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The Empowerment of Teachers: The contribution of Test 2r to Assessment & Learning in the Early Years Classroom Prepared and presented by Dr Pauline M Cogan.

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Presentation on theme: "The Empowerment of Teachers: The contribution of Test 2r to Assessment & Learning in the Early Years Classroom Prepared and presented by Dr Pauline M Cogan."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Empowerment of Teachers: The contribution of Test 2r to Assessment & Learning in the Early Years Classroom Prepared and presented by Dr Pauline M Cogan ILSA Conference September

2 1. Pressure on early years teachers from legislation, policy and research re. early assessment and intervention. 2. Barriers to early identification in Ireland. 3. Research reasons for development of TEST2r. 4. The promise of TEST2r for elements of National Strategy to Improve Literacy & Numeracy 2011 – TEST2r sound theoretical basis. 6. TEST2r phases of development and findings. 7. TEST2r future work Phase 3 EAST. Structure of presentation 2

3 1. Pressure on early years teachers from legislation, policy and research re. early assessment and intervention EPSEN Act (2004)EPSEN Act (2004) NCCA (2005)NCCA (2005) NCSE (2006)NCSE (2006) Task Force on Dyslexia (2001)Task Force on Dyslexia (2001) Learning Support Guidelines (2000)Learning Support Guidelines (2000) Special Education Circular (24/03)Special Education Circular (24/03) National Strategy to Improve Literacy & Numeracy among Children and Young People (2011 – 2020)National Strategy to Improve Literacy & Numeracy among Children and Young People (2011 – 2020) Legislation & Policy 3

4 Gough & Juel (1987)Gough & Juel (1987) Carter (1984)Carter (1984) Strag (1972)Strag (1972) Brooks (2007)Brooks (2007) Denton, Vaughn & Fletcher (2003)Denton, Vaughn & Fletcher (2003) Nicolson, Fawcett, Moss, Nicolson & Reason (1999)Nicolson, Fawcett, Moss, Nicolson & Reason (1999) Hatcher, Hulme, Miles, Carrol, Gibbs, Smith, Bowyer-Crane & Snowling (2006)Hatcher, Hulme, Miles, Carrol, Gibbs, Smith, Bowyer-Crane & Snowling (2006) MacLagan (2001)MacLagan (2001) Singleton, Horne, Thomas & Leesdale (2003)Singleton, Horne, Thomas & Leesdale (2003) Muter (2003)Muter (2003) Research 4

5 2. Barriers to early identification in Ireland Assessment Tools from other jurisdictions of questionable efficacyAssessment Tools from other jurisdictions of questionable efficacy  DEST (1996), DEST2 (2004), COPS (2003), EYES (1991), MIST (1993) Assessment Tools from IrelandAssessment Tools from Ireland  BIAP (1994)  DTELS (2010) 5

6 2. Barriers to early identification in Ireland ( cont’d) Major barrier to early identification is absence of evidence-based, reliable classroom assessment tool for teachers in infant/early years classroomsMajor barrier to early identification is absence of evidence-based, reliable classroom assessment tool for teachers in infant/early years classrooms 6

7 3. Research reasons for development of TEST2r Need for wide ranging assessment toolNeed for wide ranging assessment tool Grounded in current theories of literacy acquisition and literacy acquisition failureGrounded in current theories of literacy acquisition and literacy acquisition failure Suitable for pre-readersSuitable for pre-readers Suitable for children aged 4, 5 & 6Suitable for children aged 4, 5 & 6 Need to provide basis for classroom intervention (assessment for learning, RTI model)Need to provide basis for classroom intervention (assessment for learning, RTI model) Many reasons for TEST2r 7

8 4. The promise of TEST2r for elements of National Strategy to Improve Literacy & Numeracy 2011 – 2020 Improvement of teacher knowledge/understanding of early language and literacy development Identification of children’s learning needs as early as possible through evidenced-based assessment systems Assessment of Junior Infants Explicit teaching of structure and function of written and oral language plus building blocks of literacy 8

9 5. TEST2r - sound theoretical basis Phonological Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) Working Memory Hypothesis (WMH) Double Deficit Hypothesis (DDH) Magnocellular Deficit Hypothesis (MDH) Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis (CDH) 9

10 5. TEST2r - sound theoretical basis (cont’d) Phonological Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) Multiple phonological tests – recognition of long developmental trajectory from earliest to most sophisticated phonological awareness (alphabetic principle, co-articulation, visual- verbal associative memory) 10

