Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ozone and the Lung: Biological Effects during Development Laura Van Winkle PhD DABT University of California, Davis

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Ozone and the Lung: Biological Effects during Development Laura Van Winkle PhD DABT University of California, Davis"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ozone and the Lung: Biological Effects during Development Laura Van Winkle PhD DABT University of California, Davis lsvanwinkle@ucdavis.edu

2 Oxidant Air Pollution Ozone (0 3 ): - created by a chemical reaction between oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds; facilitated by sunlight - the primary constituent of smog, tends to form in hot, stagnant air ; a “summertime” pollutant - The new primary and secondary standards, announced Mar 12 2008 by EPA, are identical: an 8 hr standard of 0.075 parts per million (ppm) which replaces the standard set in 1997 of 0.08.

3

4 Air Pollution and Children: Reasons for Concern The lung is still developing and growing in the postnatal period; damage during “critical windows of susceptibility” can permanently diminish lung function Children are more likely to exercise vigorously outdoors when ozone concentrations are high and are less cognizant of ozone effects on their health High respiratory rate with a small body size More time to develop environmentally-induced diseases

5 Lung Structure, Development and Ozone Effects The lung is not fully formed at birth and during the postnatal period many cells are still differentiating while the lung is also growing. Maturation of airway epithelium occurs in a proximal to distal direction

6 Epithelial-Mesenchymal Trophic Unit of the Conducting Airways Evans, Van Winkle et al AJRCMB 1999 21 (6):655-7

7 Ozone Effects in the Lung High levels cause cellular damage affecting primarily ciliated epithelium Lower levels cause oxidant stress Injury is dose, timing and species dependent with episodic exposures having larger effects on airway remodeling than chronic exposures or single acute exposures.

8 Ozone effects during lung development Ozone exposure during lung development causes airway, immune system and parenchymal remodeling

9 Copyright ©2006 American Physiological Society Fanucchi, M. V. et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291: L644-L650 2006; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00027.2006 Position of First Airway Outpocketing Changes following episodic ozone exposures in the postnatal period

10 Copyright ©2006 American Physiological Society Fanucchi, M. V. et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291: L644-L650 2006; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00027.2006 Number of Airway Branches to First Alveolus

11 Copyright ©2003 American Physiological Society Evans, M. J. et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 285: L931-L939 2003; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00175.2003 Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) immunoreactivity Remodeling of the basement membrane FA ControlPostnatal Ozone

12 Copyright ©2003 American Physiological Society Evans, M. J. et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 285: L931-L939 2003; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00175.2003 Syndecan-4 and FGFR-1 immunoreactivity in basal cells

13 PGP 9.5 positive neuroendocrine cells Larson, Schelegle et al Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004 194 (3): 211-20

14 Copyright ©2006 American Physiological Society Fanucchi, M. V. et al. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291: L644-L650 2006; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00027.2006 Effect of postnatal ozone exposure on smooth muscle bundle orientation ({theta}) in bronchioles

15 Ozone effects during lung development The following alterations were found after exposure to ozone: reduced airway number hyperplasia of bronchial epithelium increased mucous cells shifts in distal airway smooth muscle bundle orientation and abundance to favor hyperreactivity interrupted postnatal basement membrane zone differentiation modified epithelial nerve fiber distribution reorganization of the airway vascular and immune system Ozone exposure during lung development can cause airway, immune system, neural and parenchymal remodeling The net effect of this, especially when combined with allergic sensitization, is increased airways reactivity and bronchoconstriction as well as potential for obstruction in airways in response to provocation.

16 Program Investigators in UCD Pulmonary Group Mark Avdalovic, M.D.Pulmonary Medicine – Med & CNPRC Nicole Baumgarth, DVM, Ph.D.Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology - Vet Med & Center for Comp Med Chuck Bevins, M.D., Ph.D.Med Micro & Immunology – Med Alan Buckpitt, Ph.D.Molecular Biosciences - Vet Med Carrol Cross, M.D.Pulmonary Medicine – Med Jason Eiserich, Ph.D.Nephrology - Med Michael Evans, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & CNPRC Laurel Gershwin, DVM, Ph.D.Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology - Vet Med Richart Harper,M.D.Pulmonary Medicine – Med Dallas Hyde, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & CNPRC Jesse Joad, M.D. Pediatrics - Med Nick Kenyon, M.D.Pulmonary Medicine – Med Jerry Last, Ph.D.Pulmonary Medicine – Med Ruth McDonald, M.D.Pediatrics - Med Lisa Miller, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & CNPRC Karen Oslund, DVM, Ph.D.Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology - Vet Med Kent Pinkerton, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & CNPRC Charles Plopper, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & CNPRC Edward Schelegle, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & CNPRC Scott Simon, PhDBiomed Eng – Engineering Charles Stephensen, Ph.D.Nutrition – Ag & Environ Sciences Jonathan Widdicombe, Ph.D.Physiology & Membrane Biology - Med Laura Van Winkle, Ph.D. Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med Dennis Wilson, DVM, Ph.D.Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology - Vet Med Reen Wu, Ph.D.Anatomy, Physiology & Cell Biology - Vet Med & Pul Med – Med 5P01ES000628- 34 Pulmonary Effects of Environmental Oxidant Pollutants


Download ppt "Ozone and the Lung: Biological Effects during Development Laura Van Winkle PhD DABT University of California, Davis"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google