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Hanadi Mirza ENGLISH A GERMANIC LANGUAGE English is a West Germanic language related to Dutch, Frisian and German with a significant.

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Presentation on theme: "Hanadi Mirza ENGLISH A GERMANIC LANGUAGE English is a West Germanic language related to Dutch, Frisian and German with a significant."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hanadi Mirza

2 ENGLISH A GERMANIC LANGUAGE English is a West Germanic language related to Dutch, Frisian and German with a significant amount of vocabulary from French, Latin, Greek and many other languages.

3 Hanadi Mirza

4 EVOLUTION OF ENGLISH English evolved from the Germanic languages brought to Britain by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and other Germanic tribes, which are known collectively as Anglo-Saxon.

5 Hanadi Mirza ENGLISH PERIODS  Old English  Middle English  Early Modern English  Modern English

6 Hanadi Mirza OLD ENGLISH The invaders' Germanic language displaced the indigenous Brythonic languages of what became England. The original Celtic languages remained in Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Old English began to appear in writing during the early 8th century AD.

7 Hanadi Mirza MIDDLE ENGLISH For about 300 years following the Norman Conquest in 1066, the Norman kings and their high nobility spoke only one of the langues d'oïl called Anglo-Norman.

8 Hanadi Mirza EARLY MODERN ENGLISH Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift, which took place mainly during the 15th century. English was further transformed by thespread of a standardized London-based dialect in government and administration and by the standardizing effect of printing. The Great Vowel Shift was a massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English during the 15 th to 18 th centuries. Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth.the long vowels The change was not overnight; the GVS happened in eight steps.

9 Hanadi Mirza LOANWORDS Latin: cheese, kitchen, pepper, butter Greek: drama, metaphor, dilemma, cycle Celtic: slogan, whiskey Scandinavian: sky, scrub, skin, skill, skirt, score Spanish & Portuguese: cargo, negro, palmetto, cocoa, potato, tomato, margarita, siesta Italian: concerto, forte, crescendo, piano, incognito, mafioso, casino, macaroni, spaghetti, cartoon, replica

10 Hanadi Mirza LOANWORDS (continued) French: prince, Duke, lieutenant, captain, army, soldier, letter, literature, music, male, fruit, question, étiquette, fiance’(e), liaison, laissez faire, savoir vivre, répertoire, vignette, tête-a-tête, coup d’état, police German: split, yacht, cookie, cranberry, hamburger Eastern Sources: amber, zenith, harem, caliber, carat, henna, jinn, giraffe, magazine, kohl, algebra, musk, taffeta, tiger, ginger, bamboo, geisha Other Sources: banana, voodoo, coffee, vodka

11 Hanadi Mirza WHO SPEAKS ENGLISH? Approximately 341 million people speak English as a native anguage and a further 267 million speak it as a second anguage in over 104 countries including the UK, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, American Samoa, Andorra, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Cook Islands and Denmark.

12 Hanadi Mirza PHONETICS THE SOUNDS OF LANGUAGE How do humans produce different sounds? (Oral Cavity) Kinds of English Sounds (Table of English Sounds)

13 Hanadi Mirza Oral Cavity

14 Hanadi Mirza ENGLISH SOUNDS PLACE OF ARTICULATION LABIALDENTALPALATOVELAR BilabialLabiodentalInterdentalAleveolarAleveolopalatalPalatalVelar Stops voicelessp t voicedb d Fricates voiceless f ө (thigh)sš (shun) voiced v ð (thy)zž (vision) Affricate s voiceless č (chum) voiced ĵ (gem) Nasals m n ŋ (sing) liquids: lateral l retroflex r Semivo w el s yw

15 Hanadi Mirza Schwa [ ə ] [euh] sound or Arabic “hamza”

16 Hanadi Mirza Spelling vs. [Pronunciation] Psychology (ps--) [saykolədjy] Pneumonia (pn--) [nəmonia] Climbing, comb, lamb, bomb (--mb)  [klayming], [kom], [lèm], [bám] Calm, Palm (--l m)  [kám], [pám] Folk, Folktale (-- l k)  [fok], [fokteyl] Vegetable [ve dj təbl] Comfortable [kámftəbl] Government (nm) [gavərmənt] Suggest, Suggestion [sag djəst], [sagdjəstshən] People, Apple [pypəl], [ápəl] Sensual, Sensuality [sənshəwəl], [sənshəwality] Nation, Nationality [neyshən], [nashənality] Social, Beautiful [soshəl], [byurəfəl] Original but Originally [oridjinəl] but [oridjənly] Actually [aktshəly] Say but Says [sey] but [sèz] I

