazi, The Jamestown Foundation, 28 February 2005China's Naval Outpost on the Indian OceanChina's Naval Outpost on the Indian Ocean

46 Japan’s Indian Ocean Deployment "By most standards, Japan is now the world’s number two naval power....the primary reason for dispatching the Kongo-class Aegis ships (to the Indian Ocean)...was... undoubtedly...to do with the prodigious area- wide surveillance and tracking capacities of the Aegis air defense system operated by the Kongo-class ships. These would have enabled the MSDF ships to cooperate with both US and UK navy and air units operating not only in the Indian Ocean, but possibly over Afghanistan itself..." Japan’s Indian Ocean Naval Deployment: Blue water militarization in a “normal country” - Richard Tanter in Japan Focus, 21 March 2006 "By most standards, Japan is now the world’s number two naval power....the primary reason for dispatching the Kongo-class Aegis ships (to the Indian Ocean)...was... undoubtedly...to do with the prodigious area- wide surveillance and tracking capacities of the Aegis air defense system operated by the Kongo-class ships. These would have enabled the MSDF ships to cooperate with both US and UK navy and air units operating not only in the Indian Ocean, but possibly over Afghanistan itself..." Japan’s Indian Ocean Naval Deployment: Blue water militarization in a “normal country” - Richard Tanter in Japan Focus, 21 March 2006Japan’s Indian Ocean Naval Deployment: Blue water militarization in a “normal country” - Richard Tanter in Japan Focus, 21 March 2006Japan’s Indian Ocean Naval Deployment: Blue water militarization in a “normal country” - Richard Tanter in Japan Focus, 21 March 2006

47 Stirling in Australia – de facto US Base in the Indian Ocean “… In late 2002 the Australian government agreed to allow the US military to use the HMAS Stirling naval base in Cockburn Sound on the west coast of Australia to trial its new “sea- swap” program. The plan is aimed at boosting US naval firepower in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. Critics charge that the Australian Federal and State Governments are working to make Cockburn Sound a defacto base for the US navy.” Stirling Naval Base at Global Security “… In late 2002 the Australian government agreed to allow the US military to use the HMAS Stirling naval base in Cockburn Sound on the west coast of Australia to trial its new “sea- swap” program. The plan is aimed at boosting US naval firepower in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. Critics charge that the Australian Federal and State Governments are working to make Cockburn Sound a defacto base for the US navy.” Stirling Naval Base at Global Security Stirling Naval Base at Global Security Stirling Naval Base at Global Security

48 China calls for exclusion of outside powers from the Indian Ocean… At the UN Ad Hoc Committee on Indian Ocean, 451st Meeting (PM) on 26 July 2005 the representative of China "called for common efforts for countries inside and outside the region to maintain peace and stability in the region and to establish the Zone of Peace at an early date. To that end, the major Powers outside the region should eliminate their military presence in the Indian Ocean region." Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of Peace At the UN Ad Hoc Committee on Indian Ocean, 451st Meeting (PM) on 26 July 2005 the representative of China "called for common efforts for countries inside and outside the region to maintain peace and stability in the region and to establish the Zone of Peace at an early date. To that end, the major Powers outside the region should eliminate their military presence in the Indian Ocean region." Declaration of the Indian Ocean as a Zone of PeaceAd Hoc Committee on Indian Ocean, 451st Meeting (PM) Ad Hoc Committee on Indian Ocean, 451st Meeting (PM)

49 China’s Geo Political Strategy: “String of Pearls” “The geopolitical strategy dubbed the “String of Pearls” is arising as foreign oil becomes a center of gravity critical to China’s energy needs. China’s rising maritime power is encountering American maritime power along the sea lines of communication (SLOCs) that connect China to vital energy resources in the Middle East and Africa.” String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006 “The geopolitical strategy dubbed the “String of Pearls” is arising as foreign oil becomes a center of gravity critical to China’s energy needs. China’s rising maritime power is encountering American maritime power along the sea lines of communication (SLOCs) that connect China to vital energy resources in the Middle East and Africa.” String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006

