Presentation on theme: " Organ Systems By Annie Perales. The basics There are 10 organ systems in the human body. These are skeletal, muscular integumentary, circulatory,"— Presentation transcript:
The basics There are 10 organ systems in the human body. These are skeletal, muscular integumentary, circulatory, respiratory, immune, digestive, nervous, endocrine, and reproductive. This PowerPoint will go over all of the main organs and functions that go along with these systems
The skeletal system or exoskeleton is made up on 206 bones and around 100 joints. There are two bone groups, the axial and the appendicular. The axial group is made up of every bone that touches the spine. The appendicular group is made up of all of the other bones. Bones support and protect our internal organs. Skeletal Systems
Bone Structure Periosteum is a tough membrane that covers the bone’s surface. Underneath that, is a material called compact bone. Compact bone is composed of cylinders of mineral crystals protein fibers called lamellae. A narrow channel called Haversian is in the center of each cylinder Blood vessels run through these canals, giving nourishment to the bone tissue.
Continued… Inside of the compact bone there is also a substance known as spongy bone. Contrary to it’s name, this bone is hard and strong. A final part of the bone structure is bone marrow. Bone marrow can either be yellow or red. It can be found is spongy bone, ends of long bones, ribs, vertebrae, the pelvis, and the sternum. Bone marrow is an energy reserve, and it helps when too much blood is lost in the body
The place where two bones meet is known as a joint. There are three types of joints in the human body. These are fixed, semimovable, and movable. There are four other movable joints. They are the, pivot joint, hinge joint, saddle joint and ball-and-socket joint Joints
Continued… Fixed joints are made to prevent movement. These are found in the skull. Semi movable use limited movement. These are found in the rib cage and the spine. The majority of our joints are movable joints. The hinge joint allows movement back and forth. It is found the the elbow, knee, and ankle.
Continued… The ball-and-socket joint allows movement up, down, backward, and forward. This joint is found in the shoulder and pelvis. The pivot joint allows movement from side to side. It is found between the spinal cord and the skull. The saddle joint is very important and make us apart of the human race. It is found in the thumb. The gliding joint allow bones to slide over each other. This one is found in the foot.
The reason for muscles is to contract the human body in a coordinated fashion. A muscle includes muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue. There are three different kinds of muscle tissue- cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Muscular System
Skeletal Muscle Skeletal muscle moves parts of the body that are appendicular (not connected to the spine.) This includes arms, legs, head, and pelvis. Skeletal muscles are known as involuntary muscles. Voluntary movement is movement that can be closely controlled.
Continued… Skeletal muscle tissue is made up of long cells entitled muscle fibers Every muscle fiber is made up of striations (light and dark stripes) and nuclei. Fascicles are dense bundles of muscle fiber. The fascicles that are bound together by connective tissue form muscles.
The Integumentary System is made up of skin, hair, nails and glands. The system protects the body from the outside world It also helps fight diseases and regulates body temperature Integumentary System
Skin The skin is the human body’s largest organ. The skin mainly protects the the most important body parts from being hurt Skin is made up of two parts; the epidermis and the dermis.
Epidermis The epidermis is the outer layer of skin made up of many layers of epithelial cells These layers are mainly made up of dead cells. This is to protect our internal organs from the dangers of the external world. Skin’s layers are made up of the protein called Keratin which makes it rough and waterproof.
The color of skin depends of the variations of a pigment called melanin. The amount of melanin in your body is based upon hereditary components as well as how often the skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation. People with lighter skin usually respond worse to this radiation due to their variation of melanin. Continued…
Dermis The dermis is the inner layer of skin which is made of mostly living cells and sensory neurons. These neurons make you able to respond to the external environment such as heat and pressure. Tiny fibers attached to hair follicles in your dermis contract upright when you are cold or scared.
Nails Nails protect the ends of your toes and fingers, they are made from nail roots underneath skin at the base and sides of nails beds. On a bed of tissue filled with blood cells, the nails its, this makes the nails a pinkish color. A differentiation of the nails shape, appearance, or structure may be a sign of a disease in the body elsewhere.
