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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1 BREAKFAST FOODS AND SANDWICHES"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is Pasteurization? (6)
When milk is heated to kill microorganisms that cause spoilage and disease without effecting its nutritional value.

3 What is Homogenization? (6)
Milk is strained through very fine holes to break down fat and then is blended into ne fluid.

4 Is lactose intolerance a milk allergy? (7)
No, it is not.

5 How much fat is in the following milk items: (8)
SKIM MILK – Less than 0.5% WHOLE MILK – At least 3% CONDENSED MILK – At least 8.5%

6 Please explain lactose intolerance. (9)
People who are lactose intolerant can’t easily digest lactose, which is a sugar found in dairy products. Undigested lactose moving through the body can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as gas, bloating, nausea, diarrhea and stomach pain.

7 At what temperature should milk be stored? (10)
41 degrees or lower

8 All milk should be labeled as what grade? (10)
Grade A

9 How much fat is in the following types of cream: (11)
HALF AND HALF – 10.5 to 18% HEAVY CREAM – 36 to 38%

10 How is butter made? (11) Butter is made by mixing cream containing between 30 percent and 40 percent milk fat at high speed.

11 What is one benefit of using margarine? (12)
It has a higher smoke point than butter.

12 Is it true that one of the advantages of using margarine is that it is a lot lower in fat that butter? (12) Margarine is not much lower in fat than butter.

13 Where and when was oleomargarine first made? (13)
It was first made in France in 1870.

14 What are the 3 basic parts of all cheeses? (14)
Water Fat Protein

15 Brie and camembert are examples of which type of cheese? (16)
Soft ripened

16 What is the optimum storage temperature for cheese? (17)
35 to 45 degrees at a high relative humidity.

17 What are the 4 parts of an egg? (17)
Outer shell White (albumen) Yolk Chalazae

18 What does the yolk of an egg contain? (17)
Fat Protein Lecithin

19 What does the chalazae do? (17)
It is the membrane that holds the yolk in place.

20 Recipes are based upon what size of egg? (18)

21 How many ounces are there in a dozen large eggs? (19)

22 Egg substitutes are used for people on what kind of diet? (20)
Cholesterol free diet

23 The air temperature of a truck delivering eggs should not exceed what temperature? (22)
45 degrees

24 Liquid, frozen and dehydrated eggs must have this done to them by law

25 What is the cooking time for hard-boiled eggs (25)
10 minutes

26 What is a shirred egg? (26) A variety of baked egg

27 How do you poach an egg? (27) 4 steps
Combine water, salt, and vinegar in a shallow skillet or pan and bring it to a simmer. Break the egg into a clean cup and slide the egg carefully into the poaching water. Cook until the whites are set and opaque. Remove the eggs from the water with a slotted spoon and blot them on an absorbent towel. Trim, if desired, and serve hot.

28 During which cooking method are eggs constantly stirred? (28)

29 What is another name for a flat omelet? (31)

30 What is a quiche? (32) A savory egg custard baked in a crust

31 What are pooled eggs? (34) Eggs that are cracked open and combined in a container

32 What is a crepe? (39) A very thin pancake-type item with a high egg content

33 What is sliced bread dipped in an egg and milk mixture that is often seasoned lightly with cinnamon and nutmeg? (40) French toast

34 How much fat does bacon have in it before cooking? (41)
About 70 percent

35 What are the 3 ingredients in a hash mixture? (42)
A mixture of chopped meat (fresh or smoked), potatoes and onions

36 Farina and cornmeal are examples of what type of hot cereal? (43)

37 What is the proper brewing temperature for coffee? (46)
195 to 200 degrees

38 What cooking method is use to make a Panini sandwich? (54)

39 Which cold sandwich is served on a long, sliced roll with several types of cheese, meat, lettuce, tomato, onion, and other toppings? (55) Submarine

40 Please describe what a wrap is. (55)
They are made on any type of flat bread – for example tortillas, cracker bread or rice paper wrappers – and spear with a hot or cold sandwich filling. It is then rolled up.

41 What is a multi-decker sandwich? (55)
A sandwich with more then 2 slices of bread with several ingredients in the filling.

42 What is one example of a multi-decker sandwich? (55)
Club sandwich

43 Tell me about a canapé. (55)
It is an open faced cold sandwich used as a type of hors d’oeuvre

44 What are the three primary components to all sandwiches? (56)
Bread Spread Filling

45 What are the 2 most common spreads? (57)
Butter Mayonnaise

46 What 2 things are needed at every sandwich station? (59)
Ingredients Equipment

47 According to Figure 1.36, what can be used to transfer a pizza in and out of the oven? (61)
Pizza Peel


49 What is nutrition? (80) Nutrition is the study of the nutrients in food and how they nourish the body.

50 What are nutrients? (80) They are components of food that are needed for the body to function

51 Why does the body need nutrients? (80)
To provide energy To build and repair cells To keep the different systems in the body working smoothly

52 According to the fast facts, what are the two things that your body needs on a daily basis to stay healthy? (81) Carbohydrates Water

53 What are the six basic nutrients that are important to the body? (83)
Carbohydrates Lipids (fats) Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water

54 What does fiber do? (84) Fiber promotes digestive health and regularity.

55 What are phytochemicals? (84)
They are chemicals that aid the body in fighting or preventing disease. They are also known as phytonutrients.

