# Chapter 1 Bell Work Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders

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Chapter 1 Bell Work Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders
Pick up Unit 1 Checklist and outline map Fill out Ch. 1 on outline map w/colored pencils   “You may only be someone in the world, but to someone else, you may be the world.”

Map Concepts: pg.10 Compass Rose Map Legend- Scale
directional indicator that shows the Cardinal Directions on a map Cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west. Map Legend- Or KEY, tells reader about the symbols used in that map Example: Page 10; what do red lines mean? Black crossed lines? Scale Tells the reader about the size of a map in relation to the size of the real world. Which map on page 10 shows a more detailed map? The one on the right b/c the mile scale is smaller.

Map Concepts: pg.10 Map Types (3)
Physical: Shows physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes of an area Political- shows political features, things determined by people! State/nat’l boundaries What is capital of Iran of pg. 14 Special purpose: designed to show specific data; labeled what they show

Map Concepts: pg.10 Hemispheres: means half of a sphere
When divided along the equator the earth is split into two? What would they be called? North/South Hemispheres When divided along the Prime meridian what would they be called? East/West Hemispheres

Map Types Political Physical Political Physical Back

Back Special Purpose What is this a map of?
Climate map Where is a majority of the Temperate? Southeast What does the dark red represent? Equatorial Back

Latitude/Longitude Latitude Longitude
Also called parallels bc they run parallel to the equator Run east to west, measured north and south Longitude Also called meridians; run from pole to pole Run north to south, measured east to west

Anchor Work Get Worksheets Finish as much as can!
With your 9 o’clock partners begin working on them for tomorrow When finished or with a minute to go in class make sure to load them up in your folders and put everything back neatly!! Have a great day! Be diligent Finish as much as can!

Bell Work: Brinnnnggg, Bringggg
Get books, folders Sit w/3 o’clock partners Every group to come back to me w/the 3 CORRECT answers the 1st time gets a prize!! Using the text pages 16,17, and 22 Answer 7 North, 2 East 60 north, 11 East 42 north, 19 east Lome, Togo Oslo, Norway Tirane, Albania

GEOGRAPHY What is it? Study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other Technology: Read/define these 4 concepts from pages 35-37 Sonar Remote Sensing GPS GIS

Technology Sonar Remote sensing (satellites)
Analyzes sound to determine distance/directions. Used to study ocean floor Remote sensing (satellites) Compares older/newer images of regions to identify changes in land use, vegetation, growth GPS: Global positioning system Uses satellites to broadcast accurate time measurements on distance and location GIS: Geographic Information systems Computer technology to solve geographic problems Like where to put a nuclear power site b/c it could show what type of area could handle it

5 Themes of Geography 5 Important ?’s that geographers use to help them organize info about the world Location: 2 types Absolute: exact position of a place Latitude and Longitude Relative: Location of a place described by its relation to another place Example Grand Island is around 100 miles west of Lincoln as the next major city west near the Platte river

5 Major Themes of Geography
5 Important ?’s that geographers use to help them organize info about the world Place: consists of a places physical and human characteristics (2 types) Helps geographers show the distinctness and similarity of one place to another Physical: every place has unique physical aspects like landforms, ecosystems, and climate to help separation from other places Human Characteristics: How many people live, work, or visit there? What are languages, customs, beliefs? How are they governed? How does their economy work?

Lesson Closing Tying in the 1st 2 themes of Geography
w/6 o’clock partners Cut out picture of magazine article (nat’l geog. In back) Find 2 pictures and list each thing for their location and their place Example: if I found a picture of chimney rock I could give its absolute and relative location I could give a physical and human characteristic of the place Will need to explain tomorrow

Bell Work Get Books and folders Answer questions
What is the absolute and relative location of Denver and Detroit? What are 2 of 4 ?s geographers ask for Human characteristics? What are the two characteristics of a place? What are the two types of location?

