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 Bell Work ◦ Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders ◦ Pick up Unit 1 Checklist and outline map  Fill out Ch. 1 on outline map w/colored pencils  “You.

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Presentation on theme: " Bell Work ◦ Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders ◦ Pick up Unit 1 Checklist and outline map  Fill out Ch. 1 on outline map w/colored pencils  “You."— Presentation transcript:

1  Bell Work ◦ Grab textbook, Nystrom atlas and folders ◦ Pick up Unit 1 Checklist and outline map  Fill out Ch. 1 on outline map w/colored pencils  “You may only be someone in the world, but to someone else, you may be the world.”

2  Compass Rose ◦ directional indicator that shows the Cardinal Directions on a map  Cardinal directions are north, south, east, and west.  Map Legend- ◦ Or KEY, tells reader about the symbols used in that map ◦ Example: Page 10; what do red lines mean?  Black crossed lines?  Scale ◦ Tells the reader about the size of a map in relation to the size of the real world.  Which map on page 10 shows a more detailed map?  The one on the right b/c the mile scale is smaller.

3  Map Types (3) ◦ Physical: Shows physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes of an area Physical ◦ Political- shows political features, things determined by people! State/nat’l boundaries Political-  What is capital of Iran of pg. 14 ◦ Special purpose: designed to show specific data; labeled what they show Special purpose

4  Hemispheres: means half of a sphere  When divided along the equator the earth is split into two? What would they be called? ◦ North/South Hemispheres  When divided along the Prime meridian what would they be called? ◦ East/West Hemispheres

5 PoliticalPhysical

6 What is this a map of? Climate map Where is a majority of the Temperate? Southeast What does the dark red represent? Equatorial

7  Latitude ◦ Also called parallels bc they run parallel to the equator  Run east to west, measured north and south  Longitude ◦ Also called meridians; run from pole to pole  Run north to south, measured east to west

8  Get Worksheets ◦ With your 9 o’clock partners begin working on them for tomorrow ◦ When finished or with a minute to go in class make sure to load them up in your folders and put everything back neatly!! ◦ Have a great day! Be diligent  Finish as much as can!

9  Get books, folders  Sit w/3 o’clock partners ◦ Every group to come back to me w/the 3 CORRECT answers the 1 st time gets a prize!!  Using the text pages 16,17, and 22 Answer ◦ 7 North, 2 East ◦ 60 north, 11 East ◦ 42 north, 19 east

10  What is it? ◦ Study of where people, places, and things are located and how they relate to each other  Technology: Read/define these 4 concepts from pages ◦ Sonar ◦ Remote Sensing ◦ GPS ◦ GIS

11  Sonar ◦ Analyzes sound to determine distance/directions. Used to study ocean floor  Remote sensing (satellites) ◦ Compares older/newer images of regions to identify changes in land use, vegetation, growth  GPS: Global positioning system ◦ Uses satellites to broadcast accurate time measurements on distance and location  GIS: Geographic Information systems ◦ Computer technology to solve geographic problems  Like where to put a nuclear power site b/c it could show what type of area could handle it

12  5 Important ?’s that geographers use to help them organize info about the world ◦ Location: 2 types  Absolute: exact position of a place  Latitude and Longitude  Relative: Location of a place described by its relation to another place  Example  Grand Island is around 100 miles west of Lincoln as the next major city west near the Platte river

13  5 Important ?’s that geographers use to help them organize info about the world ◦ Place: consists of a places physical and human characteristics (2 types)  Helps geographers show the distinctness and similarity of one place to another  Physical: every place has unique physical aspects like landforms, ecosystems, and climate to help separation from other places  Human Characteristics: How many people live, work, or visit there? What are languages, customs, beliefs? How are they governed? How does their economy work?

14  Tying in the 1 st 2 themes of Geography ◦ w/6 o’clock partners  Cut out picture of magazine article (nat’l geog. In back)  Find 2 pictures and list each thing for their location and their place  Example: if I found a picture of chimney rock  I could give its absolute and relative location  I could give a physical and human characteristic of the place  Will need to explain tomorrow

15  Get Books and folders  Answer questions ◦ What is the absolute and relative location of Denver and Detroit? ◦ What are 2 of 4 ?s geographers ask for Human characteristics? ◦ What are the two characteristics of a place? ◦ What are the two types of location?

