Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1 BREAKFAST FOODS AND SANDWICHES"— Presentation transcript:
1 CHAPTER 1 BREAKFAST FOODS AND SANDWICHES CHAPTER 1 BREAKFAST FOODS AND SANDWICHES
2 What is Pasteurization? (6) When milk is heated to kill microorganisms that cause spoilage and disease without effecting its nutritional value.
3 What is Homogenization? (6) Milk is strained through very fine holes to break down fat and then is blended into ne fluid.
4 Is lactose intolerance a milk allergy? (7) No, it is not.
5 How much fat is in the following milk items: (8) SKIM MILK – Less than 0.5%WHOLE MILK – At least 3%CONDENSED MILK – At least 8.5%
6 Please explain lactose intolerance. (9) People who are lactose intolerant can’t easily digest lactose, which is a sugar found in dairy products. Undigested lactose moving through the body can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as gas, bloating, nausea, diarrhea and stomach pain.
7 At what temperature should milk be stored? (10) 41 degrees or lower
8 All milk should be labeled as what grade? (10) Grade A
9 How much fat is in the following types of cream: (11) HALF AND HALF – 10.5 to 18%HEAVY CREAM – 36 to 38%
10 How is butter made? (11)Butter is made by mixing cream containing between 30 percent and 40 percent milk fat at high speed.
11 What is one benefit of using margarine? (12) It has a higher smoke point than butter.
12 Is it true that one of the advantages of using margarine is that it is a lot lower in fat that butter? (12)Margarine is not much lower in fat than butter.
13 Where and when was oleomargarine first made? (13) It was first made in France in 1870.
14 What are the 3 basic parts of all cheeses? (14) WaterFatProtein
15 Brie and camembert are examples of which type of cheese? (16) Soft ripened
16 What is the optimum storage temperature for cheese? (17) 35 to 45 degrees at a high relative humidity.
17 What are the 4 parts of an egg? (17) Outer shellWhite (albumen)YolkChalazae
18 What does the yolk of an egg contain? (17) FatProteinLecithin
19 What does the chalazae do? (17) It is the membrane that holds the yolk in place.
20 Recipes are based upon what size of egg? (18) Large
21 How many ounces are there in a dozen large eggs? (19)
22 Egg substitutes are used for people on what kind of diet? (20) Cholesterol free diet
23 The air temperature of a truck delivering eggs should not exceed what temperature? (22) 45 degrees
24 Liquid, frozen and dehydrated eggs must have this done to them by law Pasteurized
25 What is the cooking time for hard-boiled eggs (25) 10 minutes
26 What is a shirred egg? (26)A variety of baked egg
27 How do you poach an egg? (27) 4 steps Combine water, salt, and vinegar in a shallow skillet or pan and bring it to a simmer.Break the egg into a clean cup and slide the egg carefully into the poaching water. Cook until the whites are set and opaque.Remove the eggs from the water with a slotted spoon and blot them on an absorbent towel.Trim, if desired, and serve hot.
28 During which cooking method are eggs constantly stirred? (28) Scrambled
29 What is another name for a flat omelet? (31) Frittatas
30 What is a quiche? (32)A savory egg custard baked in a crust
31 What are pooled eggs? (34)Eggs that are cracked open and combined in a container
32 What is a crepe? (39)A very thin pancake-type item with a high egg content
33 What is sliced bread dipped in an egg and milk mixture that is often seasoned lightly with cinnamon and nutmeg? (40)French toast
34 How much fat does bacon have in it before cooking? (41) About 70 percent
35 What are the 3 ingredients in a hash mixture? (42) A mixture of chopped meat (fresh or smoked), potatoes and onions
36 Farina and cornmeal are examples of what type of hot cereal? (43) Granular
37 What is the proper brewing temperature for coffee? (46) 195 to 200 degrees
38 What cooking method is use to make a Panini sandwich? (54) Grilling
39 Which cold sandwich is served on a long, sliced roll with several types of cheese, meat, lettuce, tomato, onion, and other toppings? (55)Submarine
40 Please describe what a wrap is. (55) They are made on any type of flat bread – for example tortillas, cracker bread or rice paper wrappers – and spear with a hot or cold sandwich filling. It is then rolled up.
41 What is a multi-decker sandwich? (55) A sandwich with more then 2 slices of bread with several ingredients in the filling.