56 What is the body’s main energy source? (84)

57 What are the units of measurement by which energy from food is measured? (85)

58 Simple carbohydrates contain how many sugars? (86)
They contain one or two sugars

59 Honey and molasses are what kind of carbohydrate? (86-87)
Simple Carbohydrates

60 What is the name of a very important simple sugar that is the primary source of energy? (87)

61 What is the only source of energy for the brain and nervous system

62 Which category of carbohydrate takes longest to digest? (87-89)

63 What are hormones? (87) Hormones are special chemical messengers made by the bodies that regulate different body functions.

64 Tell me about complex carbohydrates. (87)
They contain long chains that include many glucose modules. They are found in plant based foods such as grains, legumes and vegetables.

65 Good sources of carbohydrates include the following: (88)
Dry beans and peas Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes and corn Rice Grits Pasta Oatmeal Cornmeal Breads and Cereals

66 What are the two types of fiber
What are the two types of fiber? Tell me a little bit about each one of them. Soluble Fiber – It dissolves in water. When we eat foods that contain soluble fiber, we feel full for a longer time. Soluble fiber also slows down the release of sugar in the blood and helps lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Insoluble Fiber – It does not dissolve in water. It acts like a stiff broom to clean and scrub the digestive tract so that we can eliminate waste from our systems more easily.

67 What is another name for fat? (89)

68 What is in both bones and teeth? (94)

69 What 5 functions do fats perform in the body? (89)
Carrying vitamins A, D, E and K throughout the body Cushioning the bodies' vital organs Protecting the body from extreme temperatures Providing a reserve of energy (when the body stores it) Supplying nutrients called essential fatty acids

70 What is the chemical process that causes fats to spoil? (90)

71 What does hydrogenation do? (90)
Make liquid fats a solid

72 What is the disadvantage of hydrogenation? (90)
Fat processed this way are more harmful to your health

73 Please explain the significance of essential fatty acids. (90)
They are used to make substances that regulate vital body functions, such as blood pressure, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and immune response.

74 Please explain the significance of oxidation. (90)
It is the process that causes fats to spoil or go rancid.

75 Please explain the significance of Cholesterol. (90)
It is a white, waxy substance that is produced in your liver. In the body, cholesterol helps make such substances such as bile acids, vitamin D and hormones.

76 Please explain the significance of trans fatty acids (90)
These are the result of taking a liquid fat and making it a solid through a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation of fat alters its physical properties and makes it stay fresh longer. The disadvantage of hydrogenation is that it may be more harmful to a person’s health that saturated fat when it comes to the development of heart disease.

77 Please give examples of foods that contain saturated fats. (91)
Meat Poultry Fish Dairy Products Butter Lard Palm Oil Palm Kernel Oil Coconut Oil

78 Please give examples of foods that contain monounsaturated fats. (91)
Olive Oil Canola Oil Peanut Oil Avocado Oil Nut Oils

79 Please give examples of foods that contain polyunsaturated fats. (91)
Safflower Oil Sunflower Oil Soybean Oil Corn Oil Cottonseed Oil Sesame Oil Fish Oils

80 What do proteins do? (92) They provide the building blocks, in the form of amino acids, that the body uses for a variety of things , including muscles, tissues, enzymes and hormones.

81 How many amino acids can be found in food? (92)

82 How many essential amino acids are there and what is their significance? (92)
There are 9 essential amino acids that must be obtained from food each day. The other amino acids can be produced in the body.

83 What is a complete protein? (93)
They contain all of the essential amino acids in the right amount

84 What is an incomplete protein? (93)
They lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Foods from plant sources are incomplete amino acids.

85 What do vitamins do? (94) They are needed to regulate metabolic processes such as digestion and the absorption of nutrients.

86 What are the 2 types of vitamins? (94)
Water soluble Fat soluble

87 What are the water soluble vitamins that can be washed away by steam or water? (94)
Vitamin C and B

88 What are the fat soluble vitamins? (94)
Vitamin A, D, E and K

89 What is the only nutrient that it is impossible for human to live without? (96)

90 What 4 functions do water perform in the body? (96)
Helps with the digestion, absorption and transportation of nutrients Helps eliminate waste through the kidneys, colon and lungs Distributes heat throughout the body and allowing heat to be released through the skin by evaporation (sweating) Lubricates joints and cushions tissues

91 What is digestion? (98) The process of breaking down food into its simplest parts so that it can be absorbed

92 What are food additives? (98)
A substance or combination of substances present in food as a result of processing, production or packaging

93 Why are food additives used? (99)
Improve flavor, color and texture Retain nutritional value Prevent spoilage Extend shelf life

94 Tell me about the diet of a vegetarian. (100)
They follow a strict diet an will not consume any of the following: Meat Fish Poultry Products

95 Tell me about the diet of a lacto vegetarian. (100)
This person is a vegetarian, but they also eat dairy products

96 Tell me about the diet of a lacto-ovo vegetarian (100)
A vegetarian who eats dairy products and eggs

97 Tell me about the diet of a vegan. (100)
They follow the strictest diet an will not consume any of the following: Dairy Eggs Meat Poultry Fish Anything containing animal products or byproducts

98 What is LDL? (104) The bad cholesterol

99 What is HDL? (104) This is the good cholesterol. It takes excess cholesterol away and carries it back to the liver to be excreted.