50 China’s String of Pearls “Each “pearl” in the “String of Pearls” is a nexus of Chinese geopolitical influence or military presence. Hainan Island, with recently upgraded military facilities, is a “pearl.” An upgraded airstrip on Woody Island, located in the Paracel archipelago 300 nautical miles east of Vietnam, is a “pearl.” A container shipping facility in Chittagong, Bangladesh, is a “pearl.” Construction of a deep water port in Sittwe, Myanmar, is a “pearl,” as is the construction of a navy base in Gwadar, Pakistan. … China is building strategic relationships and developing a capability to establish a forward presence along the sea lines of communication (SLOCs) that connect China to the Middle East” String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006 “Each “pearl” in the “String of Pearls” is a nexus of Chinese geopolitical influence or military presence. Hainan Island, with recently upgraded military facilities, is a “pearl.” An upgraded airstrip on Woody Island, located in the Paracel archipelago 300 nautical miles east of Vietnam, is a “pearl.” A container shipping facility in Chittagong, Bangladesh, is a “pearl.” Construction of a deep water port in Sittwe, Myanmar, is a “pearl,” as is the construction of a navy base in Gwadar, Pakistan. … China is building strategic relationships and developing a capability to establish a forward presence along the sea lines of communication (SLOCs) that connect China to the Middle East” String of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006 Hainan IslandWoody IslandChittagong, BangladeshMyanmarnavy base in Gwadar, PakistanString of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006 Hainan IslandWoody IslandChittagong, BangladeshMyanmarnavy base in Gwadar, PakistanString of Pearls:Meeting the Challenge of China’s Rising Power Across the Asian Littoral - Lt.Col. Christopher J. Pehrson, July, 2006

51 And now, let us turn to Sri Lanka’s Strategic Importance … (1) Sri Lanka is strategically situated in the Indian Ocean (1) Sri Lanka is strategically situated in the Indian Ocean (2) It is ideally situated to be a major communication center, and (2) It is ideally situated to be a major communication center, and (3) It has Trincomalee, described by the British Admiral Horatio Nelson as “the finest harbour in the world”. Ramesh Somasundaram of Deakin University quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005 (3) It has Trincomalee, described by the British Admiral Horatio Nelson as “the finest harbour in the world”. Ramesh Somasundaram of Deakin University quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005

52 Sri Lanka’s Strategic Importance was recognised by UK in Defence agreement with UK, essential prerequisite to independence - “United Kingdom may base such naval and air forces and maintain such land forces in Ceylon [as may be required for the security of their territories, for defence against external aggression], and as may be mutually agreed.” Ceylon - United Kingdom Defence Agreement, Defence agreement with UK, essential prerequisite to independence - “United Kingdom may base such naval and air forces and maintain such land forces in Ceylon [as may be required for the security of their territories, for defence against external aggression], and as may be mutually agreed.” Ceylon - United Kingdom Defence Agreement, 1948Ceylon - United Kingdom Defence Agreement, 1948Ceylon - United Kingdom Defence Agreement, 1948

53 Sri Lanka’s Strategic Importance was recognised by India in 1987 “Trincomalee or any other ports in Sri Lanka will not be made available for military use by any country in a manner prejudicial to India's interests. The work of restoring and operating the Trincomalee Oil Tank will be undertaken as a joint operation between India and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka's agreement with foreign broadcasting organisations will be reviewed to ensure that any facilities set up by them in Sri Lanka are used solely as public broadcasting facilities and not for any military or intelligence purposes.” Exchange of Letters between India & Sri Lanka immediately preceding the signing Indo - Sri Lanka Accord, 29 July 1987 “Trincomalee or any other ports in Sri Lanka will not be made available for military use by any country in a manner prejudicial to India's interests. The work of restoring and operating the Trincomalee Oil Tank will be undertaken as a joint operation between India and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka's agreement with foreign broadcasting organisations will be reviewed to ensure that any facilities set up by them in Sri Lanka are used solely as public broadcasting facilities and not for any military or intelligence purposes.” Exchange of Letters between India & Sri Lanka immediately preceding the signing Indo - Sri Lanka Accord, 29 July 1987Exchange of Letters between India & Sri Lanka immediately preceding the signing Indo - Sri Lanka AccordExchange of Letters between India & Sri Lanka immediately preceding the signing Indo - Sri Lanka Accord

54 … the Significance of Trincomalee… “Trincomalee has immense significance in this age of nuclear weaponry and nuclear submarine-based missile systems … Given the depth of the harbour, nuclear submarines are able to dive low within the inner harbour to effectively avoid radar and sonar detection” Ramesh Somasundaram of Deakin University quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005 “Trincomalee has immense significance in this age of nuclear weaponry and nuclear submarine-based missile systems … Given the depth of the harbour, nuclear submarines are able to dive low within the inner harbour to effectively avoid radar and sonar detection” Ramesh Somasundaram of Deakin University quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005 quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005 quoted by P.K. Balachandran in Hindustan Times, 30 May 2005

