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Bullying: A Perspective from Educational Psychology Dr Victoria Lewis Senior Practitioner Educational Psychologist & Academic and Professional Tutor School.

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Presentation on theme: "Bullying: A Perspective from Educational Psychology Dr Victoria Lewis Senior Practitioner Educational Psychologist & Academic and Professional Tutor School."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bullying: A Perspective from Educational Psychology Dr Victoria Lewis Senior Practitioner Educational Psychologist & Academic and Professional Tutor School of Psychology University of Nottingham Dr Victoria Lewis Senior Practitioner Educational Psychologist & Academic and Professional Tutor School of Psychology University of Nottingham

2 Dr Victoria Lewis AIMS AND OBJECTIVES  To consider definitions of bullying and the prevalence of bullying in schools  To consider bullying as a social phenomenon  To consider potential implications of bullying in schools  To consider the role of educational psychologists in facilitating anti-bullying interventions in schools  To consider definitions of bullying and the prevalence of bullying in schools  To consider bullying as a social phenomenon  To consider potential implications of bullying in schools  To consider the role of educational psychologists in facilitating anti-bullying interventions in schools

3 Dr Victoria Lewis ACTIVITY 1: QUESTIONS ABOUT BULLYING  What is bullying, and what distinguishes it from other problem behaviours in schools (for example, aggressive behaviour displayed between peers)?  What is the prevalence of bullying behaviour in schools?  What are the most common forms of bullying experienced by children in schools?  Why is bullying sometimes classed as a social phenomenon?  What are some of the effects of bullying?  What can psychology offer to the study of bullying / anti-bullying strategies in schools?  What is bullying, and what distinguishes it from other problem behaviours in schools (for example, aggressive behaviour displayed between peers)?  What is the prevalence of bullying behaviour in schools?  What are the most common forms of bullying experienced by children in schools?  Why is bullying sometimes classed as a social phenomenon?  What are some of the effects of bullying?  What can psychology offer to the study of bullying / anti-bullying strategies in schools?

4 Dr Victoria Lewis WHAT IS BULLYING? Definitions “Bullying is a subtype of aggressive behaviour in which the perpetrator exerts power over a weaker victim through various means including physical size or strength, age or psychological advantage, and which is repeated over time” Vaillancourt, Hymel & McDougall (2003) “Systematic abuse of power which repeatedly and deliberately (Smith & Sharp 1994) harms others (Hazler 1996)” Definitions “Bullying is a subtype of aggressive behaviour in which the perpetrator exerts power over a weaker victim through various means including physical size or strength, age or psychological advantage, and which is repeated over time” Vaillancourt, Hymel & McDougall (2003) “Systematic abuse of power which repeatedly and deliberately (Smith & Sharp 1994) harms others (Hazler 1996)”

5 Dr Victoria Lewis Core Elements  Imbalance of Power  Intentional  Repeated over Time  Orpinas & Horne (2006) Core Elements  Imbalance of Power  Intentional  Repeated over Time  Orpinas & Horne (2006)

6 Dr Victoria Lewis What Bullying Isn’t “An odd fight or quarrel between children of approximately equal strength is not classed as bullying” Sharp & Smith (1994) What Bullying Isn’t “An odd fight or quarrel between children of approximately equal strength is not classed as bullying” Sharp & Smith (1994)

7 Dr Victoria Lewis Types of Bullying Direct-Physical – kicking, hitting, pushing, taking belongings Direct-Verbal – name-calling, taunting, mocking, making threats Indirect-Relational – excluding people from groups, deliberately ignoring, gossiping, spreading rumours Types of Bullying Direct-Physical – kicking, hitting, pushing, taking belongings Direct-Verbal – name-calling, taunting, mocking, making threats Indirect-Relational – excluding people from groups, deliberately ignoring, gossiping, spreading rumours

