EVOLUTION OF ENGLISH English evolved from the Germanic languages brought to Britain by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and other Germanic tribes, which are known collectively as Anglo-Saxon.
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com ENGLISH PERIODS Old English Middle English Early Modern English Modern English
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org OLD ENGLISH The invaders' Germanic language displaced the indigenous Brythonic languages of what became England. The original Celtic languages remained in Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Old English began to appear in writing during the early 8th century AD.
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com MIDDLE ENGLISH For about 300 years following the Norman Conquest in 1066, the Norman kings and their high nobility spoke only one of the langues d'oïl called Anglo-Norman.
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org EARLY MODERN ENGLISH Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift, which took place mainly during the 15th century. English was further transformed by thespread of a standardized London-based dialect in government and administration and by the standardizing effect of printing. The Great Vowel Shift was a massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English during the 15 th to 18 th centuries. Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth.the long vowels The change was not overnight; the GVS happened in eight steps. http://facweb.furman.edu/~mmenzer/gvs/what.htm
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com WHO SPEAKS ENGLISH? Approximately 341 million people speak English as a native anguage and a further 267 million speak it as a second anguage in over 104 countries including the UK, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Cook Islands and Denmark.
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org PHONETICS THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE How do humans produce different sounds? (Oral Cavity) Kinds of English Sounds (Table of English Sounds)
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com ENGLISH SOUNDS PLACE OF ARTICULATION LABIALDENTALPALATOVELAR BilabialLabiodentalInterdentalAleveolarAleveolopalatalPalatalVelar Stops voicelessp t voicedb d Fricates voiceless f ө (thigh)sš (shun) voiced v ð (thy)zž (vision) Affricate s voiceless č (chum) voiced ĵ (gem) Nasals m n ŋ (sing) liquids: lateral l retroflex r Semivo w el s yw
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org (continued) The + any letter EXCEPT (a/e/i/o/u) →[oﺫ] never [za] Although, Thunder, Thumb→ [olﺫ o], [thándər], [thám] Thank You [thánk] Never [sank] You The +a pple/ e lephant/ i sland/ o range/ u mbrella→ [ﺫﻱ ] never [oﺫ] nor [zi] The + eu ropean, u nited the+[you] (as 1st sound) [oﺫ] NOT [za] Use the [yous] but I/you [youz] Process but processes → [prósəs] but [prosəsyz] Woman but women → [woumən] but [wymin] Police, Policeman [polys].[polysmən] Symptom→(--m p) [simtəm] Wanted / Added / Promised / Grinned [wantid], [ádid], [promist], [grind] Battles, Flags / Groups, Mats Kisses, Churches,—> [bátəlz], [flágz] / [groups], [máts] / [kisəz], [tshərtshəz]
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com VOICED & VOICELESS SOUNDS Past Tense of Regular Verbs (-ed) [- id], [-t], or [-d] ? [-t] & [-d] + [-id] / Vd + [-d] / vl + [-t] Created, Needed / Proved / Fixed Plural Form of Nouns (-s) [-z] or [-s] or [- ə z] ? vd + [-z] / vl + [-s] / -ch, -sh, -ss, -x + [ -əz] Boys, girls / cats, lin ks / classes, foxes
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org INTONATION Stress (eg. Su’bject,/ to subje’ct, pro’ject / to proje’ct, orga’nic adu’lt) Question OR Statement? (Rising OR Falling Tone?) (You are coming with us tonight) Breathing Affects Meaning Stop at Each End Mark (.) (!) (?)
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com INTONATION MAKES MEANING 1. Old men and women will be served first. 2. The lamb is too hot to eat. 3. They are moving sidewalks. 4. Mary left directions for Jack to follow. 5. Kissing girls is what John likes best. 6. John loves Richard more than Mary. 7. Women without men are nothing.
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org POOR PRONUNCIATION 1. Za boy playid foutbal wiz hiz brazar hwen hi tripd and fel on za flar. Hiz bryzing waz nyzar natshural nor kalm. Hiz sistar cold he’r mazar to fone za polis. Hiz frendz gazer around him bicoz zey ke’r. 2.za ge’rl waz kambing zi he’r of he’r dol and zan shi ryd a folekteyl. 3. Many pypol want to ripe’r ze’r carz and cut ze’r he’r. 4. Its not fe’r not to ke’r. 5. Jon iz nown to be a spashal and fortshunayt pe’rsOn. Actshuwaly, hi haz byn vary orijinal in dyling wiz wiman and shildran.
Hanadi Mirza email@example.com PHONETICS ONLINE The Sounds of Language http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/ Studying Phonetics on the Net http://faculty.washington.edu/dillon/PhonResources/ Cambridge English Online (British Council ) http://www.cambridgeenglishonline.com/Phonetics_Focus/
Hanadi Mirza firstname.lastname@example.org When There Is a Will, You Already Know the Way