11 Working Memory Hypothesis (WMH) Presence of several short-term memory and working memory tests Dual route of reading catered for Auditory memory (assembled phonology route) Spatial memory (direct route to reading & spelling) 5. TEST2r - sound theoretical basis (cont’d) 11

12 5. TEST2r - sound theoretical basis (cont’d) Double Deficit Hypothesis (DDH) DDH = theory that children may have literacy problems due to a single deficit either in phonological awareness or in rapid naming. Other children may have both of these deficits hence a double deficit. Many phonological tests Two rapid automatised naming tests In TEST2r 12

13 5. TEST2r - sound theoretical basis (cont’d) Magnocellular Deficit Hypothesis (MDH) MDH = theory that children may have literacy problems due to anomalous magno or large cells in any body system – visual, auditory, somaesthetic, motor Several magnocellular type tests In TEST2r 13

14 5. TEST2r - sound theoretical basis (cont’d) Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis (CDH) CDH = theory that children may have literacy problems due to subtle cerebellar differences – difficulty taking literacy skills to automatic levels. Several cerebellar type tests In TEST2r 14

15 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings  Phase 1 – Pilot 20 teachers trained in sub-test rationale and administration – highly specified test administration manual20 teachers trained in sub-test rationale and administration – highly specified test administration manual Sub-tests administered to 100 children in greater Dublin area (inner city, suburban, rural)Sub-tests administered to 100 children in greater Dublin area (inner city, suburban, rural) 15

16 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 1 – Pilot Data Analysis for : Floor/ceiling effectsFloor/ceiling effects Test/Re-test reliabilityTest/Re-test reliability Refined/reduced number of sub-tests for National StudyRefined/reduced number of sub-tests for National Study 16

17 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 1 – National Study 169 teachers trained in sub-test rationale and administration – test administration manual169 teachers trained in sub-test rationale and administration – test administration manual Sub-tests administered to 1041 children nationwideSub-tests administered to 1041 children nationwide Data harvestedData harvested 17

18 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 1 – National Study Factor Analysis of dataset (reduction method)Factor Analysis of dataset (reduction method) 7 Factors revealed (Building Blocks of Literacy?)7 Factors revealed (Building Blocks of Literacy?) 18

19 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Factor 1 Visual - Verbal Correspondence Factor Factor 2 Rhyme/Memory Factor Factor 3 Phoneme Segmentation Factor Factor 4 Phonemic Segmentation Speed Factor Factor 5 Spatial Memory Factor Factor 6 Motor Speed Factor Factor 7 Balance Factor 7 Factors 19

20 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Visual Verbal Correspondence Factor Poor readers/spellers have difficulty with:  sound – letter mapping, paired associate learning difficulty weak “word-attack” or spelling skills 20

21 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Rhyme/Memory Factor Poor readers/spellers may have difficulty with:  Rhyme families and short term memory  Text Comprehension Rhyme/Rime connection reading by analogy spelling by analogy Recurring visual and auditory word patterns } 21

22 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Phoneme Segmentation Factor Poor readers/spellers may have difficulty with:  Segmenting words in to their smallest sounds ( phonemes )  Mapping sounds on to corresponding letters transcription of single phonemes (sounds) to corresponding graphemes (letters/letter groups  Co-articulation  Recognising were a sound appears in a word 22

23 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Phoneme Segmentation Speed Factor Poor readers/spellers may have difficulty with:  Developing automaticity of any skill including literacy  Difficulty with speed of phonemic segmentation  Difficulty in reaching procedural (automatic) level of knowledge cortical cost, glucose cost, loss of speed and energy attention is engaged in decoding poor comprehension 23

24 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Spatial Memory Factor Poor readers/spellers may have difficulty with:  Localising/sequencing small targets such as letters and letter segments  Deciding whether lines are oriented at the same/or different angles take longer to learn letter shapes, names  Reduced haptic benefit when manipulating letters, shapes 24

25 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Motor Speed Factor Poor readers/spellers may have difficulty with:  Performing motor tasks  Slower than normally developing children impacting speech rate, rapid naming of objects, letters, digits, colours, symbols  Reduced volume of written work  Reduced dual task processing e.g. note taking while simultaneously listening; concentrating on spelling and content when writing 25

26 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d) Balance Factor Poor readers/spellers may have difficulty with:  Motor skill – automatisation process even for most primitive skills such as balance  Slow in meeting motor milestones as children (British 1970 birth cohort) 26