42 What is one example of a multi-decker sandwich? (55) Club sandwich
43 Tell me about a canapé. (55) It is an open faced cold sandwich used as a type of hors d’oeuvre
44 What are the three primary components to all sandwiches? (56) BreadSpreadFilling
45 What are the 2 most common spreads? (57) ButterMayonnaise
46 What 2 things are needed at every sandwich station? (59) IngredientsEquipment
47 According to Figure 1.36, what can be used to transfer a pizza in and out of the oven? (61) Pizza Peel
49 What is nutrition? (80)Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how they nourish the body.
50 What are nutrients? (80)They are components of food that are needed for the body to function
51 Why does the body need nutrients? (80) To provide energyTo build and repair cellsTo keep the different systems in the body working smoothly
52 According to the fast facts, what are the two things that your body needs on a daily basis to stay healthy? (81)CarbohydratesWater
53 What are the six basic nutrients that are important to the body? (83) CarbohydratesLipids (fats)ProteinsVitaminsMineralsWater
54 What does fiber do? (84)Fiber promotes digestive health and regularity.
55 What are phytochemicals? (84) They are chemicals that aid the body in fighting or preventing disease. They are also known as phytonutrients.
56 What is the body’s main energy source? (84) Carbohydrates
57 What are the units of measurement by which energy from food is measured? (85) Calories
58 Simple carbohydrates contain how many sugars? (86) They contain one or two sugars
59 Honey and molasses are what kind of carbohydrate? (86-87) Simple Carbohydrates
60 What is the name of a very important simple sugar that is the primary source of energy? (87) Glucose
61 What is the only source of energy for the brain and nervous system Glucose
62 Which category of carbohydrate takes longest to digest? (87-89) Complex
63 What are hormones? (87)Hormones are special chemical messengers made by the bodies that regulate different body functions.
64 Tell me about complex carbohydrates. (87) They contain long chains that include many glucose modules. They are found in plant based foods such as grains, legumes and vegetables.
65 Good sources of carbohydrates include the following: (88) Dry beans and peasStarchy vegetables, such as potatoes and cornRiceGritsPastaOatmealCornmealBreads and Cereals
66 What are the two types of fiber What are the two types of fiber? Tell me a little bit about each one of them.Soluble Fiber – It dissolves in water. When we eat foods that contain soluble fiber, we feel full for a longer time. Soluble fiber also slows down the release of sugar in the blood and helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood.Insoluble Fiber – It does not dissolve in water. It acts like a stiff broom to clean and scrub the digestive tract so that we can eliminate waste from our systems more easily.
68 What is in both bones and teeth? (94) CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS
69 What 5 functions do fats perform in the body? (89) Carrying vitamins A, D, E and K throughout the bodyCushioning the bodies' vital organsProtecting the body from extreme temperaturesProviding a reserve of energy (when the body stores it)Supplying nutrients called essential fatty acids
70 What is the chemical process that causes fats to spoil? (90) Oxidation
71 What does hydrogenation do? (90) Make liquid fats a solid
72 What is the disadvantage of hydrogenation? (90) Fat processed this way are more harmful to your health
73 Please explain the significance of essential fatty acids. (90) They are used to make substances that regulate vital body functions, such as blood pressure, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and immune response.
74 Please explain the significance of oxidation. (90) It is the process that causes fats to spoil or go rancid.
75 Please explain the significance of Cholesterol. (90) It is a white, waxy substance that is produced in your liver. In the body, cholesterol helps make such substances such as bile acids, vitamin D and hormones.
76 Please explain the significance of trans fatty acids (90) These are the result of taking a liquid fat and making it a solid through a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation of fat alters its physical properties and makes it stay fresh longer.The disadvantage of hydrogenation is that it may be more harmful to a person’s health that saturated fat when it comes to the development of heart disease.
77 Please give examples of foods that contain saturated fats. (91) MeatPoultryFishDairy ProductsButterLardPalm OilPalm Kernel OilCoconut Oil
78 Please give examples of foods that contain monounsaturated fats. (91) Olive OilCanola OilPeanut OilAvocado OilNut Oils
79 Please give examples of foods that contain polyunsaturated fats. (91) Safflower OilSunflower OilSoybean OilCorn OilCottonseed OilSesame OilFish Oils
80 What do proteins do? (92)They provide the building blocks, in the form of amino acids, that the body uses for a variety of things , including muscles, tissues, enzymes and hormones.
81 How many amino acids can be found in food? (92)
82 How many essential amino acids are there and what is their significance? (92) There are 9 essential amino acids that must be obtained from food each day. The other amino acids can be produced in the body.
83 What is a complete protein? (93) They contain all of the essential amino acids in the right amount
84 What is an incomplete protein? (93) They lack one or more of the essential amino acids.Foods from plant sources are incomplete amino acids.
85 What do vitamins do? (94)They are needed to regulate metabolic processes such as digestion and the absorption of nutrients.