100 What is the name of the condition where the body does not have the ability to regulated sugar properly? (104) Diabetes

101 What condition occurs when the body does not get enough nutrients

102 When cooking any food, remember that the lower the temperature and the shorter the cooking period will result in what? (112) Less nutrient loss

103 When boiling vegetables, what do you lose? (114-115)

104 What is portion control? (117)
Controlling the quantity of a particular food be using appropriate sized servings.

105 What can be added during baking as a low fat alternative to butter

106 Please tell me about the 4 kinds of salt. Give me a definition for each. (123)
Table salt – The most common Kosher salt – It has a purer flavor than table salt. It is usually coarser with larger crystals. To substitute Kosher salt for table salt, use twice as much Kosher salt as called for in the recipe. It is the most common salt found in professional kitchens. Sea salt – It is extracted from the ocean using evaporation techniques. It is usually not refined, so it contains additional minerals and other elements found in sea water, which affect the flavor. Iodized salt – Table salt that has been refined with iodine as a nutritional supplement.

107 The most commonly sold type of beef? (124)

108 What is a low fat substitute for ground beef? (125)
Ground sirloin Ground turkey breast Ground soy

109 Which chemicals kill insects and other plant pests? (126)

110 What does the term organic mean? (127)
To be produced without pesticides or synthetic fertilizers.


112 What is revenue? (147) The income from sales before expenses

113 What is the definition of a cost? (147)
The price an operation pays out in the purchasing and preparation of its products or the providing of its service.

114 What are the 4 main categories of costs? (147)
Food costs Beverage costs Labor costs Overhead costs

115 What is another name for a fixed cost? (148)
Non-controllable cost

116 What are 2 examples of controllable costs? (149)
Food cost Hourly wage portion of labor cost

117 What is a fixed cost? (151) Costs that remain the same regardless of sales volume

118 What is an operating budget? (151)
A financial plan for a specific period of time

119 What is a forecast? (152) A perdition of sales levels or costs that will occur during a specific time period

120 Forecasting revenue is usually determined by looking at what 2 things
Historical data Average sales per customer

121 How do you calculate the average sales per customer? (152)
Total dollars divided by the total number of customers

122 What does the sales history show? (153)
It is a record of the number of portions of every item sold on a menu

123 What is a production sheet? (153)
It is a list of all of the menu items that are going to be prepared for a given date.

124 The number of times a menu item is sold during a particular time period is known as what? (153)
Sales history

125 What is a profit and loss report? (156)
A compilation od sales and cost information for a specific period of time

126 List the 7 stages of the flow of food process. (165-166)
Purchasing Receiving Storage Issuing Preparation Cooking Service

127 What is the definition of food cost? (167)
The actual dollar value of the food used by an operation during a certain period

128 How do you calculate food cost?
(See page 167)

129 What is inventory? (167) This represents the dollar value of a food product in storage and can be expressed in terms of units, values or both

130 Define opening inventory. (167)
The physical inventory at the beginning of a given period (such as the month of April)

131 Define closing inventory. (167)
The physical inventory at the end of a given period.

132 What is the formula for calculating food cost percentage? (168)
Total food cost / Sales = Food Cost Percentage

133 What are the 2 methods used to determine the cost of ingredients in a standard recipe? (170-171)
As purchased Edible portion

134 What is as-purchased method? (170)
It is used to cost an ingredient at the purchase price before and trim or waste is taken into account.

135 What is the edible portion method? (171)
It is used to cost an ingredient after trimming and removing waste so that only the usable portion of the item is reflected.

136 What is a food production chart? (176)
It is a form that shows how much product should be produced by the kitchen during a given meal period.

137 What is a sales history used for? (176)
It is critical in helping management forecast how many portions of each menu item to produce on a given day.

138 What is contribution margin? (178)
The portion of dollars that a particular menu item contributes to overall profits.

139 How do you calculate contribution margin
How do you calculate contribution margin? What is the contribution margin if a menu item sells for and has cost of 33% to make?

140 What is the straight markup method? (178)
Multiply raw food costs by a predetermined fraction

141 What is the average check method? (178)
The total revenue is divided by the number of seats, average seat turnover and days open in one year.

142 What 4 factors affect labor costs? (187)
Business volume Employee turnover Quality standards Operating standards

143 How do you calculate employee turnover? (189)
It is the number of employees hired to fill one position in a year’s time

144 What is listed on a master schedule? (190)
It lists no names. It just lists the positions and the number of employees in those positions.

145 What is a chart that shows the employee’s names and the days and times they are to work? (191)
Crew Schedule

146 List 3 things a good staff contingency plan should include. (192)
Cross training employees Identifying shift leaders Having on call employees

147 What is cross training? (192)
Training employees to handle responsibilities in areas of the operation aside from their primary work responsibilities

148 Explain the process of having on call employees. (192)
A certain number of employees must call their operation at a predetermined time to find out whether they have to work that day.