Themes of Geography Review
Location: Has both absolute (lat/long.) and relative Place: consists of a places physical/human characteristics

Themes of Geography Regions: (3 types)
Group of places w/at least one common characteristic Can be determined by physical/human characteristics Or by people’s perception Formal: certain characteristics found throughout area Ex: states, countries, cities all political regions, cornbelt Functional: consists of a central place and the surrounding areas effected by it Amazon drainage basin: drained by Amazon river so it effects the entire regions rivers and tributaries Perceptual: defined by people’s feelings/attitudes towards an area U.S. regions like upper midwest and middle states Mexico is another b/c they are part of N. America but often linked w/ S.America b/c of their similar culture/norms

Themes of Geography Movement: b/c places have different characteristics; people, places, goods, and ideas will move between them Read movement section on pg.41 and apply to these (History of New Orleans) 1700s Major French port that shipped goods from Mississippi to ocean 1800s RR expansion cut down the river trade importance 1900s Cities importance limited to surrounding states, became a major tourist hub and important center for oil/gas

Themes of Geography Human-Environment Interaction Concerned with…….
How people use their environment How they have changed it What are the consequences of those changes? How have they responded to those changes? Example: American SW had few residents before technology made it capable to increase habitation Rapid growth in population is now putting a strain on water supply and other areas

Anchor Activity Grab colored paper and 1-2 Markers
Create a concept map over the 5 themes of Geography, using as little of your notes as possible List the themes as well as the main concept w/in each theme Example: Region= definition, and 1-3 types Keep in folders Finish Picture activity from Tuesday Video

Bell Work: 10 minutes Get book and folders
Finish Concept Map and completion check by me (keep in maps) You and your partner, Find at least the absolute location of the two pictures you took out of the nat’l geo! NO ONE SHOULD TAKE A BOOK OUT OF ROOM W/OUT PERMISSION; IF YOU SHARE IT

5 Themes Location Place Region Movement Human/Environment Interaction
Absolute -Relative Place Human and Physical Characteristics Region Group of places with at least 1 common trait Formal, Functional, Perceptual Movement Exchange/mvmnt. Of people, goods, ideas N.Orleans Example Human/Environment Interaction How have people changed environment? How have they dealt with those changes?

Changes within the Earth
Section 2 Changes within the Earth

Physical Characteristics
Geology: Study of the earth’s physical structure and history Divided up into 2 main Areas Earth’s Layers Land/Air/Water

The Earth’s Layers Core (Center) Mantle- around the core
Consists of very hot metal, mainly iron mixed with some nickel. Inner Core- is thought to be dense and solid Outer Core metal is molten, or liquid Mantle- around the core Thick layer of rock, est. to be 1,800 mi. thick Rock is mostly solid but some upper levels may be more flexible

The Earth’s Layers (cont’d)
Crust Thin Rocky surface layer on top Thinnest below oceans (5 mi. thick) Thickest below continents (22+ mi. thick)

A= B= C= D=

Lesson Closing Finish any activity that is in your folder that is not done We will be speeding up the process in the next few weeks!! Finish Video while working Stay Quiet

Differentiated Friday
Watch 20 Minute Video Physical Features of Earth 25 Minutes of Work time on projects

Bell Work Grab books and folders
Be ready to answer questions about earth’s layers? What is the center of the earth that is mainly iron mixed with some nickel? Core What is the thinnest rocky layer? Crust The pit of the peach? Inner Core Up to 1800 miles thick and the biggest of the layers Mantle

Land/Air/Water Divided into spheres by various physical forms
Lithosphere Soils, rocks, landforms, and other surfaces Atmosphere Layer of air, water, and substances above the surface

Land/Air/Water (cont’d)
Hydrosphere Water in oceans, lakes, rivers, and even under the ground….called a ? Aquifer Biosphere Is the world of plants, animals, and other living things that occupy the land/water of the earth

Land/Air/Water Large landmasses in the oceans are called?
Continents How many Continents are there? 7, N.America, S. America, Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica What is the smallest? Australia Biggest? Asia

Landform Classifications
Classified according to differences in relief Relief The difference in elevation bt. The highest and lowest points Whether they rise gradually or steeply Major types of Landforms Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains

How are The 4 different Mountains Hills Plateau Plain
Rise at least 2000 ft above surrounding terrain Hills Lower, rounded, and generally less steep Plateau Raised Area, but surface is generally level Plain Flat or gently rolling area w/few elevation changes

Physical Processes What are the forces that shape an area
Two major types: Volcanism (movement of magma) Movements affecting the earth’s crust.

Volcanoes Can have three types:
Most famous is distinctive cone like Mt. Fuji in Japan From alternating explosive eruptions and smooth lava flow.