8 Dr Victoria Lewis THE PREVALENCE OF BULLYING IN SCHOOLS UK Study of 230 pupils (6 secondary schools, 6 primary schools)  51% year 5 pupils thought bullying was a big problem or quite a big problem in their school  51% reported they had been bullied that term  28% year 8 pupils thought bullying was a ‘big problem’ or ‘quite a big problem’ in their school  Oliver & Candappe (2002) UK Study of 230 pupils (6 secondary schools, 6 primary schools)  51% year 5 pupils thought bullying was a big problem or quite a big problem in their school  51% reported they had been bullied that term  28% year 8 pupils thought bullying was a ‘big problem’ or ‘quite a big problem’ in their school  Oliver & Candappe (2002)

9 Dr Victoria Lewis  Study of 6000 pupils in Sheffield schools (24 schools)  27% primary school pupils and 20% secondary school pupils said they had been bullied that term  Whitney & Smith (1993)  Study of 6000 pupils in Sheffield schools (24 schools)  27% primary school pupils and 20% secondary school pupils said they had been bullied that term  Whitney & Smith (1993)

10 Dr Victoria Lewis  3 media based surveys of 7,066 boys and girls aged  Up to 12-13% had experienced severe bullying (time base unspecified)  The figure rose to 25% for children from minority ethnic groups  Another 42-47% felt they had been less severely bullied  About half the pupils were bullied by a group  Katz, Buchanan & Bream (2001)  3 media based surveys of 7,066 boys and girls aged  Up to 12-13% had experienced severe bullying (time base unspecified)  The figure rose to 25% for children from minority ethnic groups  Another 42-47% felt they had been less severely bullied  About half the pupils were bullied by a group  Katz, Buchanan & Bream (2001)

11 Dr Victoria Lewis  US study of students  17% reported having been bullied sometimes or more often during the school year  19% said they had bullied others sometimes or more often  6% reported both bullying others and being a victim of bullying  Nansel (2001)  US study of students  17% reported having been bullied sometimes or more often during the school year  19% said they had bullied others sometimes or more often  6% reported both bullying others and being a victim of bullying  Nansel (2001)

12 Dr Victoria Lewis COMMON FORMS OF BULLYING  Name-calling was the most prevalent  Social isolation was also common  Physical aggression was less common  Similar levels of bullying reported by boys and girls  There was a higher incidence among black and asian students (33%) compared with white (26%) and other ethnic groups (30%)  Oliver & Candappe (2002)  Name-calling was the most prevalent  Social isolation was also common  Physical aggression was less common  Similar levels of bullying reported by boys and girls  There was a higher incidence among black and asian students (33%) compared with white (26%) and other ethnic groups (30%)  Oliver & Candappe (2002)

13 Dr Victoria Lewis Verbal and relational forms of bullying occur more often than physical bullying (Rivers & Soutter 1996) Verbal bullying was twice as common as physical bullying (Craig & Pepler 1997) Relational bullying was more common among girls (Crick & Nelson 2002) Verbal and relational forms of bullying occur more often than physical bullying (Rivers & Soutter 1996) Verbal bullying was twice as common as physical bullying (Craig & Pepler 1997) Relational bullying was more common among girls (Crick & Nelson 2002)

14 Dr Victoria Lewis Cyber Bullying  Bullying using electronic devices such as mobile phones and computers  92 students aged from 14 London schools completed a survey on bullying. 22% had experienced cyber bullying at least once. 6.6% had experienced being bullied in this way in the previous two months  33% of the sample who had experienced cyber bullying had told no one about it  Anti-Bullying Alliance (2005) Video s) Cyber Bullying  Bullying using electronic devices such as mobile phones and computers  92 students aged from 14 London schools completed a survey on bullying. 22% had experienced cyber bullying at least once. 6.6% had experienced being bullied in this way in the previous two months  33% of the sample who had experienced cyber bullying had told no one about it  Anti-Bullying Alliance (2005) Video s)

15 Dr Victoria Lewis Psychological Theories of Bullying  Socio-Cognitive Deficits  Social Learning Theory  Attachment Theory  Social Dominance Theory  Ecological Systems Theory  Frederickson (2008) Psychological Theories of Bullying  Socio-Cognitive Deficits  Social Learning Theory  Attachment Theory  Social Dominance Theory  Ecological Systems Theory  Frederickson (2008)

