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Reading and Behavior Integration in a Response to Intervention Model Steve Goodman February 6, 2009 New Hampshire.

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1 Reading and Behavior Integration in a Response to Intervention Model Steve Goodman February 6, 2009 New Hampshire

2 Gogebic-Ontonagon Intermediate School District January 30, 2009

3 Moving Upstream: A Story of Prevention and Intervention

4 In a small town, a group of fishermen gathered down at the river. Not long after they got there, a child came floating down the rapids calling for help. One of the group on the shore quickly dived in and pulled the child out.

5 Minutes later another child came, then another, and then many more children were coming down the river. Soon everyone was diving in and dragging children to the shore, then jumping back in to save as many as they could.

6 In the midst of all this frenzy, one of the group was seen walking away. Her colleagues were irate. How could she leave when there were so many children to save? After long hours, to everyone’s relief, the flow of children stopped, and the group could finally catch their breath. At that moment, their colleague came back. They turned on her and angrily shouted: “HOW COULD YOU WALK OFF WHEN WE NEEDED EVERYONE HERE TO SAVE THE CHILDREN?”

7 She replied, It occurred to me that someone ought to go upstream and find out why so many kids were falling into the river. What I found is that the old wooden bridge had several planks missing, and when some children tried to jump over the gap, they couldn’t make it and fell through into the river. So I got someone to fix the bridge.

8 Participating Schools 2004 Schools (21) 2005 Schools (31) 2006 Schools (50) 2000 Model Demonstration Schools (5) 2008 Schools (95)

9 MiBLSi Mission Statement To develop support systems and sustained implementation of a data- driven, problem-solving model in schools to help students become better readers with social skills necessary for success.

10 Prerequisites for MiBLSi Implementation Commitment by… –80% of building staff –Administration at building and district levels –Agreement to implement for at least three years Reading/Behavior one of top three building goals Building team and coach identified

11 Percent of Students at DIBELS Benchmark (Spring) and Major Discipline Referrals per 100 Students

12 Behavior SupportsAcademic Support Behavior Supports Academic Support Behavior SupportsAcademic Support Multi-Tiered Supports Integration of Academic and Behavior Supports Continuum of Supports Universal Prevention Core Instruction, all students, preventive, proactive Targeted Intervention Supplemental, some students, reduce risk Intensive Intervention Individualized, functional assessment, highly specific All Some Few

13 Examples of Academic and Behavior Supports Continuum of Supports Universal Prevention Behavior Identify expectations Teach Monitor Acknowledge Correct Reading Evidence based curriculum focused on: Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principal Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Adequate teaching time Trained instructors Progress monitoring Active participation with frequent feedback Targeted Intervention Behavior Check-in, Checkout Social skills training Mentoring Organizational skills Self-monitoring Reading Teacher-Directed PALS K PALS First Grade PALS Road to the Code REWARDS Peer Assisted Learning Strategies Read Naturally Intensive Intervention Behavior Individualized, functional assessment based behavior support plan Reading Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention Reading Mastery Corrective Reading

14 Relationship between behavior and reading Children of the Code: A Social Education Project

15 The Link Between Reading and Behavior (Kent McIntosh, 2008) The relationship increases as students progress through school –(Fleming et al., 2004; Morrison et al., 2001; Nelson et al., 2004; Roeser & Eccles, 2000) The relationship is strongest for students with externalizing behavior –(Kellam et al., 1998; Nelson et al., 2004) Students who experience problems in both areas have worst outcomes –(McKinney, 1989; Reinke, 2007)

16 Why look at both Behavior and Reading support Both are critical for school success Share critical feature of data-based decision making Both utilize three tiered prevention model Both incorporate a team approach at school level, grade level, and individual level Models of integrated behavior and reading supports produce larger gains in literacy skills than the reading-only model –(Stewart, Benner, Martella, & Marchand- Martella, 2007)

17 Improving the social behavior of students results in: More minutes spent in academic instruction (Putnam, Handler and O’Leary-Zonarich, 2003; Putnam, Handler, Rey and O’Leary-Zonarich, 2002)

18 Cost of Behavior Problems 1,792 office discipline 15 minutes per incident = 26,880 minutes = 448 hours/8 days= 56 days lost instructional time

19 I spend more time visiting and assisting teachers in the classrooms than I ever have because I spend much less time on discipline issues. Because we have more time, we have been able to re-structure our day to incorporate more time to teach reading. Sherryl Martin, Principal Riverton Elementary, Ludington

