Presentation on theme: "SPONGE 3.Name a challenge that you or your friends have faced while growing into a young adult? 4.Besides physically, what is another way that you develop."— Presentation transcript:
SPONGE 3.Name a challenge that you or your friends have faced while growing into a young adult? 4.Besides physically, what is another way that you develop while you are a teen? Growth and Development, Day 2
Growth and Development Section 2 Childhood and Adolescent Development
The Growth Years The first years of your life until the teenage years are a time of growth – not just physical growth either. There are five stages in life before adulthood: (and there is growth at each of these stages.) 1.Infancy: Babies grow three times as large at this time (the first year of life.) This is also a time of developing trust. An infant whose needs go unmet will become fearful of people. 2.Early childhood: Between the ages of 1 and 3, children learn to walk and talk. This stage is a time of learning through exploring. Parents must not smother children at this age so they can develop confidence.
The Growth Years 3.Childhood takes place between the ages of 3 and 5. At this age children’s imaginations develop and kids also begin to copy what they see adults do. They also begin to ask questions non-stop. Parents that approve of a child’s behavior will help the child learn to be creative. Parents who are impatient with them will often times send a message that creativity is bad.
The Growth Years 4.Late childhood is the age between 6 and 11 years old. Children at this age like to create things and be rewarded for good work. Children who are scolded for creative activities may begin to feel worthless. A child who fails in any of these stages can succeed at later stages, but it will be more difficult later on.
The Growth Years 5.Adolescence is the time of life between childhood and adulthood. People go through adolescence around the ages from 12 to 15. During adolescence your body is flooded with hormones that cause rapid changes to your body.
Physical Growth Adolescence begins with puberty, the time when you begin to develop certain traits of adults of your gender. Girls will typically undergo changes earlier than boys, though there is no exact time for anyone to hit puberty.
Physical Growth Changes that take place during puberty include: –Growth spurts –Acne appears –Permanent teeth fill in –Perspiration increases –Genital growth –Body hair begins to grow
Physical Growth –Females specifically: Will experience their first period. Ovulation will begin Hips will widen Many girls will feel uncomfortable with their new body.
Physical Growth Males specifically will –Grow facial hair –Adam’s apple will grow Voices will crack –Shoulders will broaden –Muscles develop –Sperm production begins
Physical Health It is more important to take care of your body during adolescence than at any other time. Skin is a major body organ just like the brain or heart. It can be a problem during puberty. Skin has several jobs: –Protects you from water –Defends you from germs –Helps control your body temperature –It acts as a sense organ (touch)
Skin Parts of the skin include… –Epidermis: The outermost layer of skin cells –Dermis: The inner layer of skin that contains… Oil glands that keep the skin soft and waterproof. Sweat glands release perspiration to cool the body. During puberty both of these glands go crazy and make skin extra oily. How do you keep your skin healthy?
Skin Problems Pimples: A clogged pore that becomes infected. Warts: Small growths on the skin caused by a virus. Boils: Infections with swelling, redness and a build-up of pus. Herpes simplex I: A cold sore near the lips.
Teeth Because all of your teeth are permanent by the time you reach adolescence, it is important to start taking better care of them. There are five types of teeth: –Incisors: Cut into and tear food. –Canines: Grasp and tear food –Premolars: Chew and grind food –Molars: Chew and grind food –Wisdom Teeth: Probably from when humans had larger jaws and ate tougher meals.
Teeth Word Bank: Canines Incisors Molars Premolars
Parts of the Tooth Crown: The part visible to the eye. Root: The part under the gums. Each tooth also has four types of tissue… –Pulp is the soft sensitive tissue containing blood vessels and nerves. –Dentin is bonelike material surrounding the pulp. –Cementum is thin, bonelike material that covers the root. –Enamel is the hard material that covers the crown of a tooth.
Caring for Your Mouth Bacteria living in your mouth create a soft white goo called plaque. When plaque combines with sugar it becomes an acid that destroys tooth enamel. Tartar: If plaque is left alone for more than a day it hardens, becoming tartar, which is much harder to get rid of. Gingivitis: Plaque or decaying food caught in your teeth causes your gums to bleed and swell. How can you prevent these problems?
Vision gradually fades after adolescence, but eyesight will become especially bad if you... –Are in front of a screen for too long (videogames, TV, computers, iPods, etc.) –Read in the dark. –Have a poor diet lacking in vitamins. Parts of the eye include: –Pupil: The black opening that controls how much light comes in the eye. –Iris: The colored part of the eye. –Lens: Sits behind the pupil and focuses the light so you can see clearly. Eyes
Eye Cells There are two main types of nerve endings located in your retina that allow you to see called rods and cones: –Rods: Do not see in color, but do see well in dark light. Allow you to see out the corner of your eye. –Cones: Work better in brighter lighting and do see color. Work best looking at things straight in front of you.
Protecting Your Hearing Like vision, hearing will naturally fade as you grow older, but you can permanently damage your hearing by being exposed to extra loud noises (music, power tools, etc.) There are three main parts of the ear: –The Outer Ear: The fleshy part on the outside of the head. –The Middle Ear: Contains the eardrum (a thin membrane that vibrates when sound hits it.) –The Labyrinth (Inner Ear): Turns sound into a message for your brain to understand and controls your balance.
Mental Growth Thinking abilities also develop during the early teen years. Adolescents can solve life’s more complex problems and stop seeing the world as only black and white. Your emotions also go through changes: –Mood swings will occur due to the increased hormones that help your body grow. –At this age you start to think of others as complex individuals instead of just “others.” For example, you will be more likely to care about a friend who has a problem. –Interest in the opposite gender. Not only being attracted, but also becoming friends.
Social Growth Adolescents face many developmental tasks. Examples of developmental tasks teens will face include: –Accepting your body and its characteristics. –Becoming a more independent person. –Forming more mature relationships with both boys and girls your age. –Learning more about who you are. –Developing your own values. –Learning to solve problems in adult ways.