149 What is the best time for restaurants and foodservice operations to receive deliveries? (199)
When the operation is slow

150 How often should fresh fish be delivered to an operation? (200)

151 How often should meat be ordered and delivered to an operation? (200)
At least 2 or 3 times a week

152 What is the document from a vendor that lists such details as items purchased, date of order, purchaser and sales price? (201) Invoice

153 What is another name for an invoice? (201)

154 What does it mean to take a physical inventory? (204)
To count and record the number of each item in the storeroom


156 What type of lettuce is used in Caesar salad? (220)
Romaine lettuce

157 What is the most popular American salad green? (220)
Iceberg (head) lettuce

158 What are the 4 basic parts to any salad? (221)
Base Body Garnish Dressing

159 What type of salad green is appropriate to use with mayonnaise based dressing? (221)

160 What does a garnish do? (222)
Enhances the appearance of the salad while also complimenting the overall taste

161 What are the 5 main types of salads? (224)
Green – tossed and composed Bound Vegetables Fruit Combination

162 What are bound salads bound together with? (225)
Some type of heavy dressing such as mayonnaise

163 What are the cooked primary ingredients in a bound salad? (225)
Meat Poultry Fish Egg Potato Pasta Rice

164 The two types of green salads are … (225)
Tossed Composed

165 How should you handle garnishes that might become soggy or discolored
Add them just prior to serving Examples include croutons or avocadoes

166 What are the two fruits that cannot be added to gelatin raw or they will not allow the gelatin to set? (232) Raw pineapple Raw papaya

167 Fruits such as apples and bananas will discolor after being peeled or cut. What do you need to do to them to keep it from happening? (233) Dip them in a combination of lemon juice and water to keep their fresh appearance. Do not soak the fruit in the mixture or it will ruin the flavor of the fruit.

168 What is a starter salad? (234)
They are served as an appetizer to the main meal. They are smaller in portion size and consists of light, fresh, crisp ingredients to stimulate the appetite.

169 What is another name for an accompaniment salad? (235)
Side salad

170 What is an intermezzo salad? (235)
It is intended to be a palate cleanser after a rich dinner and before dessert.

171 The proper way to store loose greens is with dampened paper towels and between which 2 temperatures? (237) 36 to 41 degrees

172 You cannot store greens with tomatoes or apples because they will wilt due to what gas they emit? (237) Ethylene Gas

173 How long at what temperature can fresh greens be held at? (237)

174 How many days can unopened produce be stored? (238)
1 to 3 days

175 What is the best way to clean salad greens? (239)
Dip them in and out of water.

176 The first Chinese food introduced in the United States is? (240)

177 What is vinaigrette? (244) The simplest form of salad dressing and is made from oil and vinegar

178 What is the standard recipe for basic vinaigrette? (244)
3 Parts Oil 1 Part Vinegar

179 What is a suspension? (244) A temporary mixture of ingredients that eventually separates back into its unique parts

180 Foie Gras comes from what country? (244)

181 Tell me about Balsamic vinegar. (245)
It is a special wine vinegar aged in wooden barrels for 4 to 50 years. It has a dark brown color and sweet taste. It has a sticky consistency due to high sugar content

182 What is an emulsion? (245) A mixture of ingredients that permanently stays together.

183 What is the oil we use in class that has a greenish color to it? (245)
Olive Oil

184 Which vinegar has a neutral flavor? (245)

185 What is an emulsifier? (246)
An ingredient that can permanently bind dissimilar ingredients, such as oil and vinegar, together on a molecular level. Eggs are good emulsifiers.

186 What is the ingredient that thickens mayonnaise? (248)
Egg yolks

187 What is the most stable and thickest emulsified dressing? (248)

188 How do you make mayonnaise? (250) 6 Steps
Place egg yolks in an appropriate sized stainess steel bowl. Add dry ingredients and whisk until frothy and well blended. Drizzle oil slowly into mixture, whisk rapidly. As mixture thickens, slowly alternate adding small amounts of vinegar or lemon juice and oil until all are used. Check seasoning. Serve the dressing at once or refrigerate it.

189 What is dip? (251) A hot and cold mixture that accompanies certain food items, with the purpose of complementing or enhancing the food’s flavor.

190 Tell me about Hummus. (252) This is made with chick peas, garlic and tahini (from the Middle East)


192 What is the first thing that a person needs to do purchasing? (288)
Make sure that an operation has enough product to sell.

193 What is the purchasing document that describes the characteristics of products and services that an operation wants to buy? (288) Product specifications

194 There are many tools available to help purchasers buy the right amount of product. They are: (288)
Customer count histories Popularity index of items sold Vendor delivery schedule Availability of items from vendors Recognizing outside influences that might affect an operation

195 What is the amount of funds available to an operation at any given time? (289)
Cash position

196 What is a customer count forecast? (289)
This is the number of customers expected for a given time period

197 According to Table 5.1, there are 3 main parts to the channel of distribution. Please let me know what they are and give me examples of each

198 Primary Sources Farmers Ranchers Manufacturers Distillers

199 Intermediaries Wholesalers Distributors Suppliers

200 Retailers Restaurants School cafeterias Caterers

201 Farmers belong to what part of the food distribution channel? (291)
Primary Source

202 What is another name for capital? (297)

203 What are specialized, written price lists created for the restaurant by a supplier? (300)

204 Please explain what a kickback is. (301-302)
Money or other goods received by a person for purchasing from a specific vendor

205 Please list the 3 reasons why a foodservice operation would purchase ready made products? (313)
Consistency– A buyer knows exactly what they are getting. Reduces prep time and labor costs Reduces the need for certain types of equipment and storage space that might be otherwise necessary to make something from scratch

206 Why would a chef conduct a make or buy analysis? (313)
To decide whether it makes better financial sense to make the item from scratch or to purchase a ready made product.