17 Hanadi Mirza Spelling vs. [Pronunciation] (continued) Determine but Mine [ditərmən] but [mayn] Examine→ [əgzámin] Seduce but Seduction [sidýous] but [sidakshən] Appreciate [aprishiyeyt] Result, Adult → [rizált], [ədált] World, Work, Word, War [wərld], [wərk], [wərd], [wor] July, Major [djoulay], [meydjər] Children, Church [tshildrən], [tshərtsh] Pleasure, Pleasurable bur Leisure [plejər], [plejrəbl] / [lyjər] Write/Written, Hide/Hidden  [rayt] / [ritən], [hayd] /[hidən] Teacher [tytshər] Doctor, Dollars [daktər], [dálərz] Cat, Cup, Color: (c)  [k] [Kat], [Kap], [kalər] Circus, Ceremony: (c)  [s] [sərkəs], [sərəmony] Gallery, Go, Gut: (g)  [g] [galəry], [go], [gat] Giraffe, Generous: (g)  [dj] [djiraf], [djənərəs]

18 Hanadi Mirza (continued) The + any letter EXCEPT (a/e/i/o/u) →[oﺫ] never [za] Although, Thunder, Thumb→ [olﺫ o], [thándər], [thám] Thank You [thánk] Never [sank] You The +a pple/ e lephant/ i sland/ o range/ u mbrella→ [ﺫﻱ ] never [oﺫ] nor [zi] The + eu ropean, u nited the+[you] (as 1st sound) [oﺫ] NOT [za] Use the [yous] but I/you [youz] Process but processes → [prósəs] but [prosəsyz] Woman but women → [woumən] but [wymin] Police, Policeman [polys].[polysmən] Symptom→(--m p) [simtəm] Wanted / Added / Promised / Grinned  [wantid], [ádid], [promist], [grind] Battles, Flags / Groups, Mats Kisses, Churches,—> [bátəlz], [flágz] / [groups], [máts] / [kisəz], [tshərtshəz]

19 Hanadi Mirza VOICED & VOICELESS SOUNDS Past Tense of Regular Verbs (-ed)  [- id], [-t], or [-d] ? [-t] & [-d] + [-id] / Vd + [-d] / vl + [-t] Created, Needed / Proved / Fixed Plural Form of Nouns (-s)  [-z] or [-s] or [- ə z] ? vd + [-z] / vl + [-s] / -ch, -sh, -ss, -x + [ -əz] Boys, girls / cats, lin ks / classes, foxes

20 Hanadi Mirza IMPORTANCE OF PHONETICS Spelling  Writing Pronunciation  Speaking

21 Hanadi Mirza INTONATION  Stress (eg. Su’bject,/ to subje’ct, pro’ject / to proje’ct, orga’nic adu’lt)  Question OR Statement? (Rising OR Falling Tone?) (You are coming with us tonight)  Breathing Affects Meaning  Stop at Each End Mark (.) (!) (?)

22 Hanadi Mirza INTONATION MAKES MEANING 1. Old men and women will be served first. 2. The lamb is too hot to eat. 3. They are moving sidewalks. 4. Mary left directions for Jack to follow. 5. Kissing girls is what John likes best. 6. John loves Richard more than Mary. 7. Women without men are nothing.

23 Hanadi Mirza FLUENCY VS. ACCURACY LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY Productive Skills WRITING  Spelling, Fluency, Accuracy SPEAKING  Pronunciation, Fluency, Accuracy

24 Hanadi Mirza POOR PRONUNCIATION 1. Za boy playid foutbal wiz hiz brazar hwen hi tripd and fel on za flar. Hiz bryzing waz nyzar natshural nor kalm. Hiz sistar cold he’r mazar to fone za polis. Hiz frendz gazer around him bicoz zey ke’r. 2.za ge’rl waz kambing zi he’r of he’r dol and zan shi ryd a folekteyl. 3. Many pypol want to ripe’r ze’r carz and cut ze’r he’r. 4. Its not fe’r not to ke’r. 5. Jon iz nown to be a spashal and fortshunayt pe’rsOn. Actshuwaly, hi haz byn vary orijinal in dyling wiz wiman and shildran.

25 Hanadi Mirza PHONETICS ONLINE The Sounds of Language Studying Phonetics on the Net Cambridge English Online (British Council )

26 Hanadi Mirza When There Is a Will, You Already Know the Way


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