86 What are the 2 types of vitamins? (94) Water solubleFat soluble
87 What are the water soluble vitamins that can be washed away by steam or water? (94) Vitamin C and B
88 What are the fat soluble vitamins? (94) Vitamin A, D, E and K
89 What is the only nutrient that it is impossible for human to live without? (96) Water
90 What 4 functions do water perform in the body? (96) Helps with the digestion, absorption and transportation of nutrientsHelps eliminate waste through the kidneys, colon and lungsDistributes heat throughout the body and allowing heat to be released through the skin by evaporation (sweating)Lubricates joints and cushions tissues
91 What is digestion? (98)The process of breaking down food into its simplest parts so that it can be absorbed
92 What are food additives? (98) A substance or combination of substances present in food as a result of processing, production or packaging
93 Why are food additives used? (99) Improve flavor, color and textureRetain nutritional valuePrevent spoilageExtend shelf life
94 Tell me about the diet of a vegetarian. (100) They follow a strict diet an will not consume any of the following:MeatFishPoultry Products
95 Tell me about the diet of a lacto vegetarian. (100) This person is a vegetarian, but they also eat dairy products
96 Tell me about the diet of a lacto-ovo vegetarian (100) A vegetarian who eats dairy products and eggs
97 Tell me about the diet of a vegan. (100) They follow the strictest diet an will not consume any of the following:DairyEggsMeatPoultryFishAnything containing animal products or byproducts
99 What is HDL? (104)This is the good cholesterol. It takes excess cholesterol away and carries it back to the liver to be excreted.
100 What is the name of the condition where the body does not have the ability to regulated sugar properly? (104)Diabetes
101 What condition occurs when the body does not get enough nutrients Malnutrition
102 When cooking any food, remember that the lower the temperature and the shorter the cooking period will result in what? (112)Less nutrient loss
103 When boiling vegetables, what do you lose? (114-115) VITAMINS
104 What is portion control? (117) Controlling the quantity of a particular food be using appropriate sized servings.
105 What can be added during baking as a low fat alternative to butter Applesauce
106 Please tell me about the 4 kinds of salt. Give me a definition for each. (123) Table salt – The most commonKosher salt – It has a purer flavor than table salt. It is usually coarser with larger crystals. To substitute Kosher salt for table salt, use twice as much Kosher salt as called for in the recipe. It is the most common salt found in professional kitchens.Sea salt – It is extracted from the ocean using evaporation techniques. It is usually not refined, so it contains additional minerals and other elements found in sea water, which affect the flavor.Iodized salt – Table salt that has been refined with iodine as a nutritional supplement.
107 The most commonly sold type of beef? (124) CHOICE
108 What is a low fat substitute for ground beef? (125) Ground sirloinGround turkey breastGround soy
109 Which chemicals kill insects and other plant pests? (126) Pesticides
110 What does the term organic mean? (127) To be produced without pesticides or synthetic fertilizers.
156 What type of lettuce is used in Caesar salad? (220) Romaine lettuce
157 What is the most popular American salad green? (220) Iceberg (head) lettuce
158 What are the 4 basic parts to any salad? (221) BaseBodyGarnishDressing
159 What type of salad green is appropriate to use with mayonnaise based dressing? (221)
160 What does a garnish do? (222) Enhances the appearance of the salad while also complimenting the overall taste
161 What are the 5 main types of salads? (224) Green – tossed and composedBoundVegetablesFruitCombination
162 What are bound salads bound together with? (225) Some type of heavy dressing such as mayonnaise
163 What are the cooked primary ingredients in a bound salad? (225) MeatPoultryFishEggPotatoPastaRice
164 The two types of green salads are … (225) TossedComposed
165 How should you handle garnishes that might become soggy or discolored Add them just prior to servingExamples include croutons or avocadoes
166 What are the two fruits that cannot be added to gelatin raw or they will not allow the gelatin to set? (232)Raw pineappleRaw papaya
167 Fruits such as apples and bananas will discolor after being peeled or cut. What do you need to do to them to keep it from happening? (233)Dip them in a combination of lemon juice and water to keep their fresh appearance. Do not soak the fruit in the mixture or it will ruin the flavor of the fruit.
168 What is a starter salad? (234) They are served as an appetizer to the main meal. They are smaller in portion size and consists of light, fresh, crisp ingredients to stimulate the appetite.