55 US Presence in Sri Lanka – a politico- strategic pressure point against India in 1980s & today… “The rise of Tamil militancy in Sri Lanka and the Jayawardene government's serious apprehensions about this development were utilised by the US and Pakistan to create a politico-strategic pressure point against India, in the island's strategically sensitive coast off the Peninsula of India. Jayawardene…established substantive defensive and intelligence contacts with US, Pakistan and Israel… Tamil militancy received support both from Tamil Nadu and from the Central Government … also as a response to Jayawardene's concrete and expanded military and intelligence cooperation with the United States, Israel and Pakistan. The assessment was that these presences would pose a strategic threat to India..” Jyotindra Nath Dixit Indian Foreign Secretary in 1991/94 and National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister of India 2004/05, speaking in Switzerland, February 1998 “The rise of Tamil militancy in Sri Lanka and the Jayawardene government's serious apprehensions about this development were utilised by the US and Pakistan to create a politico-strategic pressure point against India, in the island's strategically sensitive coast off the Peninsula of India. Jayawardene…established substantive defensive and intelligence contacts with US, Pakistan and Israel… Tamil militancy received support both from Tamil Nadu and from the Central Government … also as a response to Jayawardene's concrete and expanded military and intelligence cooperation with the United States, Israel and Pakistan. The assessment was that these presences would pose a strategic threat to India..” Jyotindra Nath Dixit Indian Foreign Secretary in 1991/94 and National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister of India 2004/05, speaking in Switzerland, February 1998Jyotindra Nath DixitJyotindra Nath Dixit

56 Sri Lanka: Another US Base in the Indian Ocean? “The ten year Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) signed by the United States and Sri Lanka on March 5, which provides for among other things logistics supplies and re- fuelling facilities, has major ramifications for the region, particularly India. For all the sophistry and spin by the Americans, the ACSA is a military deal and, on the face of it, is loaded in Washington's favour “ B. Muralidhar Reddy in Acquisition and Cross- Servicing Agreement & the Indo Sri Lanka Accord 9 March 2007 “The ten year Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) signed by the United States and Sri Lanka on March 5, which provides for among other things logistics supplies and re- fuelling facilities, has major ramifications for the region, particularly India. For all the sophistry and spin by the Americans, the ACSA is a military deal and, on the face of it, is loaded in Washington's favour “ B. Muralidhar Reddy in Acquisition and Cross- Servicing Agreement & the Indo Sri Lanka Accord 9 March 2007Acquisition and Cross-Servicing AgreementAcquisition and Cross- Servicing Agreement & the Indo Sri Lanka AccordAcquisition and Cross-Servicing AgreementAcquisition and Cross- Servicing Agreement & the Indo Sri Lanka Accord

57 But… former US Ambassador Lunstead says that US has no interests in military bases in Sri Lanka… “..With the end of the Cold War, U.S. interest in Sri Lanka waned. As recently as 2000, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) was planning for significantly reduced development assistance levels. The enhanced engagement that commenced in 2001 occurred despite the absence of significant U.S. strategic interests in Sri Lanka. Political-military interests are not high, and the U.S. has no interest in military bases in Sri Lanka. From an economic and commercial standpoint, Sri Lanka is unlikely to be a major U.S. trading partner in the near future. There is not a large enough Sri Lankan-origin community in the U.S. to have an impact on U.S. domestic politics. “United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process , Jeffrey Lunstead, 15 May 2007 “..With the end of the Cold War, U.S. interest in Sri Lanka waned. As recently as 2000, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) was planning for significantly reduced development assistance levels. The enhanced engagement that commenced in 2001 occurred despite the absence of significant U.S. strategic interests in Sri Lanka. Political-military interests are not high, and the U.S. has no interest in military bases in Sri Lanka. From an economic and commercial standpoint, Sri Lanka is unlikely to be a major U.S. trading partner in the near future. There is not a large enough Sri Lankan-origin community in the U.S. to have an impact on U.S. domestic politics. “United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process , Jeffrey Lunstead, 15 May 2007United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process

58 The Cynicism of Real Politick… Ambassadors are honest men sent abroad to lie for their country? Ambassadors are honest men sent abroad to lie for their country?