16 Dr Victoria Lewis BULLYING AS A ‘SOCIAL PHENOMENA’  Bullying frequently occurs in the presence of peers but the actions of those peers more often encourage the bullying than stop it (Craig & Pepler 1997)  An audience to bullying is consistent and may provide the person doing the bullying with positive reinforcement (Olweus 1991)  The increases in arousal levels when watching bullying may encourage children who would normally not act aggressively, to become involved (Olweus 1991)  Bullying frequently occurs in the presence of peers but the actions of those peers more often encourage the bullying than stop it (Craig & Pepler 1997)  An audience to bullying is consistent and may provide the person doing the bullying with positive reinforcement (Olweus 1991)  The increases in arousal levels when watching bullying may encourage children who would normally not act aggressively, to become involved (Olweus 1991)

17 Dr Victoria Lewis Peer Involvement  Peers were involved in 85% of playground bullying  54% of peers’ time was spent reinforcing bullying by passively watching  21% of peers’ time was spent actively supporting bullies  25% of peers’ time was spent intervening on behalf of victims and 75% of these peer interventions were successful in stopping bullying  O’Connell et al (1990) Peer Involvement  Peers were involved in 85% of playground bullying  54% of peers’ time was spent reinforcing bullying by passively watching  21% of peers’ time was spent actively supporting bullies  25% of peers’ time was spent intervening on behalf of victims and 75% of these peer interventions were successful in stopping bullying  O’Connell et al (1990)

18 Dr Victoria Lewis Bystanders  ‘The invisible engine in the cycle of bullying’  Twemlow (2001)  A person who does not actively become involved in a situation where someone else requires help (Clarkson 1996)  As the number of bystanders increases the likelihood that someone will intervene to stop the situation decreases. This is known as the diffusion of responsibility (Latane & Darley 1970) Bystanders  ‘The invisible engine in the cycle of bullying’  Twemlow (2001)  A person who does not actively become involved in a situation where someone else requires help (Clarkson 1996)  As the number of bystanders increases the likelihood that someone will intervene to stop the situation decreases. This is known as the diffusion of responsibility (Latane & Darley 1970)

19 Dr Victoria Lewis Bystander Effect  May be a diffusion of responsibility… Leaving it to others to sort out?  They may find it difficult to support in reality… Lack of effective strategies?  May be concerned about their own safety and preservation… They may fear being bullied themselves?  They may not understand bullying or have the skills to intervene effectively  Craig & Peplers (1997) Bystander Effect  May be a diffusion of responsibility… Leaving it to others to sort out?  They may find it difficult to support in reality… Lack of effective strategies?  May be concerned about their own safety and preservation… They may fear being bullied themselves?  They may not understand bullying or have the skills to intervene effectively  Craig & Peplers (1997)

20 Dr Victoria Lewis Roles in Bullying  ‘Bully’  Assistant – joins in and assists the person doing the bullying  Reinforcer – does not actively attack the victim but provides positive feed back to the person bullying  Defender – shows anti-bullying behaviour – comforting the victim; taking sides with them and trying to stop the bullying  Outsider – stays away not taking sides with anyone - allows bullying to continue by silent approval  Victim  Salmivalli (1996; 1999) Roles in Bullying  ‘Bully’  Assistant – joins in and assists the person doing the bullying  Reinforcer – does not actively attack the victim but provides positive feed back to the person bullying  Defender – shows anti-bullying behaviour – comforting the victim; taking sides with them and trying to stop the bullying  Outsider – stays away not taking sides with anyone - allows bullying to continue by silent approval  Victim  Salmivalli (1996; 1999)

21 Dr Victoria Lewis Typical Characteristics of those who Bully  Strong need to dominate  Impulsive and easily angered  Defiant and aggressive towards other adults  Shows little empathy  Physically stronger (if male)  Olweus 1990  Not low self-esteem – those doing the bullying may be among the most popular or socially connected children (Olweus 1991)  Not unpopular (Rodkin 2000) Typical Characteristics of those who Bully  Strong need to dominate  Impulsive and easily angered  Defiant and aggressive towards other adults  Shows little empathy  Physically stronger (if male)  Olweus 1990  Not low self-esteem – those doing the bullying may be among the most popular or socially connected children (Olweus 1991)  Not unpopular (Rodkin 2000)