Movements in the Crust Plate Tectonics Theory:
Theory that the earths outer shell is not one solid sheet of rock. Instead broken into a number of moving plates varying in size and thickness Slide/move over a hot/flexible layer of the mantle; helps explain earthquakes/volcanoes

Continental Drift Theory
Theory that continents were once joined together in a super-continent The continents slowly shifted positions due to their movement on what???? Their tectonic plates

Lesson Closing Work on Section 2 Guided Reading/Review
Read Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift Answer Question to caption on pg. 47 Moving east/west towards each other Volcanoes/Tornadoes Work on Section 2 Guided Reading/Review

Bell Work Look at two Theory Questions
What was done to support the continental drift theory? Wegener found identical fossils from various continents List the three volcanoes types given by the book Small cinder cone, distinctive cone mtns., plateau like Answer questions to caption on pg. 48 Bt. 135 million and 65 million years ago Laurasia and Gondwana

Seafloor Spreading Another theory supporting Plate tectonics
Using Sonar Scientist began to see that the ocean floor had similar land formations as the continents did. But that rocks were much younger Theory stated that molten rock came up beneath the underwater ridge system, broke through a split at the top. The new rock spreads out both ways as if on a conveyer belt.

Plate Movements Convection
Circular movement caused when a material is heated, expands and rises, then cools and falls.

When Plates Meet 4 Major Types of Plate movement Spreading
Spreading, Subduction, Convergence, Faulting Spreading When plates pull away from each other Form a diverging plate boundary Likely to have rift valleys, earthquakes, or volcanic action

When Plates Meet Cont’d
Outcomes when plates meet depends on the density of those plates Oceanic plates (ocean) are denser than continental plates Subduction- when an oceanic (denser) plate meets a continental plate it slides beneath the lighter plate. Ocean material will sink/melt; some coming back up in volcanic action before it cools Cascade Range/Andes Mountains were formed by this.

Convergence When two oceanic plates collide the denser will slide beneath. Can form an arc of volcanic islands When two continental plates collide, NEITHER will sink Buckling, folding will result in great Mountain ranges.

Faults When plates slip or grind past one another Ring of Fire
Example is the San Andreas fault in CA. Ring of Fire Circle of volcanoes surrounding the pacific ocean, look on pg. 47.

Lesson Closing Activity
With 6 o’clock partners you will be given two vocab. Words that you need to draw clues on the board for other teams to answer! Will Draw tomorrow

Bell Work Finish Game: Draw clues on board Answer these questions
Write down this assignment for Thursday and will start at end of period! Pg. 58 1-16, 18-19 Time to work on Thursday!!

Review What are the 4 main sphere’s? And describe
Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere What are the Earth’s 3 main layers? Core, Mantle, Crust What are the four major types of plate movement, and describe them? Spreading-plates moving away from each other Subduction- oceanic plate going under continental plate Faulting- Plates sliding/grinding past one another Converging- Similar plates colliding with each other

Changes on the Earth’s Surface
Section 3 Changes on the Earth’s Surface

Review Last Section We talked about what?
How internal Forces change the earth Like convection, subduction, continental drifting ect. This section will be focused on how external forces of the earth are affecting its appearance

Examples

Changes on the Surface Weathering
The breakdown of rock at or near the earth’s surface into smaller and smaller pieces. Two Main types: Mechanical Chemical

Mechanical Weathering
Occurs when rock is actually broken or weakened physically Breaks large masses of rock into boulders, stones, pebbles, sand, and even dust. Frost Wedging: Most common type When water freezes into ice in a crack in rock Water expands when frozen and slowly widens the crack Ever frozen a can of pop? Another type is when seeds rook in rock cracks

Chemical Weathering Process of altering a rock’s chemical makeup by changing the minerals that form the rock, or by combining them with new chemical elements Important Factors Water and Carbon Dioxide Water/Carbon Dioxide Combined form a carbonic acid that can dissolve certain rock (limestone) Ex.: Caves Type: Chemical Rain Can destroy forests/water as well as eat surfaces of stone buildings/rock formations.

Erosion Most common Causes Erosion Water, Wind, Glacier
The movement of weathered materials such as gravel, soil, and sand.

Water Erosion Moving water is greatest cause of erosion. Sediment:
Small particles of soil, sand, and gravel carried by rivers/streams. Acts as sandpaper to rock surfaces

Wind Erosion Second major cause of erosion Loess:
Wind-blown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt. Sandstorms are one major cause of erosion.

Glacier Erosion Glaciers: Huge, slow-moving sheets of ice
As they move they carry dirt, rocks, and boulders along their bottom edge The terrain is worn away by the debris dragging along with the ice Moraines Ridge-like piles of rocks and debris left behind by melted Glaciers.

Questions What are the 3 main types of erosion?
Why is erosion important? Why is sediment important? Where is wind erosion especially important? What are some reasons its important Pg. 58 1-16, 18-19 Time to work on Monday!!

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