59 Like humans, countries also lie… Because they want to cover up the real reasons for their actions Because they want to cover up the real reasons for their actions Because the real reasons will not stand up to public scrutiny, and governments risk losing the support of their own voters within their own country… Because the real reasons will not stand up to public scrutiny, and governments risk losing the support of their own voters within their own country…

60 Therefore, in Iraq the lie was ‘Weapons of Mass Destruction’… America, America, American War Paar Ada! - Audio Video Presentation America, America, American War Paar Ada! - Audio Video Presentation America, American War Paar Ada! - Audio Video Presentation America, American War Paar Ada! - Audio Video Presentation

61 … and in Sri Lanka the lie is Terrorism… “..The main U.S. strategic interest in Sri Lanka is in ensuring that a terrorist organization does not obtain its goals through the use of terror…” United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process , Jeffrey Lunstead, 15 May 2007 “..The main U.S. strategic interest in Sri Lanka is in ensuring that a terrorist organization does not obtain its goals through the use of terror…” United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process , Jeffrey Lunstead, 15 May 2007United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process United States Role in Sri Lanka Peace Process

62 But what is Terrorism? "'When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty said in a rather scornful tone, 'it means just what I choose it to mean, neither more nor less'. 'The question is,' said Alice, 'whether you can make words mean so many different things'. 'The question is,' said Humpty Dumpty, 'which is to be master - that's all'." Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carrol - Through the Looking Glass, c.vi quoted in What is Terrorism "'When I use a word,' Humpty Dumpty said in a rather scornful tone, 'it means just what I choose it to mean, neither more nor less'. 'The question is,' said Alice, 'whether you can make words mean so many different things'. 'The question is,' said Humpty Dumpty, 'which is to be master - that's all'." Alice in Wonderland, Lewis Carrol - Through the Looking Glass, c.vi quoted in What is TerrorismWhat is TerrorismWhat is Terrorism

63 International failure to agree on a definition of terrorism… “…The most problematic issue relating to terrorism and armed conflict is distinguishing terrorists from lawful combatants… in terms of combatants in legitimate struggles for self-determination … States that do not recognize a claim to self-determination will claim that those using force against the State’s military forces are necessarily terrorists…The controversy over the exact meaning, content, extent and beneficiaries of, as well as the means and methods utilized to enforce the right to self-determination has been the major obstacle to the development of both a comprehensive definition of terrorism and a comprehensive treaty on terrorism…” Terrorism and Human Rights Final Report of the Special Rapporteur, Kalliopi K. Koufa, 25 June 2004 “…The most problematic issue relating to terrorism and armed conflict is distinguishing terrorists from lawful combatants… in terms of combatants in legitimate struggles for self-determination … States that do not recognize a claim to self-determination will claim that those using force against the State’s military forces are necessarily terrorists…The controversy over the exact meaning, content, extent and beneficiaries of, as well as the means and methods utilized to enforce the right to self-determination has been the major obstacle to the development of both a comprehensive definition of terrorism and a comprehensive treaty on terrorism…” Terrorism and Human Rights Final Report of the Special Rapporteur, Kalliopi K. Koufa, 25 June 2004 Terrorism and Human Rights Final Report of the Special Rapporteur, Kalliopi K. Koufa, 25 June 2004 Terrorism and Human Rights Final Report of the Special Rapporteur, Kalliopi K. Koufa, 25 June 2004

64 Are there any circumstances in which a people ruled by an alien people may lawfully resort to arms to liberate themselves?... "...Do we not deliberately obfuscate when we conflate the two words 'terrorism' and 'violence'?...The war against Hitler was violent but it was not terrorism... What are the circumstances in which a people ruled by an alien people may lawfully resort to arms to resist that alien rule and secure freedom? Or is it that there are no circumstances in which a people ruled by an alien people may lawfully resort to arms to liberate themselves? And if all resort to violence to secure political ends is not terrorism then, by all means let us address the question: what is terrorism? Domestic law cannot define terrorism by ignoring international law concerning the right a people have, as a last resort, to take up arms to free themselves from oppressive alien rule…” On Terrorism & Liberation, Nadesan Satyendra, 23 September 2006 "...Do we not deliberately obfuscate when we conflate the two words 'terrorism' and 'violence'?...The war against Hitler was violent but it was not terrorism... What are the circumstances in which a people ruled by an alien people may lawfully resort to arms to resist that alien rule and secure freedom? Or is it that there are no circumstances in which a people ruled by an alien people may lawfully resort to arms to liberate themselves? And if all resort to violence to secure political ends is not terrorism then, by all means let us address the question: what is terrorism? Domestic law cannot define terrorism by ignoring international law concerning the right a people have, as a last resort, to take up arms to free themselves from oppressive alien rule…” On Terrorism & Liberation, Nadesan Satyendra, 23 September 2006On Terrorism & Liberation On Terrorism & Liberation