22 Dr Victoria Lewis QUESTIONING THE NOTION OF A BULLY  Not a personality trait but a response to a set of circumstances (Rivers & Soutter 1996)  1 in 5 children who bully may have been bullied themselves  Setting events are a very important determinant Soutter & McKenzie (2000)  Not a personality trait but a response to a set of circumstances (Rivers & Soutter 1996)  1 in 5 children who bully may have been bullied themselves  Setting events are a very important determinant Soutter & McKenzie (2000)

23 Dr Victoria Lewis Typical Characteristics of those Victimised  Cautious, sensitive, quiet, withdrawn, shy  Depressed  Often do not have single good friend  Physically weaker (if male)  Olweus 1990 The pupil may have a particular characteristic that makes them stand out: …They may have special educational needs (O’Moore & Hilley 1989) …Be of a minority community (Sharp & Smith 1994) …May not fit gender stereotypes (Shakeshaft et al 1995) Typical Characteristics of those Victimised  Cautious, sensitive, quiet, withdrawn, shy  Depressed  Often do not have single good friend  Physically weaker (if male)  Olweus 1990 The pupil may have a particular characteristic that makes them stand out: …They may have special educational needs (O’Moore & Hilley 1989) …Be of a minority community (Sharp & Smith 1994) …May not fit gender stereotypes (Shakeshaft et al 1995)

24 Dr Victoria Lewis EFFECTS OF BULLYING  Bullying can cause emotional and physical harm  Affect learning and attendance  Young people who commit physical bullying at an early age are more likely to become involved in violent crime at a later age  Bullying can cause emotional and physical harm  Affect learning and attendance  Young people who commit physical bullying at an early age are more likely to become involved in violent crime at a later age

25 Dr Victoria Lewis WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT BULLYING IN SCHOOLS?  Prevention  Reaction  Support  Prevention  Reaction  Support

26 Dr Victoria Lewis Anti-Bullying Interventions  Individual  Group  Organisational Sharp (1999) Government Initiatives  SEAL (Social and Emotional aspects of Learning 2007)  Don’t Suffer in Silence (2003) Anti-Bullying Interventions  Individual  Group  Organisational Sharp (1999) Government Initiatives  SEAL (Social and Emotional aspects of Learning 2007)  Don’t Suffer in Silence (2003)

27 Dr Victoria Lewis Pupils Preferred Responses to Bullying  Friendships  Avoidance strategies  Stand up for themselves  Oliver & Candappe (2002) Pupils Preferred Responses to Bullying  Friendships  Avoidance strategies  Stand up for themselves  Oliver & Candappe (2002)

28 Dr Victoria Lewis Anti-Bullying Interventions with Groups or Individuals  Remedy externalising problems in those who have shown bullying behaviour or on the internalising problems displayed by victims  For example, social skills training / assertiveness training / anger management programmes Anti-Bullying Interventions with Groups or Individuals  Remedy externalising problems in those who have shown bullying behaviour or on the internalising problems displayed by victims  For example, social skills training / assertiveness training / anger management programmes

29 Dr Victoria Lewis Individual Pupil Responses to Bullying  Aggressive – escalates the problem  Passive unconstructive – ignores the behaviour but meets the bully’s demands  Passive constructive – exiting quickly from a bullying situation and seeking support from peers (may disable a victim)  Assertive – a pupil calmly refuses to comply with demands and fails to reinforce bullying behaviour (most successful)  Sharp & Cowie (1994) Individual Pupil Responses to Bullying  Aggressive – escalates the problem  Passive unconstructive – ignores the behaviour but meets the bully’s demands  Passive constructive – exiting quickly from a bullying situation and seeking support from peers (may disable a victim)  Assertive – a pupil calmly refuses to comply with demands and fails to reinforce bullying behaviour (most successful)  Sharp & Cowie (1994)