Hair shields and protects the body, it is made from a cluster of cells at the base of deep dermal pits called hair follicles. Glands pertaining to hair follicles produce oil which inhibits drying out and breaking off. Hair color also depends on the amount of melanin in your hair. Hair
Digestive Systems The purpose of the digestive system is to break down complicated food molecules into simple structures. This is to use the nutrients of the food to help the body grow and maintain a healthy behavior.
Continued… The Digestive Tract, or gastrointestinal tract, goes from the mouth all the way to the anus. There are organs in the digestive system that are apart of the digestive tract and there are also parts the surround and support it. This means the the “food” doesn’t actually go inside of it. The digestive system is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
The first bite of food you have starts the Digestive process. Your sharp front teeth cut the food while your flat back teeth grind the food up. The salivary glands then start to produce saliva, or spit, which mixes with the ground up food. The mucus in the saliva helps to hold the food together. Once the food is thoroughly chewed and moistened it is called bolus. Mouth
Esophagus The bolus is then forced into the pharynx and enters the esophagus. The esophagus is a narrow muscular leading between the pharynx and the stomach The pharynx is a passageway for food and air. A small flap of skin called the epiglottis keep bolus from coming into the windpipe.
Circulatory System The circulatory system is an organ system in the human body that passes nutrients to and from cells. It helps the human body fight diseases and maintains homeostasis. It is composed of the cardiovascular system, and the lymphadic system. The cardiovascular system dispenses blood and is a closed system in humans, while the lymphadic system is open and dispenses lymph.
The main components of the human cardiovascular system are the heart, the veins, and the blood vessels. Components in the cardiovascular system are pulmonary circulation, a loop through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood. Blood consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
the digestive system works with the circulatory system to provide the nutrients the system needs to keep the heart pumping. the heart is a muscular pump which is arguably the most important part of the cardiovascular and circulatory system. most of the body’s organs have muscular layers and are hollow, but the heart is almost entirely made of muscle.
There are four chambers in the heart - two atria and two ventricles. The atria (one is called an atrium) are responsible for receiving blood from the veins leading to the heart. When they contract, they pump blood into the ventricles. However, the atria do not really have to work that hard. the best part about the heart is that it operates involuntarily, which means it does not need to be willed or told to contract
Cardiac muscle is also involuntary. So functionally, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle are similar. Anatomically though, cardiac muscle more closely resembles skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle could almost be said to be a hybrid between skeletal and smooth muscle. cardiac muscle is unique because of its interlaced discs, which help muscle cells act as one unit.
the respiratory system is to serve the human body in breathing and includes the lungs, airways, and respiratory muscles. Each cell in a human or any other animal’s body must receive O 2 and give off CO 2. This is easier for smaller organisms. Air first passes into the nostrils where it is filtered by the nasal hairs and warmed and humidified in the nasal cavity and sinuses, then through the pharynx.
Air next passes through the larynx, (pronounced as above, but with an “l”) also called the Adam’s apple, voice box, or vocal cords. The vocal cords are under tension, and a change in tension causes a change in pitch as air passes over them and they vibrate. An inflammation of the larynx is called laryngitis. The air passes next through the trachea, which can be destroyed by smoking. The trachea divides at its bottom end into two bronchi one to each lung. mucus in the bronchi serves to trap and coat dust particles so they don’t scratch or infect the delicate tissues in the lungs.
The bronchi divide in the lungs into smaller branches called bronchioles. In humans, the lungs are not symmetrical because the heart, while located in the center of the chest (thorax), leans slightly to the left. the right lung has three lobes (sections) and the left lung has two. the smallest bronchioles branch to avioli which are tiny, multi-lobed air sacs made of simple squamous cells. Having this thin wall enables air exchange with the equally-thin-walled capillaries of the circulatory system. To work right, aveoli must always be moist.
he diaphragm is unique in that control of its operation can be either voluntary or involuntary. Normally, control is involuntary, and we don’t have to think about breathing. We also have the ability, somewhat, to control breathing voluntarily, and a classic example of this is holding one’s breath while swimming.