65 Is the charge of terrorism in Sri Lanka like the allegation of WMDs in Iraq - a cover up for advancing national strategic interests? “…As the country that benefits most from global economic integration, we have the responsibility of making sure that this new system is sustainable.. The hidden hand of the market will never work without a hidden fist - McDonald's cannot flourish without McDonnell- Douglas, the designer of the F-15. And the hidden fist that keeps the world safe for Silicon Valley's technologies is called the US Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.... " Thomas Friedman, "A Manifesto for the Fast World", New York Times Magazine, March 28, 1999 “…As the country that benefits most from global economic integration, we have the responsibility of making sure that this new system is sustainable.. The hidden hand of the market will never work without a hidden fist - McDonald's cannot flourish without McDonnell- Douglas, the designer of the F-15. And the hidden fist that keeps the world safe for Silicon Valley's technologies is called the US Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps.... " Thomas Friedman, "A Manifesto for the Fast World", New York Times Magazine, March 28, 1999 Thomas Friedman, "A Manifesto for the Fast World", New York Times Magazine, March 28, 1999 Thomas Friedman, "A Manifesto for the Fast World", New York Times Magazine, March 28, 1999

66 … a cover up for strategic interests that may be denied but cannot be hidden… “..US Marines will conduct exercises with the Sri Lanka Navy later this month, deploying more than 1,000 personnel and support ships for amphibious and counter-insurgency manoeuvres with the aim of 'containing' growing Chinese presence in the region and to test its latest theories on 'littoral battle' without putting American soldiers at risk…” US - India - China - Sri Lanka - Pakistan: Matrix - Rahul Bedi, 25 October 2006 “..US Marines will conduct exercises with the Sri Lanka Navy later this month, deploying more than 1,000 personnel and support ships for amphibious and counter-insurgency manoeuvres with the aim of 'containing' growing Chinese presence in the region and to test its latest theories on 'littoral battle' without putting American soldiers at risk…” US - India - China - Sri Lanka - Pakistan: Matrix - Rahul Bedi, 25 October 2006Chinese presence in the regionUS - India - China - Sri Lanka - Pakistan: Matrix - Rahul Bedi, Chinese presence in the regionUS - India - China - Sri Lanka - Pakistan: Matrix - Rahul Bedi,

67 China: Sri Lanka’s Benign Friend 'China, a benign and sincere friend of Sri Lanka' - Sri Lanka Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar, 9 April 2005 'China, a benign and sincere friend of Sri Lanka' - Sri Lanka Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar, 9 April 2005 'China, a benign and sincere friend of Sri Lanka' - Sri Lanka Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar 'China, a benign and sincere friend of Sri Lanka' - Sri Lanka Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar

68 China – Sri Lanka – India: Matrix "China is all set to drop anchor at India's southern doorstep. An agreement has been finalized between Sri Lanka and China under which the latter will participate in the development of a port project at Hambantota on the island's south coast.” China moves into India's back yard Sudha Ramachandran in Asia Times, 13 March 2007 "China is all set to drop anchor at India's southern doorstep. An agreement has been finalized between Sri Lanka and China under which the latter will participate in the development of a port project at Hambantota on the island's south coast.” China moves into India's back yard Sudha Ramachandran in Asia Times, 13 March 2007Asia TimesAsia Times

69 Hambantota – a Pearl in China’s String of Pearls “…Chinese role in the Hambantota project is not just about influence in Sri Lanka... The Hambantota port project is the latest in a series of steps that China has taken in recent years to consolidate its access to the Indian Ocean and to secure sea lanes through which its energy supplies are transported. It has adopted what analysts describe as a "string of pearls" strategy, building strategic relationships with countries along sea lanes from the Middle East to the South China Sea. “ China moves into India's back yard..” Sudha Ramachandran in Asia Times, 13 March 2007 “…Chinese role in the Hambantota project is not just about influence in Sri Lanka... The Hambantota port project is the latest in a series of steps that China has taken in recent years to consolidate its access to the Indian Ocean and to secure sea lanes through which its energy supplies are transported. It has adopted what analysts describe as a "string of pearls" strategy, building strategic relationships with countries along sea lanes from the Middle East to the South China Sea. “ China moves into India's back yard..” Sudha Ramachandran in Asia Times, 13 March 2007Asia TimesAsia Times