30 Dr Victoria Lewis Social Skills Training  Body language and eye contact  Assertive statements  Resisting manipulations and threats  Responses to name calling  Enlisting support  Sharp et al (1994) Social Skills Training  Body language and eye contact  Assertive statements  Resisting manipulations and threats  Responses to name calling  Enlisting support  Sharp et al (1994)

31 Dr Victoria Lewis BREAKING THE SILENCE  Children may fail to inform teachers they are experiencing bullying (Craig et al 2000). This is especially likely where pupils are older (Naylor et al 2001)  Telling teachers / parents was felt to be risky. Many pupils felt it would be easy to talk to a friend (68% Y5; 71% Y8) (Oliver & Candappe (2002)  Half of children who admitted to having been bullied in a private and anonymous questionnaire, said they had not told anyone about it, at home or at school (Whitney & Smith 1993)  Over a two year period, those who had stopped being victims had talked to someone about it (67%) more often than those who had stayed victims (41%) Smith and others (2004)  Children may fail to inform teachers they are experiencing bullying (Craig et al 2000). This is especially likely where pupils are older (Naylor et al 2001)  Telling teachers / parents was felt to be risky. Many pupils felt it would be easy to talk to a friend (68% Y5; 71% Y8) (Oliver & Candappe (2002)  Half of children who admitted to having been bullied in a private and anonymous questionnaire, said they had not told anyone about it, at home or at school (Whitney & Smith 1993)  Over a two year period, those who had stopped being victims had talked to someone about it (67%) more often than those who had stayed victims (41%) Smith and others (2004)

32 Dr Victoria Lewis PEER SUPPORT  Befriending  Circle of Friends  Circle Time  Conflict resolution  Peer Tutoring  Peer Mentoring  Peer Counselling  Peer Mediation  Co-operative Teaching  Befriending  Circle of Friends  Circle Time  Conflict resolution  Peer Tutoring  Peer Mentoring  Peer Counselling  Peer Mediation  Co-operative Teaching

33 Dr Victoria Lewis Peer Mentoring  Involving students directly in solving bullying problems  Peer mentors work with children who may be vulnerable (for example, in the dining hall); act as befrienders or contact points Co-operative Teaching Arrangements  16 classes in 2 primary schools  Small reduction in reported bullying  Naylor & Cowie (1994) Peer Mentoring  Involving students directly in solving bullying problems  Peer mentors work with children who may be vulnerable (for example, in the dining hall); act as befrienders or contact points Co-operative Teaching Arrangements  16 classes in 2 primary schools  Small reduction in reported bullying  Naylor & Cowie (1994)

34 Dr Victoria Lewis PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACHES  No Blame/ Support Group Approach (Young 1998)  Method of Shared Concern (Pikas 2002; Rigby 2005)  No Blame/ Support Group Approach (Young 1998)  Method of Shared Concern (Pikas 2002; Rigby 2005)

35 Dr Victoria Lewis No Blame Approach  Interview with bullied pupil  Arrange a meeting for all pupils who are involved  Explain the problem  Share responsibility  Identify solutions  Let pupils take action themselves  Review  Maines & Robinson (1992) No Blame Approach  Interview with bullied pupil  Arrange a meeting for all pupils who are involved  Explain the problem  Share responsibility  Identify solutions  Let pupils take action themselves  Review  Maines & Robinson (1992)

36 Dr Victoria Lewis Pikas Method of Shared Concern  Stage 1 – meeting with group members  Stage 2 – Meeting with person who has been bullied  Stage 3 – Further meetings with group members  Stage 4 – Further meetings with all the group members  Pikas (1987) Pikas Method of Shared Concern  Stage 1 – meeting with group members  Stage 2 – Meeting with person who has been bullied  Stage 3 – Further meetings with group members  Stage 4 – Further meetings with all the group members  Pikas (1987)