27 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Development of Second Database Psycho-educational assessment of 861 of original 1041 children at 10 th birthdayPsycho-educational assessment of 861 of original 1041 children at 10 th birthday WISC-IV (FSIQ/GAI)WISC-IV (FSIQ/GAI) WIAT-II (Word Reading, Reading Comprehension, Pseudoword Decoding, Spelling plus other measures)WIAT-II (Word Reading, Reading Comprehension, Pseudoword Decoding, Spelling plus other measures) WRAT-4 Sentence ComprehensionWRAT-4 Sentence Comprehension,, 27

28 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Statistical Analysis of both databases: multivariate multiple regression TEST2r factors viewed as predictorsTEST2r factors viewed as predictors Intelligence was a co-variateIntelligence was a co-variate Attainments on WIAT-II and WRAT4 scores were dependent variablesAttainments on WIAT-II and WRAT4 scores were dependent variables Gender and DEIS/non DEIS attendance were control variablesGender and DEIS/non DEIS attendance were control variables,, 28

29 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Multiple Regression Results 7 TEST2r factors significantly related to Reading, Spelling & Comprehension7 TEST2r factors significantly related to Reading, Spelling & Comprehension Strong prediction independent of intelligenceStrong prediction independent of intelligence Analysis of additional variance accounted for by TEST2r factors confirmed they added significantly to the prediction equation independently of IQ – mainly for reading and spellingAnalysis of additional variance accounted for by TEST2r factors confirmed they added significantly to the prediction equation independently of IQ – mainly for reading and spelling Multivariate analysis of variants indicates that TEST2r is equally applicable to identifying at risk learners in DEIS and non DEIS schoolsMultivariate analysis of variants indicates that TEST2r is equally applicable to identifying at risk learners in DEIS and non DEIS schools 29

30 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Multiple Regression Results 3 VERY POWERFUL FACTORS predicted Reading AND Spelling at 4, 5 and 63 VERY POWERFUL FACTORS predicted Reading AND Spelling at 4, 5 and 6 Visual Verbal CorrespondenceVisual Verbal Correspondence Rhyme MemoryRhyme Memory Motor SpeedMotor Speed 2 POWERFUL FACTORS predicted both Reading and Spelling for 5 and 6 year olds2 POWERFUL FACTORS predicted both Reading and Spelling for 5 and 6 year olds Phoneme Segmentation – not administered to 4 year oldsPhoneme Segmentation – not administered to 4 year olds Spatial MemorySpatial Memory 30

31 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Multiple Regression Results Another POWERFUL FACTOR predicted Reading for 5 and 6 year olds and Spelling for 6 year oldsAnother POWERFUL FACTOR predicted Reading for 5 and 6 year olds and Spelling for 6 year olds Phoneme Segmentation Speed - not administered to 4 year oldsPhoneme Segmentation Speed - not administered to 4 year olds Balance Factor was less powerful and predicted Reading performance for 4 year olds and Spelling for 5 year oldsBalance Factor was less powerful and predicted Reading performance for 4 year olds and Spelling for 5 year olds 31

32 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 1 (Visual Verbal Correspondence)Predictive Subtests in Factor 1 (Visual Verbal Correspondence) Letter Knowledge: Upper Case Letter: Total Letter Knowledge: Upper Case Letter: Total Letter Knowledge: Lower Case Letter: Total Letter Knowledge: Lower Case Letter: Total Letter Sound Array: Total Number Fully Correct Letter Sound Array: Total Number Fully Correct Alliteration: Total Score Alliteration: Total Score Alliteration Oddity: Total Score Alliteration Oddity: Total Score Phonetic Spelling: Total Score Phonetic Spelling: Total Score 32

33 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 2 (Rhyme/Memory)Predictive Subtests in Factor 2 (Rhyme/Memory) Rhyme Recognition 1: Total Score Rhyme Recognition 1: Total Score Timed Rhyme Generation: Average number of generated Items Timed Rhyme Generation: Average number of generated Items Digit Span Forward: Total Score Digit Span Forward: Total Score Non-Word Repetition: Total Score Non-Word Repetition: Total Score Rhyme Recognition Oddity: Total Score Rhyme Recognition Oddity: Total Score 33