169 What is another name for an accompaniment salad? (235) Side salad
170 What is an intermezzo salad? (235) It is intended to be a palate cleanser after a rich dinner and before dessert.
171 The proper way to store loose greens is with dampened paper towels and between which 2 temperatures? (237)36 to 41 degrees
172 You cannot store greens with tomatoes or apples because they will wilt due to what gas they emit? (237)Ethylene Gas
173 How long at what temperature can fresh greens be held at? (237) 24 HOURS
174 How many days can unopened produce be stored? (238) 1 to 3 days
175 What is the best way to clean salad greens? (239) Dip them in and out of water.
176 The first Chinese food introduced in the United States is? (240) SZECHWAN – HUNAN
177 What is vinaigrette? (244)The simplest form of salad dressing and is made from oil and vinegar
178 What is the standard recipe for basic vinaigrette? (244) 3 Parts Oil1 Part Vinegar
179 What is a suspension? (244)A temporary mixture of ingredients that eventually separates back into its unique parts
180 Foie Gras comes from what country? (244) FRANCE
181 Tell me about Balsamic vinegar. (245) It is a special wine vinegar aged in wooden barrels for 4 to 50 years. It has a dark brown color and sweet taste. It has a sticky consistency due to high sugar content
182 What is an emulsion? (245)A mixture of ingredients that permanently stays together.
183 What is the oil we use in class that has a greenish color to it? (245) Olive Oil
184 Which vinegar has a neutral flavor? (245) WHITE OR DISTILLED
185 What is an emulsifier? (246) An ingredient that can permanently bind dissimilar ingredients, such as oil and vinegar, together on a molecular level. Eggs are good emulsifiers.
186 What is the ingredient that thickens mayonnaise? (248) Egg yolks
187 What is the most stable and thickest emulsified dressing? (248) Mayonnaise
188 How do you make mayonnaise? (250) 6 Steps Place egg yolks in an appropriate sized stainess steel bowl.Add dry ingredients and whisk until frothy and well blended.Drizzle oil slowly into mixture, whisk rapidly.As mixture thickens, slowly alternate adding small amounts of vinegar or lemon juice and oil until all are used.Check seasoning.Serve the dressing at once or refrigerate it.
189 What is dip? (251)A hot and cold mixture that accompanies certain food items, with the purpose of complementing or enhancing the food’s flavor.
190 Tell me about Hummus. (252)This is made with chick peas, garlic and tahini (from the Middle East)
192 What is the first thing that a person needs to do purchasing? (288) Make sure that an operation has enough product to sell.
193 What is the purchasing document that describes the characteristics of products and services that an operation wants to buy? (288)Product specifications
194 There are many tools available to help purchasers buy the right amount of product. They are: (288) Customer count historiesPopularity index of items soldVendor delivery scheduleAvailability of items from vendorsRecognizing outside influences that might affect an operation
195 What is the amount of funds available to an operation at any given time? (289) Cash position
196 What is a customer count forecast? (289) This is the number of customers expected for a given time period
197 According to Table 5.1, there are 3 main parts to the channel of distribution. Please let me know what they are and give me examples of each
201 Farmers belong to what part of the food distribution channel? (291) Primary Source
202 What is another name for capital? (297) Assets
203 What are specialized, written price lists created for the restaurant by a supplier? (300) Bids
204 Please explain what a kickback is. (301-302) Money or other goods received by a person for purchasing from a specific vendor
205 Please list the 3 reasons why a foodservice operation would purchase ready made products? (313) Consistency– A buyer knows exactly what they are getting.Reduces prep time and labor costsReduces the need for certain types of equipment and storage space that might be otherwise necessary to make something from scratch
206 Why would a chef conduct a make or buy analysis? (313) To decide whether it makes better financial sense to make the item from scratch or to purchase a ready made product.
207 All of the items that we produce in class are listed on what form Production Sheet
208 List 3 elements of production records. (314) Production sheetsDaily food cost sheetsSales mix records
209 What is it called when an operation runs out of a food? (314) A stockout
210 What is the term used for the ideal amount of an item to have on inventory at any given time? (316) Par stock
211 What is a legally binding written document that details exactly what the buyer is ordering from the vendor? (316)Purchase order
212 In a large operation, what form does a manager need to compete to purchase a new refrigerator? (318) Requisition form
213 As a product moves through the channel of distribution, what 5 factors affect its value? (318-319) Time valueForm valuePlace valueTransportation valueService value
214 What is the process of inspecting, accepting, and, in some cases, rejecting deliveries of goods and services? ( )Receiving
215 What are food products that are sold or distributed in a form that will spoil or decay within a limited period of time? (329)Perishable products
216 What is a record of all products an operation has in storage and in the kitchen? (333) Inventory
217 What are the 2 common methods for purchasing nonperishable foods? (334) Physical inventory methodPerpetual inventory method
219 Quality Grade of meat measures what? (353) The flavor characteristics of meat products.
220 Yield Grades of meat measure what? (353) The edible portion or usable meat
221 According to Table 6. 1, please tell me about the Prime grade of meat This is the highest quality available for beef, veal, and lamb. Usually found in only the finest restaurants, hotels, and markets. A lot of marbling and a cover of firm fat, which enables flavor and juiciness. Only a small percentage of beef products meet this standard.