70 …international frame of the struggle of Tamil Eelam for freedom - the harsh reality… “ the harsh political reality is that, on the one hand, the US is mindful that it was after all President Jayawardene's 'growing togetherness' with the US which led to New Delhi's support of the Tamil militant movement in the early 1980s. At that time the US kept its oars in Tamil waters with efforts such as hoisting the Eelam flag in the State of Massachusetts. Today, the same US continues to speak of the 'legitimate aspirations' of the Tamil people. “ the harsh political reality is that, on the one hand, the US is mindful that it was after all President Jayawardene's 'growing togetherness' with the US which led to New Delhi's support of the Tamil militant movement in the early 1980s. At that time the US kept its oars in Tamil waters with efforts such as hoisting the Eelam flag in the State of Massachusetts. Today, the same US continues to speak of the 'legitimate aspirations' of the Tamil people. led to New Delhi's support of the Tamil militant movement led to New Delhi's support of the Tamil militant movement On the other hand, New Delhi has no desire to lose its ability to play the 'Tamil card' to keep Sri Lanka in line in the years to come - even after the successful annihilation of Velupillai Pirabakaran and the weakening of the LTTE. And so New Delhi too proclaims ad nauseam that they are concerned to secure the 'legitimate aspirations' of the Tamil people. Additionally it builds its own network amongst dissident Tamils both in Sri Lanka and abroad to propagate its interests.” Black Pebbles & White Pebbles On the other hand, New Delhi has no desire to lose its ability to play the 'Tamil card' to keep Sri Lanka in line in the years to come - even after the successful annihilation of Velupillai Pirabakaran and the weakening of the LTTE. And so New Delhi too proclaims ad nauseam that they are concerned to secure the 'legitimate aspirations' of the Tamil people. Additionally it builds its own network amongst dissident Tamils both in Sri Lanka and abroad to propagate its interests.” Black Pebbles & White PebblesBlack Pebbles & White PebblesBlack Pebbles & White Pebbles

71 but…what ‘should’ be the ‘legitimate’ aspirations of the people of Tamil Eelam?... “ And to those in the international community who continue to speak of their willingness to recognise the 'legitimate aspirations' of the Tamil people… the time has come to reiterate that which Gandhian leader S.J.V.Chelvanayagam declared 32 years ago and say that it is the legitimate aspiration of the Tamil people to be free from alien Sinhala rule. Does the international community agree that the aspiration of the Tamil people to be free from alien Sinhala rule is a 'legitimate' aspiration? … If it does not, has not the time come for the international community to explain to the people of Tamil Eelam its reasons for insisting that the Tamil people be ruled by a permanent Sinhala majority within the confines of a single state - with a Sinhala army occupying the Tamil homeland? “The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for Freedom, Nadesan Satyendra, 14 August 2007 “ And to those in the international community who continue to speak of their willingness to recognise the 'legitimate aspirations' of the Tamil people… the time has come to reiterate that which Gandhian leader S.J.V.Chelvanayagam declared 32 years ago and say that it is the legitimate aspiration of the Tamil people to be free from alien Sinhala rule. Does the international community agree that the aspiration of the Tamil people to be free from alien Sinhala rule is a 'legitimate' aspiration? … If it does not, has not the time come for the international community to explain to the people of Tamil Eelam its reasons for insisting that the Tamil people be ruled by a permanent Sinhala majority within the confines of a single state - with a Sinhala army occupying the Tamil homeland? “The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for Freedom, Nadesan Satyendra, 14 August 2007Gandhian leader S.J.V.Chelvanayagam declared 32 years ago The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for FreedomGandhian leader S.J.V.Chelvanayagam declared 32 years ago The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for Freedom

72 …the refusal to recognise the justice of the Tamil Eelam struggle for freedom… exposes the harsh reality of the impact of the uneasy balance of power in the Indian Ocean… “… US and India may find common cause in annihilating the Tamil Eelam Struggle for freedom … but they seek to do it in such a way that thereafter each of them may successfully jockey (against each other) for position and influence in the Indian Ocean region…” Black Pebbles & White Pebbles, 2006 exposes the harsh reality of the impact of the uneasy balance of power in the Indian Ocean… “… US and India may find common cause in annihilating the Tamil Eelam Struggle for freedom … but they seek to do it in such a way that thereafter each of them may successfully jockey (against each other) for position and influence in the Indian Ocean region…” Black Pebbles & White Pebbles, 2006 Black Pebbles & White Pebbles, 2006 Black Pebbles & White Pebbles, 2006

