Presentation on theme: " Bell Work ◦ Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders ◦ Pick up Unit 1 Checklist and outline map Fill out Ch. 1 on outline map w/colored pencils “You."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Work ◦ Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders ◦ Pick up Unit 1 Checklist and outline map Fill out Ch. 1 on outline map w/colored pencils “You may only be someone in the world, but to someone else, you may be the world.”
Compass Rose ◦ directional indicator that shows the Cardinal Directions on a map Cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west. Map Legend- ◦ Or KEY, tells reader about the symbols used in that map ◦ Example: Page 10; what do red lines mean? Black crossed lines? Scale ◦ Tells the reader about the size of a map in relation to the size of the real world. Which map on page 10 shows a more detailed map? The one on the right b/c the mile scale is smaller.
Map Types (3) ◦ Physical: Shows physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes of an area Physical ◦ Political- shows political features, things determined by people! State/nat’l boundaries Political- What is capital of Iran of pg. 14 ◦ Special purpose: designed to show specific data; labeled what they show Special purpose
Hemispheres: means half of a sphere When divided along the equator the earth is split into two? What would they be called? ◦ North/South Hemispheres When divided along the Prime meridian what would they be called? ◦ East/West Hemispheres
What is this a map of? Climate map Where is a majority of the Temperate? Southeast What does the dark red represent? Equatorial
Latitude ◦ Also called parallels bc they run parallel to the equator Run east to west, measured north and south Longitude ◦ Also called meridians; run from pole to pole Run north to south, measured east to west
Get Worksheets ◦ With your 9 o’clock partners begin working on them for tomorrow ◦ When finished or with a minute to go in class make sure to load them up in your folders and put everything back neatly!! ◦ Have a great day! Be diligent Finish as much as can!
Get books, folders Sit w/3 o’clock partners ◦ Every group to come back to me w/the 3 CORRECT answers the 1 st time gets a prize!! Using the text pages 16,17, and 22 Answer ◦ 7 North, 2 East ◦ 60 north, 11 East ◦ 42 north, 19 east
What is it? ◦ Study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other Technology: Read/define these 4 concepts from pages ◦ Sonar ◦ Remote Sensing ◦ GPS ◦ GIS
Sonar ◦ Analyzes sound to determine distance/directions. Used to study ocean floor Remote sensing (satellites) ◦ Compares older/newer images of regions to identify changes in land use, vegetation, growth GPS: Global positioning system ◦ Uses satellites to broadcast accurate time measurements on distance and location GIS: Geographic Information systems ◦ Computer technology to solve geographic problems Like where to put a nuclear power site b/c it could show what type of area could handle it
5 Important ?’s that geographers use to help them organize info about the world ◦ Location: 2 types Absolute: exact position of a place Latitude and Longitude Relative: Location of a place described by its relation to another place Example Grand Island is around 100 miles west of Lincoln as the next major city west near the Platte river
5 Important ?’s that geographers use to help them organize info about the world ◦ Place: consists of a places physical and human characteristics (2 types) Helps geographers show the distinctness and similarity of one place to another Physical: every place has unique physical aspects like landforms, ecosystems, and climate to help separation from other places Human Characteristics: How many people live, work, or visit there? What are languages, customs, beliefs? How are they governed? How does their economy work?
Tying in the 1 st 2 themes of Geography ◦ w/6 o’clock partners Cut out picture of magazine article (nat’l geog. In back) Find 2 pictures and list each thing for their location and their place Example: if I found a picture of chimney rock I could give its absolute and relative location I could give a physical and human characteristic of the place Will need to explain tomorrow
Get Books and folders Answer questions ◦ What is the absolute and relative location of Denver and Detroit? ◦ What are 2 of 4 ?s geographers ask for Human characteristics? ◦ What are the two characteristics of a place? ◦ What are the two types of location?