222 What are the 2 grades assigned by the USDA to most meats? (353) Quality gradeYield grade
223 What are the first cuts the butcher makes? (355-358) PRIMAL
224 What are primal cuts of meat? (356) The primary divisions of meat produced by the initial butchering of animal carcasses.
226 What is Kosher meat? (360)Meat that is specifically slaughtered to comply with Jewish dietary laws.
227 Using a mallet on meat does what to it? (362) Tenderize it
228 What is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions, such as roasts or steaks? ( )Fabrication
229 What 5 factors should be considered when purchasing meat? (364-367) CostFreshnessFat ContentEquipmentVendors
230 What is marbling? (365)Lines of fat within the lean flesh portion of the meat.
231 What are the 3 dry heat methods of cooking for cooking high quality, tender cuts of meat? (368) BroilingGrillingRoasting
232 What do you do to strips of meat before they are sautéed and why? (369) Lightly dust them with flour and be sure to shake off any excess flour before adding the item to the pan. Flour helps the meat retain moisture and promotes even browning.
233 How long should meat be allowed to rest after cooking and before slicing? (372) 15 to 30 minutes
234 Why should cooked meat be given time to rest before slicing? (372) This allows less juice to be lost during carving
235 What is the most versatile protein? (379) Poultry
236 What are the 3 grades of poultry? (379) USDA AUSDA BUSDA C
237 Which type of poultry meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster? (380) White meat
238 Tell me about cooking dark meat. (381) It requires more time to cook.
239 List the 3 types of poultry fabrication. (382) DisjointingBoningCutting the bird into pieces
240 List the 4 reasons why you should reject a delivery of poultry? (385) Color: Purple or green discoloration around the neck: dark wing tips (red tips are acceptable)Texture: Stickiness: under the wings and around the jointsOdor: Abnormal, unpleasant odorFreezer burn: Any signs of frost, ice or leakage from the package
242 Please explain what it is to truss a poultry item. (387) The legs and wings are tied to the bird’s body.
243 When roasting, why area bird’s legs and wings tied to the bird’s body So it cooks evenly and stays moist
244 What is a sauce with a complex flavor? (389) MOLE
245 What is the highest quality grade of seafood available? (396) Grade A
246 Seafood is divided into two major categories. What are they? (396) Fin fishShellfish
247 What is a shellfish? (397)Shellfish have an outer shell but no backbone and live primarily in salt water.
248 What are the 3 categories of shellfish? (397) CrustaceansMollusksCephalopods
249 List the 6 market forms of fin fish. (399) Whole or roundDrawnDressedButterfly filletFish filletSteak
250 IQF is an acronym for what? (400) Individually quick frozen
251 What kind of food is fabricated using techniques such as scaling, trimming and gutting? (401) Fin Fish
252 To be acceptable, fresh fish must meet the following 5 criteria: (402) Color: Bright red gills; bright shiny skinTexture: Firm flesh that springs back when touchedOdor: Mild ocean or seaweed smellEyes: Bright, clear and fullPackaging: Product should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice
253 What is the process of removing a shrimp’s digestive tract? (402) Deveining
254 Moist heat is the best way to cook what kind of fish? (407) Lean fish
255 What is fumet? (407)A rich fish stock made with wine
256 What is bouillabaisse? (408) A French seafood stew made with assorted fish and shellfish, onions, tomatoes, white wine, olive oil, garlic, saffron and herbs.
257 What is a type of fish that have no skeletal system? (410) SHELL FISH
258 Charcuterie is a French term that refers to? (415) Cooked flesh
259 List the 3 main types of sausages. (416) Fresh sausageSmoked or cooked sausagesDried or hard sausages
260 What does garde manger refer to? (416) The department typically found in a classical brigade system kitchen and/or the chef who is responsible for the preparation of cold foods, including salads and salad dressings, cold appetizers, charcuterie items and similar dished.