207 All of the items that we produce in class are listed on what form
Production Sheet

208 List 3 elements of production records. (314)
Production sheets Daily food cost sheets Sales mix records

209 What is it called when an operation runs out of a food? (314)
A stockout

210 What is the term used for the ideal amount of an item to have on inventory at any given time? (316)
Par stock

211 What is a legally binding written document that details exactly what the buyer is ordering from the vendor? (316) Purchase order

212 In a large operation, what form does a manager need to compete to purchase a new refrigerator? (318)
Requisition form

213 As a product moves through the channel of distribution, what 5 factors affect its value? (318-319)
Time value Form value Place value Transportation value Service value

214 What is the process of inspecting, accepting, and, in some cases, rejecting deliveries of goods and services? ( ) Receiving

215 What are food products that are sold or distributed in a form that will spoil or decay within a limited period of time? (329) Perishable products

216 What is a record of all products an operation has in storage and in the kitchen? (333)

217 What are the 2 common methods for purchasing nonperishable foods? (334)
Physical inventory method Perpetual inventory method


219 Quality Grade of meat measures what? (353)
The flavor characteristics of meat products.

220 Yield Grades of meat measure what? (353)
The edible portion or usable meat

221 According to Table 6. 1, please tell me about the Prime grade of meat
This is the highest quality available for beef, veal, and lamb. Usually found in only the finest restaurants, hotels, and markets. A lot of marbling and a cover of firm fat, which enables flavor and juiciness. Only a small percentage of beef products meet this standard.

222 What are the 2 grades assigned by the USDA to most meats? (353)
Quality grade Yield grade

223 What are the first cuts the butcher makes? (355-358)

224 What are primal cuts of meat? (356)
The primary divisions of meat produced by the initial butchering of animal carcasses.

225 What is Offal meat? (359) Organ meat

226 What is Kosher meat? (360) Meat that is specifically slaughtered to comply with Jewish dietary laws.

227 Using a mallet on meat does what to it? (362)
Tenderize it

228 What is the process of butchering primal cuts into usable portions, such as roasts or steaks? ( ) Fabrication

229 What 5 factors should be considered when purchasing meat? (364-367)
Cost Freshness Fat Content Equipment Vendors

230 What is marbling? (365) Lines of fat within the lean flesh portion of the meat.

231 What are the 3 dry heat methods of cooking for cooking high quality, tender cuts of meat? (368)
Broiling Grilling Roasting

232 What do you do to strips of meat before they are sautéed and why? (369)
Lightly dust them with flour and be sure to shake off any excess flour before adding the item to the pan. Flour helps the meat retain moisture and promotes even browning.

233 How long should meat be allowed to rest after cooking and before slicing? (372)
15 to 30 minutes

234 Why should cooked meat be given time to rest before slicing? (372)
This allows less juice to be lost during carving

235 What is the most versatile protein? (379)

236 What are the 3 grades of poultry? (379)

237 Which type of poultry meat is low in calories and fat content and cooks faster? (380)
White meat

238 Tell me about cooking dark meat. (381)
It requires more time to cook.

239 List the 3 types of poultry fabrication. (382)
Disjointing Boning Cutting the bird into pieces

240 List the 4 reasons why you should reject a delivery of poultry? (385)
Color: Purple or green discoloration around the neck: dark wing tips (red tips are acceptable) Texture: Stickiness: under the wings and around the joints Odor: Abnormal, unpleasant odor Freezer burn: Any signs of frost, ice or leakage from the package

241 What is a young pigeon called? (386)

242 Please explain what it is to truss a poultry item. (387)
The legs and wings are tied to the bird’s body.

243 When roasting, why area bird’s legs and wings tied to the bird’s body
So it cooks evenly and stays moist

244 What is a sauce with a complex flavor? (389)

245 What is the highest quality grade of seafood available? (396)
Grade A

246 Seafood is divided into two major categories. What are they? (396)
Fin fish Shellfish

247 What is a shellfish? (397) Shellfish have an outer shell but no backbone and live primarily in salt water.

248 What are the 3 categories of shellfish? (397)
Crustaceans Mollusks Cephalopods

249 List the 6 market forms of fin fish. (399)
Whole or round Drawn Dressed Butterfly fillet Fish fillet Steak

250 IQF is an acronym for what? (400)
Individually quick frozen

251 What kind of food is fabricated using techniques such as scaling, trimming and gutting? (401)
Fin Fish

252 To be acceptable, fresh fish must meet the following 5 criteria: (402)
Color: Bright red gills; bright shiny skin Texture: Firm flesh that springs back when touched Odor: Mild ocean or seaweed smell Eyes: Bright, clear and full Packaging: Product should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice

253 What is the process of removing a shrimp’s digestive tract? (402)

254 Moist heat is the best way to cook what kind of fish? (407)
Lean fish

255 What is fumet? (407) A rich fish stock made with wine

256 What is bouillabaisse? (408)
A French seafood stew made with assorted fish and shellfish, onions, tomatoes, white wine, olive oil, garlic, saffron and herbs.

257 What is a type of fish that have no skeletal system? (410)

258 Charcuterie is a French term that refers to? (415)
Cooked flesh

259 List the 3 main types of sausages. (416)
Fresh sausage Smoked or cooked sausages Dried or hard sausages

260 What does garde manger refer to? (416)
The department typically found in a classical brigade system kitchen and/or the chef who is responsible for the preparation of cold foods, including salads and salad dressings, cold appetizers, charcuterie items and similar dished.