16  Review ◦ Location: Has both absolute (lat/long.) and relative ◦ Place: consists of a places physical/human characteristics

17  Regions: (3 types) ◦ Group of places w/at least one common characteristic  Can be determined by physical/human characteristics  Or by people’s perception ◦ Formal: certain characteristics found throughout area  Ex: states, countries, cities all political regions, cornbelt ◦ Functional: consists of a central place and the surrounding areas effected by it  Amazon drainage basin: drained by Amazon river so it effects the entire regions rivers and tributaries ◦ Perceptual: defined by people’s feelings/attitudes towards an area  U.S. regions like upper midwest and middle states  Mexico is another b/c they are part of N. America but often linked w/ S.America b/c of their similar culture/norms

18  Movement: b/c places have different characteristics; ◦ people, places, goods, and ideas will move between them  Read movement section on pg.41 and apply to these (History of New Orleans) ◦ 1700s  Major French port that shipped goods from Mississippi to ocean ◦ 1800s  RR expansion cut down the river trade importance ◦ 1900s  Cities importance limited to surrounding states, became a major tourist hub and important center for oil/gas

19  Human-Environment Interaction ◦ Concerned with…….  How people use their environment  How they have changed it  What are the consequences of those changes?  How have they responded to those changes? ◦ Example:  American SW had few residents before technology made it capable to increase habitation  Rapid growth in population is now putting a strain on water supply and other areas

20  Grab colored paper and 1-2 Markers  Create a concept map over the 5 themes of Geography, using as little of your notes as possible ◦ List the themes as well as the main concept w/in each theme  Example: Region= definition, and 1-3 types  Keep in folders  Finish Picture activity from Tuesday  Video

21  Get book and folders  Finish Concept Map and completion check by me (keep in maps)  You and your partner, Find at least the absolute location of the two pictures you took out of the nat’l geo!  NO ONE SHOULD TAKE A BOOK OUT OF ROOM W/OUT PERMISSION; IF YOU SHARE IT

22  Location ◦ Absolute-Relative  Place ◦ Human and Physical Characteristics  Region ◦ Group of places with at least 1 common trait ◦ Formal, Functional, Perceptual  Movement ◦ Exchange/mvmnt. Of people, goods, ideas ◦ N.Orleans Example  Human/Environment Interaction ◦ How have people changed environment? ◦ How have they dealt with those changes?

23 Changes within the Earth

24  Geology: Study of the earth’s physical structure and history  Divided up into 2 main Areas ◦ Earth’s Layers ◦ Land/Air/Water

25  Core (Center) ◦ Consists of very hot metal, mainly iron mixed with some nickel.  Inner Core- is thought to be dense and solid  Outer Core metal is molten, or liquid  Mantle- around the core ◦ Thick layer of rock, est. to be 1,800 mi. thick ◦ Rock is mostly solid but some upper levels may be more flexible

26  Crust ◦ Thin Rocky surface layer on top ◦ Thinnest below oceans (5 mi. thick) ◦ Thickest below continents (22+ mi. thick)

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28  Finish any activity that is in your folder that is not done  We will be speeding up the process in the next few weeks!!  Finish Video while working  Stay Quiet

29  Watch 20 Minute Video ◦ Physical Features of Earth  25 Minutes of Work time on projects

30  Grab books and folders  Be ready to answer questions about earth’s layers? ◦ What is the center of the earth that is mainly iron mixed with some nickel?  Core ◦ What is the thinnest rocky layer?  Crust ◦ The pit of the peach?  Inner Core ◦ Up to 1800 miles thick and the biggest of the layers  Mantle

31  Divided into spheres by various physical forms  Lithosphere ◦ Soils, rocks, landforms, and other surfaces  Atmosphere ◦ Layer of air, water, and substances above the surface

32  Hydrosphere ◦ Water in oceans, lakes, rivers, and even under the ground….called a ?  Aquifer  Biosphere ◦ Is the world of plants, animals, and other living things that occupy the land/water of the earth

33  Large landmasses in the oceans are called? ◦ Continents  How many Continents are there? ◦ 7, N.America, S. America, Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica ◦ What is the smallest?  Australia ◦ Biggest?  Asia

34  Classified according to differences in relief  Relief ◦ The difference in elevation bt. The highest and lowest points ◦ Whether they rise gradually or steeply  Major types of Landforms ◦ Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains

35  Mountains ◦ Rise at least 2000 ft above surrounding terrain  Hills ◦ Lower, rounded, and generally less steep  Plateau ◦ Raised Area, but surface is generally level  Plain ◦ Flat or gently rolling area w/few elevation changes

36  What are the forces that shape an area ◦ Two major types:  Volcanism (movement of magma)  Movements affecting the earth’s crust.

37  Can have three types:  Most famous is distinctive cone like Mt. Fuji in Japan ◦ From alternating explosive eruptions and smooth lava flow.