261 Bucyrus, Ohio is the Bratwurst capital of the world Bucyrus, Ohio is the Bratwurst capital of the world. Can you tell me what Bratwurst is? ( )Smoked and cooked sausage
262 What is a mixture of lean ground meat and fat emulsified in a food grinder and pushed through a sieve to create a smooth paste? (417)Forcemeat
263 What are the 2 main types of forcemeat? (417) Straight forcemeatCountry style forcemeat
264 What are two examples of dried or hard sausage? (417) Italian SalamiPepperoni
265 What is forcemeat made of veal, poultry or fish called? (418) Mousseline
267 A group of people, also known as customers is called what? (434) Market
268 What is marketing? (434)The process of communicating a businesses message to its market.
269 What are the 4 “P’s” in the marketing concept? (436) PlaceProductPricePromotion
270 What are the 3 primary elements of the contemporary marketing mix Product service mixPresentation mixCommunication mix
271 Customer trends are also known as what? (437) Market trends
272 What is the way in which an operation tells its customers about its products and services? (437) Communication mix
273 Which contemporary marketing mix consists of all the elements that make the operation look unique? (437)Presentation mix
274 What are the 5 steps to a successful marketing plan? (438) Research the marketEstablish objectivesDevelop a market strategyImplement an action planEvaluate/modify the action plan as needed
275 A SWOT analysis looks at what 4 things? (442) StrengthsWeaknessesOpportunitiesThreats
276 What is the experimental method of marketing? (448) An operation might try out a product for a limited time or with a limited group of people
277 What is the observational method of marketing? (448) This involves observing how customers react in a natural setting towards a product
278 Explain the survey method of marketing. (448) In this method, a marketer gathers information using questionnaires.
279 Please explain sampling. (449) This involves testing a product with a specific, small group, sometimes called a focus group.
280 What does mass marketing do? (450) Treats everyone in the market as having the same wants and needs.
281 What does target marketing do? (450) Treats people as different from each other and tries to make a focused appeal to a distinct group of customers.
282 What is breaking down a large market into smaller groups of similar individuals called? (450-453) Market segmentation
283 What are demographics? (450) This refers to the ways in which researchers categorize or group people.
284 What are the 4 ways an operation can segment the market? (451-452) Demographic segmentationGeographic segmentationProduct usage segmentationLifestyle segmentation
285 The main goal of target marketing is to… (452) Target marketing helps you to focus your promotion and advertising efforts on specific groups.
286 A promotional mix may include some of these 5 components: (457) AdvertisingSales promotionPersonal sellingPublic relationsDirect marketing
287 What is it called when an operation pays to present or promote its products, services or identity? (457)Advertising
288 Radio commercials are what form of market communication? (457) Advertising
289 Our white bread normally sells for $2. 50 a loaf Our white bread normally sells for $2.50 a loaf. By selling it to people who use other services in the building, we are using what type of market communication? (457)Sales promotion
290 What is a premium? (459)Free or reduced price merchandise, such as a pen or cup that shows the name and location of the restaurant, usually given away or sold for a reduced price with the purchase of a food item.
291 What is it called when 2 or more sponsors develop complementary promotions or offer complementary promotional Materials? (461)Cooperative sales promotion
292 What is interacting with the people in the local area to create awareness of and trust for an operation? (461)Community relations
293 What is a packet of information given to media representatives to answer potential questions about a business or organization called? (462)Press release
294 What is the primary sales tool in most restaurants? (468) Menu
295 What are some examples of promotional materials What are some examples of promotional materials? You DO NOT need to give definitions. (460)SignageFlyersPremiumsCarryout and door hanger menusAppeal and brand name merchandisePoint of Purchase materialsMerchandising materialsDirect mail
296 Daily Specials is an example of what type of menu? (472) Du jour menu
297 What type of menu offers breakfast, lunch and dinner at any time of day? (473) California menu
298 How are most menus organized? (475) In the order in which they are actually eatenAppetizersSoupSaladSandwichesEntreesVegetablesDesserts
299 When planning a menu, what 6 things do managers and chefs need to keep in mind? (476) Physical layout of the facilitySkills of personnelAvailability of ingredientsTarget market’s wants and needsTarget market’s expectationsProfit margin
300 What are the 2 steps in menu creation? (476-480) PlanningDesign
301 What 2 purposes does menu pricing serve (482-485) To provide information to customersTo determine profitability
302 How do you calculate the cost of an item using the food percentage method? (483) Item food cost / Food cost percentage = Menu price
303 What are the 4 classifications that come from menu engineering? (490) StarPlow horsePuzzleDog
304 What does it mean when a menu item is called a star? (490) These items are both popular and profitable
305 What does it mean when a menu item is called a puzzle? (490) These items are unpopular but very profitable.
306 What does it mean when a menu item is called a dog? (491) These items are unpopular and unprofitable.
307 What is it when a menu item is referred to as a plow horse? (490) These items are popular but less profitable.
309 Shortenings and fats do what for baked goods? (504) Fats make baked goods moist, add flavor and keep baked items fresh longer.