20 MiBLSi Schools and Reading MEAP: Average Total Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students per Day

21 MEAP- 4 th grade Reading Assessment 29 Elementary Schools In Michigan Schoolwide: Over 55% of major discipline referrals from classroom Schoolwide: Under 55% of major discipline referrals from classroom Probability of scoring below 75% proficiency on 4 th grade MEAP (Reading):.78 Probability of scoring above 75% proficiency on 4 th grade MEAP (Reading):.75

22 Began Implementation Fall 2001 Changed MEAP Fall 2005 Michigan Educational Assessment Program: Example School

23 High quality instruction engages students, and leads to reduction in problem behavior.

24 Quality instruction can reduce student engagement in problem behavior Sanford (2006) –Explicit instruction –Frequent opportunities to respond –Appropriate placement (95% correct in text) Preciado, Horner, Baker (2009) –Teaching decoding skills –Review/Preview of grade level story –Review 2-3 key vocabulary words in the story –Review directions and help student complete the next day’s reading independent task –Teach student how to ask for a break from task –Teach student how to ask for peer or adult assistance to complete a reading task

25 “We have an obligation to think of students as difficult to teach before we label them as unable to learn.” (Fletcher, Coulter, Reschly & Vaughn, 2004)

26 Children who fall behind academically will be more likely to: Find academic work aversive Find escape-maintained problem behaviors reinforced

27 Pathways to Multiple Problems (McIntosh, 2008) Social behaviour deficit model –Social skills problems may lead to academic problems (Dishion, French, & Patterson, 1995; Hinshaw, 1992; Reid and Patterson, 1991; Wehby, Lane, & Falk, 2003) Academic skill deficit model –Academic problems may lead to behavior problems (Lee et al., 1999; Roberts et al.,2001)

28 Cycle of Academic and Behavioral Failure: Aggressive Response (McIntosh, 2008) Teacher presents student with grade level academic task Student engages in problem behavior Teacher removes academic task or removes student Student escapes academic task Student’s academic skills do not improve

29 Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) by Kindergarten DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Score McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Boland, & Good, (2006)

30 Conditional Probability of Multiple Discipline Referrals in Grade 5 Kindergarten Predictor Variable Value Conditional Probability ODR020% 1+33% Spring DIBELS PSF score ≥35 (benchmark) 18% (targeted)25% <10 (intensive)33% McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Boland, & Good, (2006)

31 Oral Reading Fluency Trajectories by Function Grade McIntosh, Horner, Chard, Dickey, & Braun (2008) (n=24)

32 Distribution of Elementary Reading Intervention Level Michigan Example (based on DIBELS assessment) 33% 43% 56% 24% 20% (n = 201) 24% (n = 4074)

33 Talk with others at your table Why would you integrate two major initiative of Behavior and Reading Supports? Your Turn

34 If antisocial behavior is not changed by the end of grade 3, it should be treated as a chronic condition much like diabetes. That is, it cannot be cured but managed with the appropriate supports and continuing interventions (Walker, Colvin & Ramsey, 1995)

35 Big Ideas to Improve Behavior Specify appropriate behavior Teach appropriate behavior Monitor behavior Encourage appropriate behavior Correct inappropriate behavior

36 What do you see in schools using Positive Behavior Support? Students and staff who are able to tell you the expectations of the school. Milwood Middle School Orchard View Early Childhood Center

37 Approximately 75% of children identified with reading problems by third grade are found to be struggling in reading at ninth grade (Shapiro, 2004)

38 Big Ideas to Improve Reading Clear goals/objectives Research-based instructional practices Instructional time Instructional leadership Responsive intervention program Assessment Professional development

39 Importance of Reading: Children of the Code: A Social Education Project It is the gateway skill, that leads to success both in school and in life

40 McGlinchey & Hixson (2004) Relationship of Reading Rate and MEAP Performance: One School

41 Steps for Successful Readers (Schools in Kalamazoo County ) Phonemic Awareness (Spr, Kdg) Fluency (Spr, 1 st) Alphabetic Principle (Win, 1 st ) Fluency (Spr 2 nd) Fluency (Spr, 3 rd) Fluency (Spr, 4 rd) Fluency (Spr, 5 rd).16 (n=114).14 (n=336).05 (n=238).03 (n=401) 0 (n=190).09 (n=185) Probability of “Catching-Up”.62 (n=1178).83 (n=910).82 (n=849).85 (n=770).92 (n=561).97 (n=372) Probability of “Staying on Track”

42 Looking at Julia’s data Problem solving from an individual student level to systems level

43 End of Year goal is to demonstrate this skill at 35 phonemes per minute-grey area As an educator, do you have a concern about this child’s progress on the end of year goal/skill (remember she is only in Kindergarten) Based on her performance and progress, would you think she may have some sort of developmental delay?