34 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 3 (Phoneme Segmentation)Predictive Subtests in Factor 3 (Phoneme Segmentation) Non-Word Reading: Total Score Non-Word Reading: Total Score Phoneme Deletion Final Consonant: Real Word Remaining Number Correct Within Time Phoneme Deletion Final Consonant: Real Word Remaining Number Correct Within Time Initial Phoneme Deletion: Initial Consonant Cluster: Number Correct Within Time Initial Phoneme Deletion: Initial Consonant Cluster: Number Correct Within Time Final Phoneme Deletion: Non-Word Remaining: Number Correct Within Time Final Phoneme Deletion: Non-Word Remaining: Number Correct Within Time 34

35 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 4 (Phoneme Segmentation Speed)Predictive Subtests in Factor 4 (Phoneme Segmentation Speed) Phoneme Deletion: Final Consonant: Real Word Remaining: Average Time Phoneme Deletion: Final Consonant: Real Word Remaining: Average Time Initial Phoneme Deletion: Initial Consonant Cluster: Average Time Initial Phoneme Deletion: Initial Consonant Cluster: Average Time Final Phoneme Deletion Non-Word Remaining: Average Time Final Phoneme Deletion Non-Word Remaining: Average Time 35

36 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 5 (Spatial Memory)Predictive Subtests in Factor 5 (Spatial Memory) Spatial Memory Test 1: Forward Total Score Spatial Memory Test 1: Forward Total Score Finger Localisation: Hand Hidden Single Finger Touched Finger Localisation: Hand Hidden Single Finger Touched Finger Localisation: Hand Hidden Two Fingers Touched Finger Localisation: Hand Hidden Two Fingers Touched Copy Test: Total Score Copy Test: Total Score Squirrel Memory: Forward: Total Score For All Levels Squirrel Memory: Forward: Total Score For All Levels Squirrel Memory: Reverse: Total Score For All Levels Squirrel Memory: Reverse: Total Score For All Levels 36

37 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 6 (Motor Speed)Predictive Subtests in Factor 6 (Motor Speed) Dowel Placing Test 1: Speed of Dowel Placement Dowel Placing Test 1: Speed of Dowel Placement RAN Objects : Total Score RAN Objects : Total Score RAN Digits Test : Total Score RAN Digits Test : Total Score 37

38 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Phase 2 – Results Predictive Subtests in Factor 7 (Balance)Predictive Subtests in Factor 7 (Balance) Balance Test Total One Foot: Dual Task Score Balance Test Total One Foot: Dual Task Score Balance Test Total One Foot Balance Single Task Balance Test Total One Foot Balance Single Task 38

39 6. TEST2r - phases of development and findings (cont’d)  Conclusions from Phase 2 TEST2r Significantly predicted literacy difficulties up to 6 years post initial screeningSignificantly predicted literacy difficulties up to 6 years post initial screening At least one-third of those who experienced difficulties could have been predicted 6 years earlierAt least one-third of those who experienced difficulties could have been predicted 6 years earlier Prediction was independent of intelligencePrediction was independent of intelligence Explained all the variability in literacy performance associated with attendance in DEIS and non DEIS schoolsExplained all the variability in literacy performance associated with attendance in DEIS and non DEIS schools Can be used to screen Junior Infants, Senior Infants, 1 st ClassCan be used to screen Junior Infants, Senior Infants, 1 st Class 39

40 7. TEST2r EAST : Future Work Phase 3  Produce publisher quality subtests Fieldwork: Test/Re-test reliability study Short term validation using Drumcondra Test of Early Literacy (D-TELS) Reduced number of subtests 40

41 7. TEST2r EAST : Future Work Phase 3 (cont’d)  To achieve these objectives Collaborate with 200 volunteer early years or Learning Support teachers nationally who will receive training in the reasons for literacy acquisition and failure and training in test administration protocols. 41

42 7. TEST2r EAST : Future Work Phase 3 (cont’d)  Once identified as ‘at risk’ for literacy failure, what to do for the child? Each subtest is a signpost to intervention Existing resources identified Others resources developed 42

43 7. TEST2r future work Phase 3 EAST (cont’d) TEST2r Early Assessment & Support for Literacy Teaching Early screening and diagnostic tests Teacher’s Guide (traditional and interactive; signposts for intervention) Online facility Local clusters of expertise Online support platform 43

