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Nutrition & Digestion Digestion Interpret the different functions of the digestive system organs. Outline the pathway food follows through the digestive.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition & Digestion Digestion Interpret the different functions of the digestive system organs. Outline the pathway food follows through the digestive."— Presentation transcript:


2 Nutrition & Digestion Digestion

3 Interpret the different functions of the digestive system organs. Outline the pathway food follows through the digestive tract. Identify the role of enzymes in chemical digestion. Section Objectives:

4 The main function of the digestive system is to disassemble the food you eat into its component molecules so that it can be used as energy for your body. Digestion is accomplished through a number of steps. Functions of the Digestive System

5 Digestion chemical process by which food is broken down into smaller molecules used by the body.

6 Digestion

7 Involves 3 activities: A. Mechanical digestion (chewing) B. Chemical digestion C. Absorption

8 Structures of the digestive tract and their functions. 1. Mouth – chewing 1 st place digestion begins. Saliva which contains a digestive enzyme, called amylase starts the process.

9 Digestion begins

10 3 Structures of Mouth A. Tongue - tastes 4 distinct tastes (bitter, salty, sour, sweet) B. Salivary glands - secrete saliva, start of digestive process. C. Teeth

11 Incisors Gums Soft palate Tonsils Opening of salivary gland duct Cuspids or canines Bicuspids or premolars Molars Tongue Teeth Uvula Hard palate Your Mouth

12 3 Types of teeth 1. Incisors - biting / tearing foods 2. Canines - tear / shred food 3. Molars - grind

13 For those who like a nice dip look at the above oral cancers of the mouth and tongue!!


15 2. Pharynx area in back of the throat that connects the nose and the mouth to the digestive and respiratory tract.

16 3. Esophagus tube that carries food to the stomach. Epiglottis - a small flap of tissue that seals off the trachea during the swallowing of food.

17 4. Stomach pouch like structure with thick expandable muscular walls. Hydrochloric acid increases the acidity of the stomach contents to pH2.

18 Ulcer Causing Bacteria

19 Polyps in the stomach

20 Heartburn

21 Stomach A. Contains HCl, the enzyme pepsin for digestion of proteins. Both are produced by the glands of the stomach for breaking down food.

22 Stomach B. Growling of the stomach is the contractions of the stomach as it mixes the food, etc. When there is less food the noise is louder.

23 Stomach C. Mucus - coats the stomach wall for protection and helps to lubricate and ease movement of food.

24 Ulcers

25 5. Small intestine A tube about 7 m long that digests carbohydrates, fats completes digestion of proteins and absorbs digested nutrients. 2.5 cm in diameter. Polyp in small intestine

26 3 parts of small intestine


28 Small Intestines

29 A. Villi - fingerlike projections in the small intestine that help increase the surface area for absorption. 5. Small Intestines cont. Folds of the small intestine



32 B. Bile - a salt containing a detergent that is secreted into the small intestine by the gall bladder. Bile helps to break up fats. 5. Small Intestines

33 fingerlike structure found near the junction in the small and large intestine. Appendicitis - when appendix becomes inflamed. Treatment is the removal of the appendix. Appendix

34 Appendix annimation

35 Appendics

36 Large Intestines


38 6. Large Intestine A large tube in diameter about 1.5 m long that absorbs water from the material remaining in the digestive tract.

39 Colon Cancer

40 Large Intestine A. Peristalsis - wavelike movement that moves materials. Other places that this movement occurs is in the esophagus and small intestines.

41 Premalignant polyps colon

42 Large Intestine B. Feces - undigested solid waste material emitted.

43 Large Intestine C. Bacteria - found in the large intestine, aids in digestion. Takes 12-24 hours for food to move from mouth to anus.

44 Sigmoid Colon Hiatal Colon Reflex

45 secretes pancreatic fluid into the small intestine. Helps digest fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Pancreatic fluid is a mixture of enzymes and sodium bicarbonate. Insulin controls the uptake of glucose by the cells. 7. Pancreas

46 8. Liver Largest internal organ, serves as the body’s primary storage place main chemical factory and detoxification site. Gets blood from intestines before the blood goes to the rest of the body. Cross-section of a normal liver. The holes are bile ducts.