37 Dr Victoria Lewis WHOLE SCHOOL APPROACHES Sheffield Anti-Bullying Initiative  A whole-school approach  23 schools (16 primaries, 7 secondaries)  Led to an increase in the number of pupils saying they hadn't been bullied – most evident in primary schools  Smith (1999) Sheffield Anti-Bullying Initiative  A whole-school approach  23 schools (16 primaries, 7 secondaries)  Led to an increase in the number of pupils saying they hadn't been bullied – most evident in primary schools  Smith (1999)

38 Dr Victoria Lewis Olweus (1991) Bullying Prevention Programme  Creating a school, and ideally a home environment characterised by:  Warmth, positive interest and involvement from adults  Firm limits on unacceptable behaviour  Consistent application of non-punitive, non-physical sanctions for unacceptable behaviour  Adults who act as authorities and role-models  Levels of Intervention:  School  Classroom  Individual  Substantial reductions in reported bullying in Norway – typically 30-50% Olweus (1991) Bullying Prevention Programme  Creating a school, and ideally a home environment characterised by:  Warmth, positive interest and involvement from adults  Firm limits on unacceptable behaviour  Consistent application of non-punitive, non-physical sanctions for unacceptable behaviour  Adults who act as authorities and role-models  Levels of Intervention:  School  Classroom  Individual  Substantial reductions in reported bullying in Norway – typically 30-50%

39 Dr Victoria Lewis Programme Evaluations  Some interventions showed decreased bullying  Results were not always consistent  Social skills groups reduced bullying in 1 in 4  Mentoring reduced bullying in 1 of 1 case  Whole school approaches decreased bullying in 7 of 10 cases  Vreeman & Carrol (2007) Programme Evaluations  Some interventions showed decreased bullying  Results were not always consistent  Social skills groups reduced bullying in 1 in 4  Mentoring reduced bullying in 1 of 1 case  Whole school approaches decreased bullying in 7 of 10 cases  Vreeman & Carrol (2007)

40 Dr Victoria Lewis CONCLUSIONS  Bullying is highly prevalent in schools  Intervention rates may sometimes be low  There may be insufficient acknowledgement of indirect forms of bullying  Children and young people may be reluctant to report bullying  Schools need to target the role of bystanders in the intervention  Parents and carers can help rehearse effective strategies with children Reid et al (2004)  Bullying is highly prevalent in schools  Intervention rates may sometimes be low  There may be insufficient acknowledgement of indirect forms of bullying  Children and young people may be reluctant to report bullying  Schools need to target the role of bystanders in the intervention  Parents and carers can help rehearse effective strategies with children Reid et al (2004)

41 Dr Victoria Lewis

42 IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS  Involvement in training and project work  Research into anti-bullying interventions  Apply Psychology to understand the type of bullying and develop systematised interventions based on these understandings  Encourage anti-bullying intervention to take place at different levels, involving the whole school community (including parents and carers, pupils themselves and midday supervisors)  Involvement in training and project work  Research into anti-bullying interventions  Apply Psychology to understand the type of bullying and develop systematised interventions based on these understandings  Encourage anti-bullying intervention to take place at different levels, involving the whole school community (including parents and carers, pupils themselves and midday supervisors)

43 Dr Victoria Lewis REFERENCES  Clarkson, P. (1996). The Bystander. London: Whurr Publishers  Cowie, H. & Sharp, S. (1994). Tackling Bullying through the curriculum: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge  Craig, W; Pepler, D; & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground and in the classroom. School Psychology International. 21 (1). Pp  Crick, N.R. & Nelson, D.A. (2002). Relational and physical victimisation within friendships: Nobody told me there’d be friends like these. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 30. Pp  Frederickson, N. & Cline, T (2002). Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity: A Textbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.  Frederickson, N. Miller, A; & Cline, T. (2008). Educational Psychology: Topics in Applied Psychology. Ch 10 Bullying. London: Hodder Arnold  Clarkson, P. (1996). The Bystander. London: Whurr Publishers  Cowie, H. & Sharp, S. (1994). Tackling Bullying through the curriculum: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge  Craig, W; Pepler, D; & Atlas, R. (2000). Observations of bullying in the playground and in the classroom. School Psychology International. 21 (1). Pp  Crick, N.R. & Nelson, D.A. (2002). Relational and physical victimisation within friendships: Nobody told me there’d be friends like these. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 30. Pp  Frederickson, N. & Cline, T (2002). Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity: A Textbook. Buckingham: Open University Press.  Frederickson, N. Miller, A; & Cline, T. (2008). Educational Psychology: Topics in Applied Psychology. Ch 10 Bullying. London: Hodder Arnold