261 Bucyrus, Ohio is the Bratwurst capital of the world
Bucyrus, Ohio is the Bratwurst capital of the world. Can you tell me what Bratwurst is? ( ) Smoked and cooked sausage

262 What is a mixture of lean ground meat and fat emulsified in a food grinder and pushed through a sieve to create a smooth paste? (417) Forcemeat

263 What are the 2 main types of forcemeat? (417)
Straight forcemeat Country style forcemeat

264 What are two examples of dried or hard sausage? (417)
Italian Salami Pepperoni

265 What is forcemeat made of veal, poultry or fish called? (418)


267 A group of people, also known as customers is called what? (434)

268 What is marketing? (434) The process of communicating a businesses message to its market.

269 What are the 4 “P’s” in the marketing concept? (436)
Place Product Price Promotion

270 What are the 3 primary elements of the contemporary marketing mix
Product service mix Presentation mix Communication mix

271 Customer trends are also known as what? (437)
Market trends

272 What is the way in which an operation tells its customers about its products and services? (437)
Communication mix

273 Which contemporary marketing mix consists of all the elements that make the operation look unique? (437) Presentation mix

274 What are the 5 steps to a successful marketing plan? (438)
Research the market Establish objectives Develop a market strategy Implement an action plan Evaluate/modify the action plan as needed

275 A SWOT analysis looks at what 4 things? (442)
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats

276 What is the experimental method of marketing? (448)
An operation might try out a product for a limited time or with a limited group of people

277 What is the observational method of marketing? (448)
This involves observing how customers react in a natural setting towards a product

278 Explain the survey method of marketing. (448)
In this method, a marketer gathers information using questionnaires.

279 Please explain sampling. (449)
This involves testing a product with a specific, small group, sometimes called a focus group.

280 What does mass marketing do? (450)
Treats everyone in the market as having the same wants and needs.

281 What does target marketing do? (450)
Treats people as different from each other and tries to make a focused appeal to a distinct group of customers.

282 What is breaking down a large market into smaller groups of similar individuals called? (450-453)
Market segmentation

283 What are demographics? (450)
This refers to the ways in which researchers categorize or group people.

284 What are the 4 ways an operation can segment the market? (451-452)
Demographic segmentation Geographic segmentation Product usage segmentation Lifestyle segmentation

285 The main goal of target marketing is to… (452)
Target marketing helps you to focus your promotion and advertising efforts on specific groups.

286 A promotional mix may include some of these 5 components: (457)
Advertising Sales promotion Personal selling Public relations Direct marketing

287 What is it called when an operation pays to present or promote its products, services or identity? (457) Advertising

288 Radio commercials are what form of market communication? (457)

289 Our white bread normally sells for $2. 50 a loaf
Our white bread normally sells for $2.50 a loaf. By selling it to people who use other services in the building, we are using what type of market communication? (457) Sales promotion

290 What is a premium? (459) Free or reduced price merchandise, such as a pen or cup that shows the name and location of the restaurant, usually given away or sold for a reduced price with the purchase of a food item.

291 What is it called when 2 or more sponsors develop complementary promotions or offer complementary promotional Materials? (461) Cooperative sales promotion

292 What is interacting with the people in the local area to create awareness of and trust for an operation? (461) Community relations

293 What is a packet of information given to media representatives to answer potential questions about a business or organization called? (462) Press release

294 What is the primary sales tool in most restaurants? (468)

295 What are some examples of promotional materials
What are some examples of promotional materials? You DO NOT need to give definitions. (460) Signage Flyers Premiums Carryout and door hanger menus Appeal and brand name merchandise Point of Purchase materials Merchandising materials Direct mail

296 Daily Specials is an example of what type of menu? (472)
Du jour menu

297 What type of menu offers breakfast, lunch and dinner at any time of day? (473)
California menu

298 How are most menus organized? (475)
In the order in which they are actually eaten Appetizers Soup Salad Sandwiches Entrees Vegetables Desserts

299 When planning a menu, what 6 things do managers and chefs need to keep in mind? (476)
Physical layout of the facility Skills of personnel Availability of ingredients Target market’s wants and needs Target market’s expectations Profit margin

300 What are the 2 steps in menu creation? (476-480)
Planning Design

301 What 2 purposes does menu pricing serve (482-485)
To provide information to customers To determine profitability

302 How do you calculate the cost of an item using the food percentage method? (483)
Item food cost / Food cost percentage = Menu price

303 What are the 4 classifications that come from menu engineering? (490)
Star Plow horse Puzzle Dog

304 What does it mean when a menu item is called a star? (490)
These items are both popular and profitable

305 What does it mean when a menu item is called a puzzle? (490)
These items are unpopular but very profitable.

306 What does it mean when a menu item is called a dog? (491)
These items are unpopular and unprofitable.

307 What is it when a menu item is referred to as a plow horse? (490)
These items are popular but less profitable.

308 CHAPTER 8 desserts & bakery products

309 Shortenings and fats do what for baked goods? (504)
Fats make baked goods moist, add flavor and keep baked items fresh longer.

310 What kind of flour would you use to make pasta? (505)

311 What kind of flour has the least amount of gluten? (505)
Cake flour

312 This is the process that occurs when sugar is heated in bakery products. (505)
The sugar will turn a light brown color.