Review ◦ Location: Has both absolute (lat/long.) and relative ◦ Place: consists of a places physical/human characteristics
Regions: (3 types) ◦ Group of places w/at least one common characteristic Can be determined by physical/human characteristics Or by people’s perception ◦ Formal: certain characteristics found throughout area Ex: states, countries, cities all political regions, cornbelt ◦ Functional: consists of a central place and the surrounding areas effected by it Amazon drainage basin: drained by Amazon river so it effects the entire regions rivers and tributaries ◦ Perceptual: defined by people’s feelings/attitudes towards an area U.S. regions like upper midwest and middle states Mexico is another b/c they are part of N. America but often linked w/ S.America b/c of their similar culture/norms
Movement: b/c places have different characteristics; ◦ people, places, goods, and ideas will move between them Read movement section on pg.41 and apply to these (History of New Orleans) ◦ 1700s Major French port that shipped goods from Mississippi to ocean ◦ 1800s RR expansion cut down the river trade importance ◦ 1900s Cities importance limited to surrounding states, became a major tourist hub and important center for oil/gas
Human-Environment Interaction ◦ Concerned with……. How people use their environment How they have changed it What are the consequences of those changes? How have they responded to those changes? ◦ Example: American SW had few residents before technology made it capable to increase habitation Rapid growth in population is now putting a strain on water supply and other areas
Grab colored paper and 1-2 Markers Create a concept map over the 5 themes of Geography, using as little of your notes as possible ◦ List the themes as well as the main concept w/in each theme Example: Region= definition, and 1-3 types Keep in folders Finish Picture activity from Tuesday Video
Get book and folders Finish Concept Map and completion check by me (keep in maps) You and your partner, Find at least the absolute location of the two pictures you took out of the nat’l geo! NO ONE SHOULD TAKE A BOOK OUT OF ROOM W/OUT PERMISSION; IF YOU SHARE IT
Location ◦ Absolute-Relative Place ◦ Human and Physical Characteristics Region ◦ Group of places with at least 1 common trait ◦ Formal, Functional, Perceptual Movement ◦ Exchange/mvmnt. Of people, goods, ideas ◦ N.Orleans Example Human/Environment Interaction ◦ How have people changed environment? ◦ How have they dealt with those changes?
Changes within the Earth
Geology: Study of the earth’s physical structure and history Divided up into 2 main Areas ◦ Earth’s Layers ◦ Land/Air/Water
Core (Center) ◦ Consists of very hot metal, mainly iron mixed with some nickel. Inner Core- is thought to be dense and solid Outer Core metal is molten, or liquid Mantle- around the core ◦ Thick layer of rock, est. to be 1,800 mi. thick ◦ Rock is mostly solid but some upper levels may be more flexible
Finish any activity that is in your folder that is not done We will be speeding up the process in the next few weeks!! Finish Video while working Stay Quiet
Watch 20 Minute Video ◦ Physical Features of Earth 25 Minutes of Work time on projects
Grab books and folders Be ready to answer questions about earth’s layers? ◦ What is the center of the earth that is mainly iron mixed with some nickel? Core ◦ What is the thinnest rocky layer? Crust ◦ The pit of the peach? Inner Core ◦ Up to 1800 miles thick and the biggest of the layers Mantle
Divided into spheres by various physical forms Lithosphere ◦ Soils, rocks, landforms, and other surfaces Atmosphere ◦ Layer of air, water, and substances above the surface
Hydrosphere ◦ Water in oceans, lakes, rivers, and even under the ground….called a ? Aquifer Biosphere ◦ Is the world of plants, animals, and other living things that occupy the land/water of the earth
Large landmasses in the oceans are called? ◦ Continents How many Continents are there? ◦ 7, N.America, S. America, Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica ◦ What is the smallest? Australia ◦ Biggest? Asia
Classified according to differences in relief Relief ◦ The difference in elevation bt. The highest and lowest points ◦ Whether they rise gradually or steeply Major types of Landforms ◦ Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains
Mountains ◦ Rise at least 2000 ft above surrounding terrain Hills ◦ Lower, rounded, and generally less steep Plateau ◦ Raised Area, but surface is generally level Plain ◦ Flat or gently rolling area w/few elevation changes
What are the forces that shape an area ◦ Two major types: Volcanism (movement of magma) Movements affecting the earth’s crust.
Can have three types: Most famous is distinctive cone like Mt. Fuji in Japan ◦ From alternating explosive eruptions and smooth lava flow.
