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Chapter 3 How do people adapt to their environment?

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 How do people adapt to their environment?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 How do people adapt to their environment?

2 Stone Age  Used stones to make tools and weapons  Paleolithic means “old stone” or Old Stone Age  2,500,000 B.C. – 8,000 B.C.

3 Nomads  Moved from place to place to survive and search for food  No roads, farms, or villages  Moved in groups of  Hunter – gatherers

4 Nomads  Searched for buffalo, bison, wild goats, reindeer, fish, nuts, berries, fruits, wild grains, green plants.  Men hunted large animals far from camp – used clubs to kill or pushed animals off a cliff. Then learned to make tools or weapons. They also set traps.  Women stayed at camp-usually near water- and watched after the kids and searched for nuts, berries, and grains.  Men and women worked together equally.

5 Technology  Tools & methods to perform tasks  Made devices from hard stone called “flint”  Made spears, bows, arrows, and fishhooks  Used animal hides for clothing and shelter or stayed in caves

6 Technology  FIRE – used for warmth, light, to scare off wild animals, chase animals from bushes, and cooking  Used by rubbing two pieces of wood together to cause friction.

7 Language & Art  Paleolithic people started expressing themselves through spoken word, like we use today, and art.  There was still NO WRITTEN word. Paleolithic people expressed ideas through cave drawings (symbols, drawings, ect)

8 Ice Ages  Long periods of extreme cold  Threatened the lives of humans  They had to learn to use more fat in their diet  Made sturdier shelters and warmer clothes during these extreme cold times

9 Ice Ages  As the ice pieces grew larger, the sea levels lowered, exposing a strip of dry land that connected Asia to North America. This was known as a “land bridge”  The land bridge was used by people and animals to travel and settle in different regions  The ice age forced Paleolithic people to adapt to their environment by changing their thinking. It lasted years and ended between BC.

10 Neolothic Age: The Agricultural Revolution  The Neolithic Age began when some, not all people began staying in one place to grow grains and vegetables; domesticate or tame animals for human use (transporting goods, providing meat, milk, or wool  Neolithic age lasted been BC  Neolithic means “new stone”: stone tools were created and used during this time

11 Agricultural Revolution  Systematic farming (growing food on a regular basis) is known as Agricultural Revolution  Being able to grow a constant food supply allowed people to settle communities because the population was growing at a faster rate.  Some historians consider the Agricultural Revolution to be the most important event in human history

12 Farming Timeline WhoWhenPlantsAnimals SW Asia8000 BCWheat/BarleyPigs, goats, cows, sheep Nile River6000 BCWheat/Barley India BCWheat/Barley Africa6000 BCYams/bananas China6000 BCMillet/riceDogs, Pigs Central America BCSquash/potatoesChicken, Dogs

13 Life in the Neolithic Age  People settled in villages near plants and water (especially rivers)  They built permanent homes  Jericho is one of the oldest Neolithic Communities  Catahuyuk – Story Time!

14 Life in Neolithic Age  As populations grew so did food supplies  Increased food supplies allowed communities to trade certain foods for others.  It also allowed for people to take on or specialize in different jobs other than farming  Weapon making  Jewelry making  Pottery to store grains  Basket/clothes making

15 Life in the Neolithic Age Gender Roles MenWomen `Worked in fields `Farmed and herded animals `bore children `made clothes, `managed supplies, `performed other tasks

16 Tools Created  Rakes  Sickles to cut grain  Millstones to grind flour  Some regions began working with copper


18 Emerging Empires  By the beginning of the Bronze Age, communities were widespread.  4 great river valley civilizations were formed by the year 3000 BC 1. Mesopotamia 2.Egypt 3.India 4.China All great civilizations share similar characteristics

19 Shared Characteristics  Developed cities and formed governments  First governments formed were known as monarchy’s (ruled by a King or Queen)  Created armies

20 Religion  Early people believed that god’s were responsible for a communities survival  Rulers claimed that their power came from approval of god’s

21 Social Structure  Based on the type of work a person did and the amount of power or wealth they had. HighestMiddleLowest Rulers, priests, government officials, warriors Farmers, artisans, craftspeople Enslaved people who were captured in war

22 Writing and Art  People used symbols instead of letters and words to keep accurate records and preserve stories  Artists created paintings and sculptures portraying gods and forces of nature  Massive buildings were designed as places of worship or burial tombs for kings

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