313 This is a mixture of baking soda and an acid added with an inactive material such as starch. (506)
Baking powder

314 Standardized recipes for bakery products are called what? (508)

315 What kind of ingredient makes dough or batters rise while baking? (506)

316 In baking, flour is what percentage of the formula? (508)

317 What does sifting do? (509) Sifting adds air to flour, cocoa, and confectioners sugar. Sifting also removes lumps and filters out impurities

318 What are the 2 categories of yeast breads? (514)
Lean dough Rich dough

319 Lean dough is made with what 4 ingredients? (514)
Flour Yeast Water Salt

320 What is made from lean dough? (514)
French bread Hard rolls

321 Why do we knead bread dough? (515)
It is important because it develops the gluten

322 What are the 2 primary methods used to make yeast breads? (515-516)
Straight dough method Sponge method

323 Sourdough is made with a starter
Sourdough is made with a starter. What ingredients are in a starter and how is it made? (516) Water Yeast All purpose flour These items are combined and fermented (usually overnight) until it has a sour smell.

324 What is proof? (516) Rise for a second time

325 What are the 10 steps in making yeast bread? (518)
Scale ingredients Mix and knead ingredients Fermentation Punch down the dough Portioning Rounding Shaping Proofing Baking Cooling and storing

326 What are the 4 methods for preparing quick bread and cake? (525)
Creaming Foaming Straight Dough Two Stage

327 Which method for preparing quick bread and batter mixes fat and sugar together to produce a very fine crumb and a dense, rich texture? (525) Creaming method

328 Which method is used to prepare angel food cakes and chiffon cakes
Foaming method

329 What is the protective coating on a cake called? (526)
Icing or Frosting

330 What are the 7 types of icing?
Buttercream Foam Fondant Fudge Ganache Glaze Royal Icing

331 Which type of icing has a shiny, nonsticky coating when dried? (527)

332 Why are steamed puddings more stable than dessert soufflés? (528-529)
Because of the greater percentage of egg and sugar in the batter

333 When making 3-2-1 pie dough, it is… (533)
3 Parts Flour 2 Parts Shortening 1 Part Water

334 What is the process of preparing prebaked pie shells called? (535)
Blind baking

335 What kind of dough do you use to make baklava? (537)

336 What are the 7 types of cookies? (539)
Bagged Bar Dropped Icebox Molded Rolled Sheet

337 Which type of cookies are ladyfingers and tea fingers? (539)

338 What is the basis of all cocoa products? (544)

339 What is the white coating that sometimes appears on the surface of chocolate? (546)

340 What is the best way to store chocolate? (546)
In a cool, dry, well ventilated area.

341 Why is chocolate tempered? (547-548)
So that the chocolate will melt evenly

342 What piece of equipment is used to melt chocolate? (547-548)
Double boiler

343 What is the fruit sauce made from fresh berries or other fruits? (555)

344 What is custard like pudding? (555)

345 What ingredients do you use to make Bavarian cream? (557)
Vanilla sauce Gelatin Whipped Cream


347 When was the Environmental Protection Agency started? (575)

348 What is the mission of the EPA? (575)
Their mission is to protect human health and the environment.

349 Please define sustainability. (575)
The practices that meet current resource needs without compromising the ability to meet future needs.

350 What percentage of the United States relies on groundwater for its public supply to household and businesses? (575) 40%

351 How many gallons of fresh water are used every day in the United States? (577)
345 billion

352 What is the appropriate temperature for handwashing? (579)
110 degrees

353 How does sink aerators help to conserve water? (580)
By adding air to a water flow

354 Please define fossil fuels and give some examples. (586)
Fossil fuels are fuels that are formed from plant or animal remains buried deep in the earth. Examples of fossil fuels include natural gas, coal, propane and petroleum

355 What are the 5 types of renewable energy? (587)
Water (hydropower) Wind Solar Geothermal – Using the heat inside the earth. People can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to heat buildings or generate electricity. Biomass – Biomass contains stored energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Examples include wood, crops, manure and some types or garbage.

356 What area of the restaurant uses the most energy? (589)
Cooking Equipment

357 What is a brownfield site? (595-596)
A previously abandoned industrial site that, once cleaned up, can be repurposed for commercial business use.

358 In the United Sates, the average person uses how many pounds of paper per year? (601)

359 What is repurposed food? (602)
This is food that customers did not eat, but the back of the house staff prepared, cooked, cooled and held safely. Most of the time, repurposed food was prepared in advance for customers but not sold.

360 Name 2 ways in which an operation can reuse food that was prepared but not sold. (602)
Serve the food in its original format Repurpose food into another format Donate food to local rescue programs

361 What 3 types of efforts can help an operation to reduce total waste
Reducing Reusing Recycling

362 How does single stream recycling work in an operation? (608)
Recyclable items all go into one waste bin, rather than being separated, and a recycling sorts them later.

363 What is composting? (609) A natural form of recycling that occurs when organic materials decompose (or Composts) to form organic fertilizer.