44 Dr Victoria Lewis  Hazler, R.J. (1996). Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Interventions for Bullying and Victimisation. Washington DC: Accelerated Development  Katz, A; Buchanan, A. & Bream, V. (2001). Bullying in Britain: Testimonies from Teenagers. Surrey: Young Voice  Latane & Darley, (1970). The Unresponsive Bystander. Why Doesn’t He Help? New York: Appleton Century Crofts  Maines, B. & Robinson, G. (1998). All for Alex. A Circle of Friends. Bristol: Lucky Duck Publishing  Nansel, T.R. (2001). Bullying is Common Study. Site  Naylor, P. & Cowie, H. (1994). The effectiveness of peer support systems in challenging school bullying: The perspectives and experiences of teachers and pupils. Journal of Adolescence. 22 (4). Pp  Hazler, R.J. (1996). Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Interventions for Bullying and Victimisation. Washington DC: Accelerated Development  Katz, A; Buchanan, A. & Bream, V. (2001). Bullying in Britain: Testimonies from Teenagers. Surrey: Young Voice  Latane & Darley, (1970). The Unresponsive Bystander. Why Doesn’t He Help? New York: Appleton Century Crofts  Maines, B. & Robinson, G. (1998). All for Alex. A Circle of Friends. Bristol: Lucky Duck Publishing  Nansel, T.R. (2001). Bullying is Common Study. Site  Naylor, P. & Cowie, H. (1994). The effectiveness of peer support systems in challenging school bullying: The perspectives and experiences of teachers and pupils. Journal of Adolescence. 22 (4). Pp

45 Dr Victoria Lewis  Oliver, C. & Candappe, M. (2002). Tackling bullying: Listening to the Views of Children and Young People. Thomas Coram Research Unit: Institute of Education.  Olweus, D. (1991). Bully-Victim Problems Among School Children: Basic Facts and Effects School-Based Intervention Programme. In Pepler, D. & Rubin, K.H. (eds). The Development of Childhood Aggression. Erlbaum: Hillsdale NJ. Pp  Orpinas, P. & Horne, A.M. (2006). Creating a Positive School Climate and Developing Social Competence. Washington DC: American psychological Association  Oliver, C. & Candappe, M. (2002). Tackling bullying: Listening to the Views of Children and Young People. Thomas Coram Research Unit: Institute of Education.  Olweus, D. (1991). Bully-Victim Problems Among School Children: Basic Facts and Effects School-Based Intervention Programme. In Pepler, D. & Rubin, K.H. (eds). The Development of Childhood Aggression. Erlbaum: Hillsdale NJ. Pp  Orpinas, P. & Horne, A.M. (2006). Creating a Positive School Climate and Developing Social Competence. Washington DC: American psychological Association

46 Dr Victoria Lewis  Pikas, A. (2002). New developments of shared concern. School Psychology International  Reid, P; Monsen, J; & Rivers, I. (2004). Psychology’s contribution to understanding and managing bullying within schools. Educational Psychology in practice. 20 (3). Pp  Rigby, K. (2005). Why do some children bully at school? The contribution of negative attitudes towards victims and the perceived expectations of friends, parents and teachers. School Psychology International. 26 (2). Pp  Pikas, A. (2002). New developments of shared concern. School Psychology International  Reid, P; Monsen, J; & Rivers, I. (2004). Psychology’s contribution to understanding and managing bullying within schools. Educational Psychology in practice. 20 (3). Pp  Rigby, K. (2005). Why do some children bully at school? The contribution of negative attitudes towards victims and the perceived expectations of friends, parents and teachers. School Psychology International. 26 (2). Pp