73 It is true that geography plays a silent and important role in the affairs of nations…

74 … but any foreign force can have its way in a Tamil Eelam only if its people are divided & politically obfuscated… “…Today it is clear beyond all reasonable doubt that India and the US-UK-Japan Bloc are trying to influence and manage Sri Lanka's peace process to promote and consolidate their respective strategic and economic interests... We already hear fools (and there are many of the educated variety among Tamils) declaring that we should swallow our pride and yield to the dictates of the world's sole super power, that the US would bomb the Vanni back to the stone age if the LTTE does not toe the line. Any foreign force can have its way in a country only if its people are divided, politically obfuscated and are irredeemably sunk in political stupor…” D.Sivaram in The Folly of Eelam Punditry, May 2003 “…Today it is clear beyond all reasonable doubt that India and the US-UK-Japan Bloc are trying to influence and manage Sri Lanka's peace process to promote and consolidate their respective strategic and economic interests... We already hear fools (and there are many of the educated variety among Tamils) declaring that we should swallow our pride and yield to the dictates of the world's sole super power, that the US would bomb the Vanni back to the stone age if the LTTE does not toe the line. Any foreign force can have its way in a country only if its people are divided, politically obfuscated and are irredeemably sunk in political stupor…” D.Sivaram in The Folly of Eelam Punditry, May 2003The Folly of Eelam Punditry The Folly of Eelam Punditry

75 … The creeping intellectual/political barrenness (amongst Tamils) should be stopped without further delay… "The creeping intellectual/political barrenness (amongst Tamils) should be stopped without further delay. LTTE officials too should stop making pedestrian, boringly predictable utterances on public forums and, instead, make every endeavour to stir the people's reason, intellectual curiosity, their sense of community, their imagination and their intellectual fervour. This is the only way forward to decisively break the vicious circle of political obfuscation by which our people are deeply but blissfully afflicted today. "D.Sivaram in The Folly of Eelam Punditry, May 2003 "The creeping intellectual/political barrenness (amongst Tamils) should be stopped without further delay. LTTE officials too should stop making pedestrian, boringly predictable utterances on public forums and, instead, make every endeavour to stir the people's reason, intellectual curiosity, their sense of community, their imagination and their intellectual fervour. This is the only way forward to decisively break the vicious circle of political obfuscation by which our people are deeply but blissfully afflicted today. "D.Sivaram in The Folly of Eelam Punditry, May 2003The Folly of Eelam Punditry The Folly of Eelam Punditry

76 … the strength of an aspiration towards liberty, cannot be estimated in terms of so many guns, such and such laws… "..A feeling or a thought...the aspiration towards liberty, cannot be estimated in the terms of concrete power, in so many fighting men, so many armed police, so many guns, so many prisons, such and such laws, ukases, and executive powers. But such feelings and thoughts are more powerful than fighting men and guns and prisons and laws and ukases. Their beginnings are feeble, their end is mighty. But of despotic repression the beginnings are mighty, the end is feeble...". Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram, 1907 "..A feeling or a thought...the aspiration towards liberty, cannot be estimated in the terms of concrete power, in so many fighting men, so many armed police, so many guns, so many prisons, such and such laws, ukases, and executive powers. But such feelings and thoughts are more powerful than fighting men and guns and prisons and laws and ukases. Their beginnings are feeble, their end is mighty. But of despotic repression the beginnings are mighty, the end is feeble...". Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram, 1907Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram, 1907Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram, 1907

77 …and the demand for national self determination is a struggle for democracy "...Demands for 'national self­determination' are in one sense, a struggle for a higher form of democracy...It must then be recognised that 'post-colonial liberation movements', far from being inherently 'undemocratic', 'subversive', 'terrorist' ad infinitum, are often the most effective medium for democratic assertion by social groups who have been deprived of equal citizenship rights, who have been subjected to denial and state oppression..." Sumantra Bose in Reconceptualising State, Nation and Sovereignty, 1994 "...Demands for 'national self­determination' are in one sense, a struggle for a higher form of democracy...It must then be recognised that 'post-colonial liberation movements', far from being inherently 'undemocratic', 'subversive', 'terrorist' ad infinitum, are often the most effective medium for democratic assertion by social groups who have been deprived of equal citizenship rights, who have been subjected to denial and state oppression..." Sumantra Bose in Reconceptualising State, Nation and Sovereignty, 1994'national self­determination'Sumantra Bose in Reconceptualising State, Nation and Sovereignty, 1994'national self­determination'Sumantra Bose in Reconceptualising State, Nation and Sovereignty, 1994