310 What kind of flour would you use to make pasta? (505) Semolina
311 What kind of flour has the least amount of gluten? (505) Cake flour
312 This is the process that occurs when sugar is heated in bakery products. (505) The sugar will turn a light brown color.
313 This is a mixture of baking soda and an acid added with an inactive material such as starch. (506) Baking powder
314 Standardized recipes for bakery products are called what? (508) Formulas
315 What kind of ingredient makes dough or batters rise while baking? (506) Leavener
316 In baking, flour is what percentage of the formula? (508) 100%
317 What does sifting do? (509)Sifting adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioners sugar. Sifting also removes lumps and filters out impurities
318 What are the 2 categories of yeast breads? (514) Lean doughRich dough
319 Lean dough is made with what 4 ingredients? (514) FlourYeastWaterSalt
320 What is made from lean dough? (514) French breadHard rolls
321 Why do we knead bread dough? (515) It is important because it develops the gluten
322 What are the 2 primary methods used to make yeast breads? (515-516) Straight dough methodSponge method
323 Sourdough is made with a starter Sourdough is made with a starter. What ingredients are in a starter and how is it made? (516)WaterYeastAll purpose flourThese items are combined and fermented (usually overnight) until it has a sour smell.
347 When was the Environmental Protection Agency started? (575) 1970
348 What is the mission of the EPA? (575) Their mission is to protect human health and the environment.
349 Please define sustainability. (575) The practices that meet current resource needs without compromising the ability to meet future needs.
350 What percentage of the United States relies on groundwater for its public supply to household and businesses? (575)40%
351 How many gallons of fresh water are used every day in the United States? (577) 345 billion
352 What is the appropriate temperature for handwashing? (579) 110 degrees
353 How does sink aerators help to conserve water? (580) By adding air to a water flow
354 Please define fossil fuels and give some examples. (586) Fossil fuels are fuels that are formed from plant or animal remains buried deep in the earth. Examples of fossil fuels include natural gas, coal, propane and petroleum
355 What are the 5 types of renewable energy? (587) Water (hydropower)WindSolarGeothermal – Using the heat inside the earth. People can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generate electricity.Biomass – Biomass contains stored energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Examples include wood, crops, manure and some types or garbage.
356 What area of the restaurant uses the most energy? (589) Cooking Equipment
357 What is a brownfield site? (595-596) A previously abandoned industrial site that, once cleaned up, can be repurposed for commercial business use.
358 In the United Sates, the average person uses how many pounds of paper per year? (601)
359 What is repurposed food? (602) This is food that customers did not eat, but the back of the house staff prepared, cooked, cooled and held safely. Most of the time, repurposed food was prepared in advance for customers but not sold.
360 Name 2 ways in which an operation can reuse food that was prepared but not sold. (602) Serve the food in its original formatRepurpose food into another formatDonate food to local rescue programs
361 What 3 types of efforts can help an operation to reduce total waste ReducingReusingRecycling
362 How does single stream recycling work in an operation? (608) Recyclable items all go into one waste bin, rather than being separated, and a recycling sorts them later.
363 What is composting? (609)A natural form of recycling that occurs when organic materials decompose (or Composts) to form organic fertilizer.
364 What kinds of materials are desirable for composting? (609) Food leftoversYard trimmings
365 What is meant by the concept of food miles? (615) The amount of miles it takes to grow, process, package and sell.
366 How many pounds of shrimp are consumed on average per person in the United States? (617)
367 What is bycatch? (618)Catching fish other than those that were targeted.
368 What is the term used when seafood species are caught at a faster rate than they can reproduce (618) Overfishing
369 What is aquaculture? (619)The production of seafood under controlled conditions
370 What are fish farms that use a natural body of water to produce the fish? (621) Open system
371 What is the difference between sun grown and shade grown coffee Shade grown coffee is more expensive.
372 What are organic foods? (626) Foods that have not been produced with the use of pesticides or synthetic fertilizers.
374 What are the items that you would find in a New England boiled dinner Corned beef brisketBoiled potatoesCabbageOnionsCarrotsParsnips
375 Please describe New England clam chowder. (640) A thick clam soup, creamy, white and mild.
376 Which group of people arrived in the Midwest in the 1700s and introduced the tradition of serving meals family style? ( )Germans
377 Midwestern foods are from the central part of the country and are sometimes called by 2 names. (643) Meat and potatoes ORComfort foods
378 What type of cooking originated in southern Louisiana? (646) Cajun
379 Please give me example of 2 Cajun dished. Name them and describe them Jambalaya – A spicy rice dish with chicken, Andouille sausage, shrimp, catfish, trinity, other vegetables, herbs, broth and seasonings.Andouille – A pork sausage with a strong, smoky, garlicky taste.Gumbo – A hearty soup with trinity and shrimp, thickened with brown roux containing okra and a thickener made from fried sassafras leaves.