47 Dr Victoria Lewis  Rivers, I. & Soutter, A. (1996). Bullying and the Steiner School Ethos. A Case study Analysis. 17. Pp  Salmivalli, C and others. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within a group. Aggressive Behaviour 22. Pp1-15  Shakeshaft, C., Barber, E., Hergenrother, M., Johnson, Y., Mandel, L. & Sawyer, J. (1995). Peer harassment in schools. Journal For a Just and Caring Education. 1. Pp30–44.  Sharp, S. & Smith, P.K (eds). (1994). Tackling Bullying in Your School. A Practical Handbook for Teachers. London: Routledge  Smith, P.K. (1999). The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross National Perspective. London: Routledge  Smith, P.K., Morita, Y, Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R. & Slee, P. (eds.) (1999). The Nature of School Bullying: a Cross-National Perspective. London: Routledge.  Rivers, I. & Soutter, A. (1996). Bullying and the Steiner School Ethos. A Case study Analysis. 17. Pp  Salmivalli, C and others. (1996). Bullying as a group process: Participant roles and their relations to social status within a group. Aggressive Behaviour 22. Pp1-15  Shakeshaft, C., Barber, E., Hergenrother, M., Johnson, Y., Mandel, L. & Sawyer, J. (1995). Peer harassment in schools. Journal For a Just and Caring Education. 1. Pp30–44.  Sharp, S. & Smith, P.K (eds). (1994). Tackling Bullying in Your School. A Practical Handbook for Teachers. London: Routledge  Smith, P.K. (1999). The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross National Perspective. London: Routledge  Smith, P.K., Morita, Y, Junger-Tas, J., Olweus, D., Catalano, R. & Slee, P. (eds.) (1999). The Nature of School Bullying: a Cross-National Perspective. London: Routledge.

48 Dr Victoria Lewis  Smith, P.K. & Shu, S. (2000). School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge  Soutter, A. & McKenzie, A. (2000). The use and effects of anti-bullying and anti- harassment policies in Australian schools. School Psychology International. 21(1),  Twemlow and others. (2001). Improving the Social and Intellectual Climate in Elementary Schools by Addressing the Bully-Victim-Bystander Power Struggles. In Cohen, J (ed). (2001). Caring Classrooms, Intelligent Schools: The Social Emotional Education of Young Children. New York Teachers. College Press  Smith, P.K. & Shu, S. (2000). School Bullying: Insights and Perspectives. London: Routledge  Soutter, A. & McKenzie, A. (2000). The use and effects of anti-bullying and anti- harassment policies in Australian schools. School Psychology International. 21(1),  Twemlow and others. (2001). Improving the Social and Intellectual Climate in Elementary Schools by Addressing the Bully-Victim-Bystander Power Struggles. In Cohen, J (ed). (2001). Caring Classrooms, Intelligent Schools: The Social Emotional Education of Young Children. New York Teachers. College Press

49 Dr Victoria Lewis  Vaillancourt, T. Hymel, S. & McDougall, P. (2003). Bullying is power: Implications for school-based intervention strategies. Special issue: Journal of Applied School Psychology. 19 (2). Pp  Vreeman, R.C. & Carrol, A.E. (2007). A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Pediatric Adolescence Med.161. Pp  Whitney, I. & Smith, P.K. (1993). A survey of the nature and extent of school bullying in junior/middle and secondary schools. Educational Research. 35. Pp3-25.  Young, S. (1998). The support group approach to bullying in schools. Educational Psychology in Practice. 14. Pp32-39  Vaillancourt, T. Hymel, S. & McDougall, P. (2003). Bullying is power: Implications for school-based intervention strategies. Special issue: Journal of Applied School Psychology. 19 (2). Pp  Vreeman, R.C. & Carrol, A.E. (2007). A systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent bullying. Pediatric Adolescence Med.161. Pp  Whitney, I. & Smith, P.K. (1993). A survey of the nature and extent of school bullying in junior/middle and secondary schools. Educational Research. 35. Pp3-25.  Young, S. (1998). The support group approach to bullying in schools. Educational Psychology in Practice. 14. Pp32-39


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