47 2 lobes of the liver

48 Liver Hepatitis - infection of the liver by a virus. Can be sexually transmitted, by blood products, or feces. Hepatic Cell Carcinoma

49 Liver Cirrhosis - scarring of the liver, can be caused from Hepatitis or alcoholism. Results can be death. Cirrhosis

50 9. Gall Bladder stores bile made by the liver. Takes water from solution making bile more concentrated. Bile then is released into small intestine as needed. stone that stuck into the cystic duct Gall stones

51 Gall Bladder cont. Calcified Stones taken out from surgically removed gallbladder.


53 Answer Mouth Salivary Glands Esophagus Pharynx Oral Cavity Pancreas Gall Bladder Stomach Liver Large Intestine Rectum Anus Small Intestine

54 Eating the American Way

55 Nutrition

56 Recognize the contribution of the six classes of nutrients to body nutrition. Identify the role of the liver in food storage. Relate caloric intake to weight loss or gain. Section Objectives:

57 Six basic kinds of nutrients can be found in foods: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. You supply your body with these nutrients when you eat foods from the five main food groups. The Vital Nutrients


59 Nutrients Substances needed for: Cell repair/Maintence Cell growth Energy Obtained from the food we eat

60 Diet -Digestive

61 6 Main Nutrients A. Carbohydrates B. Fats/Lipids C. Proteins D. Vitamins E. Minerals F. Water

62 A. 3 Carbohydrates

63 1. Sugars A. Glucose - sugar cells obtain most of their energy from C 6 H 12 O 6. B. Glycogen - made up of thousands of glucose units. (Body stores glycogen in the liver and muscles, if an excess then stored as fat.)

64 2. Starches made of many sugars. Aka complex carbs. Ex: Breads, pasta and potatoes.

65 3. Cellulose/Fiber contained in cell walls of plants. Fiber that aids in digestion. May help provide some protection against heart disease and some types of cancer.

66 B. Fats - Lipids store other nutrients and are a source of stored energy. Made of three fatty acids joined by glycerol molecule. Use lipids to make cell membranes, hormones, oils in hair and skin. Two types - Saturated and Unsaturated fats. (Unsaturated fat is considered the healthier of the two, because it is liquid at room temperature.)

67 C. Proteins the construction materials for the body parts such as muscle, skin and blood. 1. Amino Acids - make up proteins. There are 20 Amino Acids Note: Essential amino acids can not be made by the body, there are eight of these. A proper diet would provide these for the body. Foods such as meats, eggs and dairy products contain them.

68 Fluorine (F) Calcium (Ca) Iodine (I) Iron (Fe) Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg) Sulfur (S) Potassium (K) Copper (Cu) Phosphorus (P) Minerals and vitamins

69 D. Vitamins complex organic molecules that are needed by the body in very small amounts. Two types: 1. Water soluble - dissolve in water. Cannot be stored in the body, so must have regularly. Ex: B 1 (Thiamin), B 2 (Riboflavin), Niacin, B 6, B 12, C. 2. Fat Soluble - stored in fat or liver for future use by the body. Ex: Vit. A, D, E, K

70 This table lists foods that contain fat- soluble and water-soluble vitamins. Vitamins Fat-soluble Function Source A Maintain health of epithelial cells; formation of light absorbing pigment; growth of bones and teeth DAbsorption of calcium and phosphorus in digestive tract E Formation of DNA, RNA, and red blood cells K Blood clotting Liver, broccoli, green and yellow vegetables, tomatoes, butter, egg yolk Egg yolk, shrimp, yeast, liver, fortified milk; produced in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet rays in sunlight Leafy vegetables, milk, butter Green vegetables, tomatoes, produced by intestinal bacteria

71 Vitamins Water-soluble Function Source B1B1 Sugar metabolism; synthesis of neurotransmitters B 2 (riboflavin)Sugar and protein metabolism in cells of eyes, skin, intestines, blood Niacin Energy-releasing reactions; fat metabolism B6B6 Fat metabolism Ham, eggs, green vegetables, chicken, raisins, seafood, soybeans, milk Green vegetables, meats, yeast, eggs Yeast, meats, liver, fish, whole-grain cereals, nuts Salmon, yeast, tomatoes, corn, spinach, liver, yogurt, wheat bran, whole- grain cereals and bread Minerals and vitamins

72 Vitamins Water-soluble Function Source B 12 Red blood cell formation; metabolism of amino acids Pantothenic acidAerobic respiration; synthesis of hormones Folic acid Synthesis of DNA and RNA; production of red and white blood cells BiotinAerobic respiration; fat metabolism Liver, milk, cheese, eggs, meats Milk, liver, yeast, green vegetables, whole-grain cereals and breads Liver, leafy green vegetables, nuts, orange juice Yeast, liver, egg yolk C Protein metabolism; wound healing Citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy green vegetables, broccoli, potatoes, peppers Minerals and vitamins


74 E. Minerals inorganic substances that perform vital functions in the body. Calcium - found in dairy products. Necessary for strong bones and teeth, muscle and nerve activity and blood clotting. Potassium, Sodium, and Magnesium - Necessary for nerve and muscle activity.

75 F. Water necessary for life. Lose 3-5 liter of water a day through sweat, urine, etc. About 67% of your body mass is water. 90% of the plasma is water.