380 What is the trinity used for Cajun and Creole cooking? (646) CeleryOnionGreen bell peppers
381 What is the cuisine that began by blending French grand cuisine principles with the cooking techniques of enslaved Africans? (646)Creole
382 What does GMO mean? (648)Genetically modified organism
383 What is a signature dish from the Southwest whose name means sauce in Spanish? (650) Salsa
384 What is the difference between Tex-Mex and Cal-Mex Southwestern foods In Cal-Mex, meats are shredded, while in Tex-Mex the meats are generally ground.
385 Barbecue is common in this region of the United States… (651) Southwestern
386 In what region did barbeque originate? (651-652) Caribbean
387 What style of cooking and presenting food combines the ingredients and techniques of Asian and West Coast cuisine? (652)Fusion cuisine
388 What are the 2 primary flavors of Mexico? (655) Spicy hotEarthy
389 What is masa and how is it made? (656) Corn that is chemically treated with alkali to remove the husks and create acorn meal.
390 Mexican cuisine derives from what 2 cultures? (656) AztecMayan
391 In Mexican cooking, what are comales typically used for? (656) To make tortillas
392 What is mole? (657)It is a sauce or mixture and can sometimes be used as a suffix on words to describe the sauce.
393 What is Curtido? (664)A typical Central American relish that is made from cabbage, onions and carrots in vinegar. It originated in El Salvador.
394 What is Gallo pinto? (664)It is a mix of white rice and black beans, cooked separately and then fried together in coconut oil. The blend of color makes it look similar to the markings on a local variety of hen.
395 What part of the United States has Asian fusion flavors? (652) Pacific Rim/Coast
396 What two countries influence Brazilian foods? (674-688) BRAZIL AND PROTUGAUL
397 Brazilian cuisine was influenced by what other country? (676) Portugal
398 What tropic fruit is a staple of Brazilian cuisine? (678) Banana
399 In Jamaica, what is the name of the dry spice rub that is common for their country? (668-669) Jerk spice
400 Name 2 ways in which sofrito is commonly used. (670) Serves as a foundation of soups or stewsFlavors basic rice or beans
401 What is a citrus and fish mixture common to most of the Latin American coastal regions and is a signature dish in Peru? (691)Ceviche
402 GLOBAL CUISINE 2 EUROPE, MEDITERRANEAN, MIDDLE EAST & ASIA
403 What is the name of the French dish made from engorged duck liver Foie gras
404 What are the 2 major cooking fats of Italy? (699) ButterOlive oil
405 Which European country is home to the mother sauces? (699) France
406 This country’s food has been characterized as la cucina povera, the cuisine of poverty. (701) Italy
407 Which Italian city is the birthplace of pizza? (702) Naples
408 Couscous is the national dish of which country? (713) Morocco
409 What type of food is commonly eaten in Morocco? (713) TAGINES
410 What are the 2 most important flavoring agents used in Greek cuisine Olive oilLemon juice
411 What is a popular Tunisian salad, made of roasted peppers and tomatoes and garnished with tuna and hard-boiled egg called? (719)Salade compose
412 Ful medames is the national dish of which country? (727) Egypt
413 List the 3 major types of rice cookery practiced in Iran. (730) ChelowKettehDamy
414 What are the 2 signature cooking methods of Moroccan cuisine? (731) TaginesCouscoussieres
415 What is tagine? (713) It is a meat stew that originated in Morocco. It is also the word used for the earthenware or metal cooking vessel used to make the stew.
416 What are the 2 extremely popular seasonings used in Saudi Arabia? (732) BaharatLoomi
417 Who were the first people known to control the use of fire and apply it to cooking? (738) Chinese
418 Chinese cuisine is based on which philosophy? (738) Tao
419 What is velveting in Chinese cooking? (740) Coat prepared meats with cornstarch and egg whites before stir frying to retain moisture and improve sauce adherence
420 What is the Chinese cooking technique that is a long, slow braising in a mixture of soy sauce and water? (740)Red cooking
421 What is the Chinese cuisine that is known for its hot and spicy dished Szechwan-Hunan
422 What is masala? (748)A spice mixture that preparers grind and fry before they add them to dishes
423 What is the Indian technique of scattering dry, whole, or ground spices into hot oil or ghee until they pop, flavoring the oil? (750)Tarka
424 How long coffee should be brewed for best quality? (814) 60 MINUTES
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