38  Plate Tectonics Theory: ◦ Theory that the earths outer shell is not one solid sheet of rock. ◦ Instead broken into a number of moving plates varying in size and thickness ◦ Slide/move over a hot/flexible layer of the mantle; helps explain earthquakes/volcanoes

39  Theory that continents were once joined together in a super-continent  The continents slowly shifted positions due to their movement on what???? ◦ Their tectonic plates

40  Read Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift  Answer Question to caption on pg. 47 ◦ Moving east/west towards each other ◦ Volcanoes/Tornadoes  Work on Section 2 Guided Reading/Review

41 Look at two Theory Questions  What was done to support the continental drift theory? ◦ Wegener found identical fossils from various continents  List the three volcanoes types given by the book ◦ Small cinder cone, distinctive cone mtns., plateau like  Answer questions to caption on pg. 48 ◦ Bt. 135 million and 65 million years ago ◦ Laurasia and Gondwana

42  Another theory supporting Plate tectonics  Using Sonar Scientist began to see that the ocean floor had similar land formations as the continents did. But that rocks were much younger  Theory stated that molten rock came up beneath the underwater ridge system, broke through a split at the top. ◦ The new rock spreads out both ways as if on a conveyer belt.

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44  Convection ◦ Circular movement caused when a material is heated, expands and rises, then cools and falls.

45 ◦ 4 Major Types of Plate movement  Spreading, Subduction, Convergence, Faulting ◦ Spreading  When plates pull away from each other  Form a diverging plate boundary  Likely to have rift valleys, earthquakes, or volcanic action

46  Outcomes when plates meet depends on the density of those plates ◦ Oceanic plates (ocean) are denser than continental plates  Subduction- when an oceanic (denser) plate meets a continental plate it slides beneath the lighter plate. ◦ Ocean material will sink/melt; some coming back up in volcanic action before it cools ◦ Cascade Range/Andes Mountains were formed by this.

47  When two oceanic plates collide the denser will slide beneath. ◦ Can form an arc of volcanic islands  When two continental plates collide, NEITHER will sink ◦ Buckling, folding will result in great Mountain ranges.

48  When plates slip or grind past one another ◦ Example is the San Andreas fault in CA.  Ring of Fire ◦ Circle of volcanoes surrounding the pacific ocean, look on pg. 47.

49  Activity  With 6 o’clock partners you will be given two vocab. Words that you need to draw clues on the board for other teams to answer! ◦ Will Draw tomorrow

50  Finish Game: Draw clues on board  Answer these questions  Write down this assignment for Thursday and will start at end of period! ◦ Pg. 58  1-16,  Time to work on Thursday!!

51  What are the 4 main sphere’s? And describe ◦ Hydrosphere, Biosphere, Lithosphere, Atmosphere  What are the Earth’s 3 main layers? ◦ Core, Mantle, Crust  What are the four major types of plate movement, and describe them? ◦ Spreading-plates moving away from each other ◦ Subduction- oceanic plate going under continental plate ◦ Faulting- Plates sliding/grinding past one another ◦ Converging- Similar plates colliding with each other

52 Changes on the Earth’s Surface

53  Last Section We talked about what? ◦ How internal Forces change the earth ◦ Like convection, subduction, continental drifting ect.  This section will be focused on how external forces of the earth are affecting its appearance

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55  Weathering ◦ The breakdown of rock at or near the earth’s surface into smaller and smaller pieces. ◦ Two Main types:  Mechanical  Chemical

56  Occurs when rock is actually broken or weakened physically  Breaks large masses of rock into boulders, stones, pebbles, sand, and even dust. ◦ Frost Wedging: Most common type  When water freezes into ice in a crack in rock  Water expands when frozen and slowly widens the crack  Ever frozen a can of pop? ◦ Another type is when seeds rook in rock cracks

57  Process of altering a rock’s chemical makeup by changing the minerals that form the rock, or by combining them with new chemical elements  Important Factors ◦ Water and Carbon Dioxide  Water/Carbon Dioxide ◦ Combined form a carbonic acid that can dissolve certain rock (limestone) ◦ Ex.: Caves  Type: Chemical Rain ◦ Can destroy forests/water as well as eat surfaces of stone buildings/rock formations.

58  Most common Causes ◦ Water, Wind, Glacier  Erosion ◦ The movement of weathered materials such as gravel, soil, and sand.

59  Moving water is greatest cause of erosion.  Sediment: ◦ Small particles of soil, sand, and gravel carried by rivers/streams. Acts as sandpaper to rock surfaces

60  Second major cause of erosion  Loess: ◦ Wind-blown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt.  Sandstorms are one major cause of erosion.

61  Glaciers: ◦ Huge, slow-moving sheets of ice ◦ As they move they carry dirt, rocks, and boulders along their bottom edge ◦ The terrain is worn away by the debris dragging along with the ice ◦ Moraines  Ridge-like piles of rocks and debris left behind by melted Glaciers.

62  What are the 3 main types of erosion?  Why is erosion important?  Why is sediment important?  Where is wind erosion especially important? ◦ What are some reasons its important ◦ Pg. 58  1-16,  Time to work on Monday!!


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