76 F. Water 3 Functions: 1. To transport nutrients and wastes 2. Cool body 3. Necessary for chemical reactions.

77 Nutrition

78 Metabolism sum of all the chemical processes that take place within an organism.

79 Energy ability to do work.

80 Calorie amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 o C. Measurement for energy.

81 The energy content of food is measured in units of heat called Calories, each of which represents a kilocalorie, or 1000 calories. Some foods, especially those with fats, contain more Calories than others. Calories and Metabolism

82 Metabolic Rate Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - rate of metabolism at rest. BMR is equal to the numbers of kilocalories an animal uses in a set amount of time to maintain homeostasis.

83 Calculate your BMI -

84 Diseases and Conditions

85 4 Diseases from poor nutrition 1. Scurvy - caused from a lack of Vit. C disease sailor once got because of the long voyage and poor diet.

86 Scurvy - vitamin C deficiency. The effects of scurvy

87 4 Diseases from poor nutrition cont. 2. Night Blindness - caused from lack of Vit. A 3. Beriberi - Lack of B 1. Most common in Asia where diet is mainly rice. 4. Rickets - caused from lack of Vit. D. Rickets

88 2 Eating Disorders 1. Bulimia - consume lots of food, but then binge. Possible problems, swollen salivary glands, kidney, liver and pancreas problems, tooth decay from stomach acid. 2. Anorexia - over exercise, but does not eat. Starvation occurs.

89 Digestion and the Human body

90 Endocrine System

91 Endocrine glands series of ductless glands that release chemicals (hormones ) directly into the blood stream.

92 Hormones Chemicals released in one part of an organism that affects another part. (Chemical messengers)

93 Two groups of hormones based on how they act on their target cells. A. Amino acid hormones - amino acids make proteins. B. Steroid hormones - made from lipids. Can alter genetic activity of some cells.

94 Hypothalamus - portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland. Indirectly controls growth, development and activities of the reproductive system.

95 Negative feedback system - self regulating system of the endocrine system. As the hormone increases level in the blood production of the hormone at the gland decreases. (equilibrium)

96 Oxytocin - for uterus contraction during birth. (stored in the posterior pituitary gland)

97 Pituitary gland - master endocrine gland - growth hormone produced here. Indirectly controls growth, development and activities of the reproductive system. Controls many other glands.

98 Endocrine System

99 hGH - human growth hormone - stimulates division and growth of bone, muscle, and other body cells. Stimulates liver cells to release glucose (for energy) into blood during times of growth.

100 Robert Pershing Wadlow - Giant Robert Pershing Wadlow was born on Feb. 22, 1918 in Alton, Illinois. At the time of his death at age 22, he was 8' 11.1" tall & 490 pounds, which made him the tallest person in history according to the Guinness Book of Records.

101 His parents, Addie and Harold Wadlow, always loved & protected him to the best of their abilities, honoring his desire to be treated as a "normal" person. They even destroyed his personal belongings after his death so that no one could profit from the exploitation of them. Robert promoted the International Shoe Company, which provided his size 37 shoes to him for free. Traveling for the shoe company, he visited over 800 towns and 41 states.

102 Robert's size was attributed to an overactive pituitary gland, which produced much higher than normal levels of growth hormone. Because of the extremely long legs caused by pituitary giantism, he had little sensation in his feet and did not feel any chafing until blisters formed. While making an appearance in 1940, a fatal infection set in when such a blister formed due to the braces he had to wear to strengthen his overly long legs. On the 15th of July, Robert Wadlow passed away in his sleep from the infection.


104 TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone - stimulates development and activity of thyroid gland.

105 FSH - follicle stimulating hormone - stimulates gonads to produce egg and sperm. Triggers puberty.

106 LH - Luteinizing hormone - stimulates gonads to produce sex hormones. Triggers puberty.

107 Thyroid Gland - makes a hormone that speeds up metabolism, growth and development. If thyroid malfunctions, may feel tired. May also gain weight.

108 Goiter - Growth caused by a malfunction of the thyroid gland.

109 Adrenal gland - located on top of the kidneys. Release hormones that prepare your body for stressful situations.

110 Epinephrine (ep uh NEF run ) often called adrenaline.

111 Norepinephrine These hormones used during the fight or flight response.

112 Parathyroid gland - produces Parathyroid hormone - increases the rate of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium absorption in the intestines, etc.

113 Ovary - secretes female sex hormones (steroid) Ovary releasing ovum

114 Estrogen - Primary female hormone maintains female reproductive cycle.

115 Progesterone - female hormone. Prepares and maintains uterus during pregnancy.

116 Testis - secretes male sex hormones (steroid)

117 Testosterone - Primary male hormone maintains reproductive cycle.

118 Pancreas - helps regulate the sugar levels in body.

119 Insulin - hormone that stimulates cells to take up sugar from the blood. (part of digestive and endocrine system)

120 Glycogen - produced by alpha cells in the islets of Langerhans. Helps provide body with energy.

121 Diabetes - disorder of pancreas. Some symptoms are excess sugar in blood, intense thirst, weakness and excessive urination.

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