78 The Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom is just – and it is lawful… "...The Tamil struggle for freedom is just because it arose in response to decades of ever widening and deepening oppressive alien Sinhala rule. It is lawful because every people have the right to freely choose their political status - and no people may seek to rule another. It is lawful because Tamil sovereignty which had lain dormant during the period of successive British and Sinhala rule, was resuscitated with the break in legal continuity in The Tamil struggle for freedom is principled because the Tamil people do not deny the existence of the Sinhala nation but seek to associate with it freely and on equal terms... ”Nadesan Satyendra in Power and Principle, 1994 "...The Tamil struggle for freedom is just because it arose in response to decades of ever widening and deepening oppressive alien Sinhala rule. It is lawful because every people have the right to freely choose their political status - and no people may seek to rule another. It is lawful because Tamil sovereignty which had lain dormant during the period of successive British and Sinhala rule, was resuscitated with the break in legal continuity in The Tamil struggle for freedom is principled because the Tamil people do not deny the existence of the Sinhala nation but seek to associate with it freely and on equal terms... ”Nadesan Satyendra in Power and Principle, 1994decades of ever widening and deepening oppressive alien Sinhala rulethe right to freely choose their political statuswas resuscitated with the break in legal continuity in 1972seek to associate with it freely and on equal termsPower and Principledecades of ever widening and deepening oppressive alien Sinhala rulethe right to freely choose their political statuswas resuscitated with the break in legal continuity in 1972seek to associate with it freely and on equal termsPower and Principle

79 Velupillai PirabaharanVelupillai Pirabaharan, Leader of Tamil Eelam, 1992… Velupillai Pirabaharan "...It is the Sri Lanka government which has failed to learn the lessons from the emergence of the struggles for self determination in several parts of the globe and the innovative structural changes that have taken place... We are not chauvinists. Neither are we lovers of violence enchanted with war. We do not regard the Sinhala people as our opponents or as our enemies. We recognise the Sinhala nation. We accord a place of dignity for the culture and heritage of the Sinhala people. We have no desire to interfere in any way with the national life of the Sinhala people or with their freedom and independence. We, the Tamil people, desire to live in our own historic homeland as an independent nation, in peace, in freedom and with dignity.." "...It is the Sri Lanka government which has failed to learn the lessons from the emergence of the struggles for self determination in several parts of the globe and the innovative structural changes that have taken place... We are not chauvinists. Neither are we lovers of violence enchanted with war. We do not regard the Sinhala people as our opponents or as our enemies. We recognise the Sinhala nation. We accord a place of dignity for the culture and heritage of the Sinhala people. We have no desire to interfere in any way with the national life of the Sinhala people or with their freedom and independence. We, the Tamil people, desire to live in our own historic homeland as an independent nation, in peace, in freedom and with dignity.."emergence of the struggles for self determination in several parts of the globeour own historic homelandin freedomemergence of the struggles for self determination in several parts of the globeour own historic homelandin freedom

80 But, it is a vain dream to suppose… "..It is a vain dream to suppose that what other nations have won by struggle and battle, by suffering and tears of blood, we shall be allowed to accomplish easily, without terrible sacrifices, merely by spending the ink of the journalist and petition framer and the breath of the orator..." Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram, 1907 quoted in The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for Freedom, Nadesan Satyendra, 14 August 2007 "..It is a vain dream to suppose that what other nations have won by struggle and battle, by suffering and tears of blood, we shall be allowed to accomplish easily, without terrible sacrifices, merely by spending the ink of the journalist and petition framer and the breath of the orator..." Sri Aurobindo in Bande Mataram, 1907 quoted in The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for Freedom, Nadesan Satyendra, 14 August 2007The Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for FreedomThe Charge is Genocide, the Struggle is for Freedom

81 “ இலட்சியத்தால் ஒன்றுபட்ட, எழுச்சி கொண்ட, மக்களை எந்த ஒரு சக்தியாலும் ஒடுக்கிவிட முடியாது ” - Velupillai Pirabaharan, Leader of Tamil Eelam Velupillai Pirabaharan Velupillai Pirabaharan

82 Further Reading at International Frame of the Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom International Frame of the Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom International Frame of the Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom International Frame of the Tamil Eelam Struggle for Freedom Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Region Indian Ocean Region Australia Australia Australia Canada Canada Canada China China China Commonwealth Commonwealth Commonwealth European Union European Union European Union European Union India India India Japan Japan Japan South Africa South Africa South Africa South Africa Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United Kingdom United States United States United States United States International Relations in an Emerging Multi Lateral World International Relations in an Emerging Multi Lateral World International Relations in an Emerging Multi Lateral World International Relations in an Emerging Multi Lateral WorldVannakkam


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