364 What kinds of materials are desirable for composting? (609)
Food leftovers Yard trimmings

365 What is meant by the concept of food miles? (615)
The amount of miles it takes to grow, process, package and sell.

366 How many pounds of shrimp are consumed on average per person in the United States? (617)

367 What is bycatch? (618) Catching fish other than those that were targeted.

368 What is the term used when seafood species are caught at a faster rate than they can reproduce (618)

369 What is aquaculture? (619) The production of seafood under controlled conditions

370 What are fish farms that use a natural body of water to produce the fish? (621)
Open system

371 What is the difference between sun grown and shade grown coffee
Shade grown coffee is more expensive.

372 What are organic foods? (626)
Foods that have not been produced with the use of pesticides or synthetic fertilizers.


374 What are the items that you would find in a New England boiled dinner
Corned beef brisket Boiled potatoes Cabbage Onions Carrots Parsnips

375 Please describe New England clam chowder. (640)
A thick clam soup, creamy, white and mild.

376 Which group of people arrived in the Midwest in the 1700s and introduced the tradition of serving meals family style? ( ) Germans

377 Midwestern foods are from the central part of the country and are sometimes called by 2 names. (643)
Meat and potatoes OR Comfort foods

378 What type of cooking originated in southern Louisiana? (646)

379 Please give me example of 2 Cajun dished. Name them and describe them
Jambalaya – A spicy rice dish with chicken, Andouille sausage, shrimp, catfish, trinity, other vegetables, herbs, broth and seasonings. Andouille – A pork sausage with a strong, smoky, garlicky taste. Gumbo – A hearty soup with trinity and shrimp, thickened with brown roux containing okra and a thickener made from fried sassafras leaves.

380 What is the trinity used for Cajun and Creole cooking? (646)
Celery Onion Green bell peppers

381 What is the cuisine that began by blending French grand cuisine principles with the cooking techniques of enslaved Africans? (646) Creole

382 What does GMO mean? (648) Genetically modified organism

383 What is a signature dish from the Southwest whose name means sauce in Spanish? (650)

384 What is the difference between Tex-Mex and Cal-Mex Southwestern foods
In Cal-Mex, meats are shredded, while in Tex-Mex the meats are generally ground.

385 Barbecue is common in this region of the United States… (651)

386 In what region did barbeque originate? (651-652)

387 What style of cooking and presenting food combines the ingredients and techniques of Asian and West Coast cuisine? (652) Fusion cuisine

388 What are the 2 primary flavors of Mexico? (655)
Spicy hot Earthy

389 What is masa and how is it made? (656)
Corn that is chemically treated with alkali to remove the husks and create acorn meal.

390 Mexican cuisine derives from what 2 cultures? (656)
Aztec Mayan

391 In Mexican cooking, what are comales typically used for? (656)
To make tortillas

392 What is mole? (657) It is a sauce or mixture and can sometimes be used as a suffix on words to describe the sauce.

393 What is Curtido? (664) A typical Central American relish that is made from cabbage, onions and carrots in vinegar. It originated in El Salvador.

394 What is Gallo pinto? (664) It is a mix of white rice and black beans, cooked separately and then fried together in coconut oil. The blend of color makes it look similar to the markings on a local variety of hen.

395 What part of the United States has Asian fusion flavors? (652)
Pacific Rim/Coast

396 What two countries influence Brazilian foods? (674-688)

397 Brazilian cuisine was influenced by what other country? (676)

398 What tropic fruit is a staple of Brazilian cuisine? (678)

399 In Jamaica, what is the name of the dry spice rub that is common for their country? (668-669)
Jerk spice

400 Name 2 ways in which sofrito is commonly used. (670)
Serves as a foundation of soups or stews Flavors basic rice or beans

401 What is a citrus and fish mixture common to most of the Latin American coastal regions and is a signature dish in Peru? (691) Ceviche


403 What is the name of the French dish made from engorged duck liver
Foie gras

404 What are the 2 major cooking fats of Italy? (699)
Butter Olive oil

405 Which European country is home to the mother sauces? (699)

406 This country’s food has been characterized as la cucina povera, the cuisine of poverty. (701)

407 Which Italian city is the birthplace of pizza? (702)

408 Couscous is the national dish of which country? (713)

409 What type of food is commonly eaten in Morocco? (713)

410 What are the 2 most important flavoring agents used in Greek cuisine
Olive oil Lemon juice

411 What is a popular Tunisian salad, made of roasted peppers and tomatoes and garnished with tuna and hard-boiled egg called? (719) Salade compose

412 Ful medames is the national dish of which country? (727)

413 List the 3 major types of rice cookery practiced in Iran. (730)
Chelow Ketteh Damy

414 What are the 2 signature cooking methods of Moroccan cuisine? (731)
Tagines Couscoussieres

415 What is tagine? (713) It is a meat stew that originated in Morocco.
It is also the word used for the earthenware or metal cooking vessel used to make the stew.

416 What are the 2 extremely popular seasonings used in Saudi Arabia? (732)
Baharat Loomi

417 Who were the first people known to control the use of fire and apply it to cooking? (738)

418 Chinese cuisine is based on which philosophy? (738)

419 What is velveting in Chinese cooking? (740)
Coat prepared meats with cornstarch and egg whites before stir frying to retain moisture and improve sauce adherence

420 What is the Chinese cooking technique that is a long, slow braising in a mixture of soy sauce and water? (740) Red cooking

421 What is the Chinese cuisine that is known for its hot and spicy dished

422 What is masala? (748) A spice mixture that preparers grind and fry before they add them to dishes

423 What is the Indian technique of scattering dry, whole, or ground spices into hot oil or ghee until they pop, flavoring the oil? (750) Tarka

424 How long coffee should be brewed for best quality? (814)


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