44 Acknowledgements ILSA for funding throughout Phases 1&2 ILSA for funding throughout Phases 1&2 DES for funding Phase 2 DES for funding Phase 2 INTO and participating primary teachers Retired teachers network Prof Ray Fuller, School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin Prof Ray Fuller, School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin Dr Michael Gormley, School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin Dr Michael Gormley, School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin Dr Therese McPhillips, St Patrick’s College, Drumcondra Dr Therese McPhillips, St Patrick’s College, Drumcondra Dr Donal McAnaney Dr Donal McAnaney The Blackrock Education Centre, Co Dublin The Blackrock Education Centre, Co Dublin The Education Centres of - Athlone, Cork, Drumcondra, Enniscorthy, Limerick, Sligo The Education Centres of - Athlone, Cork, Drumcondra, Enniscorthy, Limerick, Sligo 200 National Schools and their principals Sessional Psychologists and their Supervisors 1041 children and their parents Reads of Nassau Street (printers) Maeve Heffernan Project Co-Ordinator Special thanks to Dr Seamus Cannon & Mr Pat Seaver Blackrock Education Centre

45 The availability of an Early Screening Test which is valid and reliable makes everybody in the educational community a winner. Children and families are helped, teachers are empowered, schools are more efficient, budgets are reduced and literacy is raised. TEST2r will soon be available thanks to children and their parents, teachers and their schools and all stakeholders involved in this project. Any teacher who wishes to be involved in the final phase of this project can register their interest at - or at mobile number (087) or the sign-up sheet as your expression of interest 45

46 Brooks, G. (2007). What works for pupils with literacy difficulties? The effectiveness of intervention schemes (3 rd ed.) London: Department for Children, Schools and Families. See also Carter L.F. (1984). The Sustaining Effects Study of Compensatory and Elementary Education. Educational Researcher, 13(7), 4 – 13. Clerehugh, J., Hart, K., Pither, R., Rider, K., & Turner, K. (1991). Early Years Easy Screener (EYES). Windsor, Berks: NFER-Nelson. Denton, C.A., Vaughn, S. & Fletcher, J.M. (2003). Bringing Research-Based Practice in Reading Intervention to Scale. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18(3), pp.201 Department of Education and Science (2000). Guidelines for Learning Support. Dublin: Government Publications. Department of Education and Science (2001). Report of the Task Force on Dyslexia. Government Publications Office, Dublin Department of Education and Science (2003) SpEd 24/03 Allocation of Resources for Pupils with Special Needs in Primary Schools Department of Education and Skills, (2011). Literacy and numeracy for learning and life: The national strategy to improve literacy and numeracy among children and young people Dublin: Government Publications. Education of Persons with Special Educational Needs (EPSEN) Act (2004) Government Publications Office, Dublin Educational Research Centre. (2010). Drumcondra Test of Early Literacy Scoring Booklet. Dublin: Author. Educational Research Centre. (2010). Drumcondra Test of Early Literacy Administration and Technical Manual. Dublin: Author. Gough, P., and Juel, C. (1987). The first stages of word recognition. Unpublished manuscript. University of Texas at Austin. References

47 47 Hannavy, S. (1993). The Middle Infant Screening Test(MIST) and Forward Together Programme: NFER – Nelson. Hatcher, Hulme, Miles, Carrol, Gibbs, Smith, Bowyer-Crane & Snowling (2006) MacLagan, F. (2001). Theory and Intervention: A Complete Analysis for Children With Learning Difficulties. University of Sheffield. Spelmanm B, and McHugh B (1994) BIAP (Belfield Infant Assessment Profile) Muter, V. (2003). Early Reading Development and Dyslexia: Whurr. National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (2005) Towards a Framework for Early Learning: Final Consultation Report. Available at: port.pdf port.pdf National Council for Special Education. (2006). Implementation Report: Plan for the Phased Implementation of The EPSEN Act 2004.Assessment in Primary School 2005: Supporting Assessment in School: Dublin Stationery Office. Nicolson R. I., and Fawcett A.J (1996). The Dyslexia Early Screening Test (DEST2). The Psychological Corporation Nicolson R. I., and Fawcett A.J (2004). The Dyslexia Early Screening Test (DEST-2). The Psychological Corporation Nicolson, R. I., Fawcett, A. J., Moss, H., Nicolson, M. K., & Reason, R. (1999). Early reading intervention can be effective and cost-effective. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(1), Singleton, C., Horne, J., Thomas, K., & Leesdale, R. (2003). Lucid Rapid Dyslexia Screening. Beverly, East Yorkshire: Lucid Research Limited. Strag, G.A. (1972). Comparative behavioural ratings of parents with severe mentally retarded, special learning disability and normal children. Journal of Learning Disabilities 5:


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