44 End of Year goal is to demonstrate this skill at 35 phonemes per minute-grey area And now… the rest of the class. Now that you see this student in the context of the whole class. What are your thoughts regarding the lack of significant growth? The environmental background is a significant factor in a schools achievement, given that so many children start below, and end below expectations.

45 Same building different teacher Would having this information, make a difference in your instructional decisions at a building level? Would it make a difference at the classroom level?

46 Bursley Elementary: Scheduling reading time across school day

47 Reading Block Comstock East Elementary A Tiered Literacy Approach

48 Importance of Protected Reading Block at Loftis Elementary School

49 How do we do this in our schools? Use existing teams/committees as much as possible Embed project activities into current initiatives (i.e., school improvement, safe schools, character education, etc.) Establish three levels of implementation, each with different functions –School-wide –Grade level –Individual student

50 Braiding with School Building and District Initiatives Reading First School Improvement Response to Intervention No Child Left Behind Student Support Team

51 Leadership Team Roles Principal: Create and enhance system of support for staff implementation activities through securing resources, acknowledging success, and demonstrating priority/visibility of program Additional Team Member: Develop plan and provide leadership with implementation activities at building level, provide communication with school community Coach: Facilitate the process for school-wide implementation, problem solve, celebrate success

52 What happens when others may not be as enthusiastic about the innovation? What happens when a staff member gets excited about a new innovation?

53 We may need to confirm/develop our current commitment status Main Ideas: –Confirm commitment from administration –Review school-improvement goals (reading/Behavior in top three goals) –Share current status of reading/behavior student performance with staff, ask if satisfied with this –Ask staff if things are likely to improve if we continue in same way

54 Commitment when we are dealing with a diverse group How do we develop commitment around a focused set of goals?

55 Talk with others at your table What is the level of commitment for implementation at your school?, District?What is the level of commitment for implementation at your school?, District? How might you increase or sustain commitment?How might you increase or sustain commitment? Your Turn

56 Problem Solving at the Various levels School Wide Level –Purpose: Evaluate the success of each grade level programs supporting all students within the school and to take action to strengthen these programs. Grade Level –Purpose: Evaluate the success of programs supporting all students within the specific grade and class; and to take action to strengthen these programs. Individual Student Level –Purpose: Evaluate the success of programs supporting the student and to take action to strengthen the program.

57 Implementation at Grade Level Example Grade Level Meeting at East Elementary “Grade level meetings are awesome… Teachers ask what they can do differently to make sure students come better prepared for success next year… Meetings focus on two grades at a time to insure connection.” Chuck Tansey, Principal Edison Environmental Science Academy

58 Organizer (30 minute presentation)

59

60 Schoolwide/Grade Level/Individual Student Systems Worksheet

61 District Impact on Sustainability: Four common areas Competing initiatives –Integrate/braid –Fund/support Data use for continuous regeneration –Require regular review of fidelity and outcome –Cycle of review needs to fit cycle of impact. Efficiency –If it works now, make it easier to do next year Stability/Leadership –Role descriptions, etc.

62 Implementing an integrated model We must think carefully about our purpose, players, and position to determine priorities and courses of action (Harn, 2008) “I think you should be more explicit here in step two.” Then a miracle occurs

63 The Promise of RTI Change doesn’t happen based solely on enthusiasm nor knowledge of specific skills (Harn 2008) “Hey, no problem!”

64 Main Messages adapted from McIntosh (2008) and Horner (2008) To improve overall academic achievement, focus on school-wide academic AND behavior support To improve overall behavior, focus on school-wide academic AND behavior support Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.

65 “Cheshire,” Alice began rather timidly, “Would you tell me please, which way I ought to go from here?” “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,” said the Cat. “I don’t much care-” said Alice. “Then it doesn’t matter which way you go,” said the Cat. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carrol


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