Plate Tectonics Theory: ◦ Theory that the earths outer shell is not one solid sheet of rock. ◦ Instead broken into a number of moving plates varying in size and thickness ◦ Slide/move over a hot/flexible layer of the mantle; helps explain earthquakes/volcanoes
Theory that continents were once joined together in a super-continent The continents slowly shifted positions due to their movement on what???? ◦ Their tectonic plates
Read Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Answer Question to caption on pg. 47 ◦ Moving east/west towards each other ◦ Volcanoes/Tornadoes Work on Section 2 Guided Reading/Review
Look at two Theory Questions What was done to support the continental drift theory? ◦ Wegener found identical fossils from various continents List the three volcanoes types given by the book ◦ Small cinder cone, distinctive cone mtns., plateau like Answer questions to caption on pg. 48 ◦ Bt. 135 million and 65 million years ago ◦ Laurasia and Gondwana
Another theory supporting Plate tectonics Using Sonar Scientist began to see that the ocean floor had similar land formations as the continents did. But that rocks were much younger Theory stated that molten rock came up beneath the underwater ridge system, broke through a split at the top. ◦ The new rock spreads out both ways as if on a conveyer belt.
Convection ◦ Circular movement caused when a material is heated, expands and rises, then cools and falls.
◦ 4 Major Types of Plate movement Spreading, Subduction, Convergence, Faulting ◦ Spreading When plates pull away from each other Form a diverging plate boundary Likely to have rift valleys, earthquakes, or volcanic action
Outcomes when plates meet depends on the density of those plates ◦ Oceanic plates (ocean) are denser than continental plates Subduction- when an oceanic (denser) plate meets a continental plate it slides beneath the lighter plate. ◦ Ocean material will sink/melt; some coming back up in volcanic action before it cools ◦ Cascade Range/Andes Mountains were formed by this.
When two oceanic plates collide the denser will slide beneath. ◦ Can form an arc of volcanic islands When two continental plates collide, NEITHER will sink ◦ Buckling, folding will result in great Mountain ranges.
When plates slip or grind past one another ◦ Example is the San Andreas fault in CA. Ring of Fire ◦ Circle of volcanoes surrounding the pacific ocean, look on pg. 47.
Activity With 6 o’clock partners you will be given two vocab. Words that you need to draw clues on the board for other teams to answer! ◦ Will Draw tomorrow
Finish Game: Draw clues on board Answer these questions Write down this assignment for Thursday and will start at end of period! ◦ Pg. 58 1-16, Time to work on Thursday!!
What are the 4 main sphere’s? And describe ◦ Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere What are the Earth’s 3 main layers? ◦ Core, Mantle, Crust What are the four major types of plate movement, and describe them? ◦ Spreading-plates moving away from each other ◦ Subduction- oceanic plate going under continental plate ◦ Faulting- Plates sliding/grinding past one another ◦ Converging- Similar plates colliding with each other
Changes on the Earth’s Surface
Last Section We talked about what? ◦ How internal Forces change the earth ◦ Like convection, subduction, continental drifting ect. This section will be focused on how external forces of the earth are affecting its appearance
Weathering ◦ The breakdown of rock at or near the earth’s surface into smaller and smaller pieces. ◦ Two Main types: Mechanical Chemical
Occurs when rock is actually broken or weakened physically Breaks large masses of rock into boulders, stones, pebbles, sand, and even dust. ◦ Frost Wedging: Most common type When water freezes into ice in a crack in rock Water expands when frozen and slowly widens the crack Ever frozen a can of pop? ◦ Another type is when seeds rook in rock cracks
Process of altering a rock’s chemical makeup by changing the minerals that form the rock, or by combining them with new chemical elements Important Factors ◦ Water and Carbon Dioxide Water/Carbon Dioxide ◦ Combined form a carbonic acid that can dissolve certain rock (limestone) ◦ Ex.: Caves Type: Chemical Rain ◦ Can destroy forests/water as well as eat surfaces of stone buildings/rock formations.
Most common Causes ◦ Water, Wind, Glacier Erosion ◦ The movement of weathered materials such as gravel, soil, and sand.
Moving water is greatest cause of erosion. Sediment: ◦ Small particles of soil, sand, and gravel carried by rivers/streams. Acts as sandpaper to rock surfaces
Second major cause of erosion Loess: ◦ Wind-blown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt. Sandstorms are one major cause of erosion.
Glaciers: ◦ Huge, slow-moving sheets of ice ◦ As they move they carry dirt, rocks, and boulders along their bottom edge ◦ The terrain is worn away by the debris dragging along with the ice ◦ Moraines Ridge-like piles of rocks and debris left behind by melted Glaciers.
What are the 3 main types of erosion? Why is erosion important? Why is sediment important? Where is wind erosion especially important? ◦ What are some reasons its important ◦ Pg. 58 1-16, Time to work on Monday!!