3Your body is made up of billions of cells ( basic unit of living things) Groups of cells working together are tissuesA group of tissues working together are organsOrgans all have specific jobs (heart is to pump blood, but can the heart get blood to all other body parts by itself?)A group of organs working together to complete a task is a body system
5Body systems play different roles in the body, but work together to maintain homeostasis Homeostasis is the condition in which the body’s internal conditions are at a stable stateExample: Needing more oxygen during exercise. Which two systems work together to provide it?Example: Running. Which two systems work together to provide it?
6Perform a skit where characters are different organs Perform a skit where characters are different organs. Discuss and demonstrate in your skit what happens as a person begins to exercise.
7All of the body systems are IMPORTANT If one does not work properly, then it affects the othersBody systems are dependent on each other, so it is important to take care/ protect each system
10A bone is an organ in the skeletal system Skeletal system is an internal system made up of bones, joints, and connective tissueA bone is an organ in the skeletal systemThere are 206 bones in the bodyFunctions of bones:Bones are hard because they store minerals- Calcium and phosphorus, for use when the body needs it- mineral that maker bones strong and healthyThey protect soft organs- Provide framework around internal organsSupport the body- Vertebrae has 24 bones, supporting head, neck, and protect spinal cordAllow movement- muscles pull on bones to moveForm new blood cells- Inside the bones are bone marrow (soft tissue) that makes blood cells for the body
11Joints are a place where two or more bones meet Bones are held together at joints by tissues called ligaments- help hold bones in placeJoints allow the body to move in controlled waysTissues called tendons attach muscle to bones –Achilles tendonWhen muscles move, they cause bones to move too
12Hinge joints -One direction movement only Gliding joints - Enable bones to slide over one anotherPivot joint- Moves side to side, up and down, but for limited rotationBall and socket joint - Move in all directions, allowing rotation
16Fractures- break in a bone Dislocations- bone pushed out of jointSprains- stretching or twisting a ligamentOsteoarthritis- breakdown of cartilage, causing stiffness and swellingScoliosis- sideways curvature in spineOsteoporosis- condition of brittle and porous bones (long term deficiencies in calcium,Vitamin D and lack of exercise)
18Be physically active- walking and jogging increase bone mass Eat foods high in calcium and phosphorus- Dairy products, liver, beans, and whole grainsSit, stand, and walk in straight posture- keeps spine healthy and protects spinal cordPay attention to your shoes- Should have correct arch support and should be able to wiggle toes, this provides support of bones in your feet
19List three parts of the skeletal system and give a brief description of each.
21Group of structures that make your body parts move Most important muscle: the heart
22Anyone ever worn a cast? How did your muscles feel when you got your cast off? Anyone started working out? How did your muscles feel when you started working out? DRAW a conclusion about muscle strength.
23Cardiac- muscle that forms the heart Smooth- forms some internal organsSkeletal- muscle attached to bones
28A pulled or torn muscle- torn away from bone or damaged Muscle strain- soreness developed by overuseCramped muscle- remains contracted instead of extendingMuscular dystrophy-disorder inherited, causing gradual weakening
29Engage in regular physical activity Warm up before physical activityEat foods containing carbohydrates and proteinMaintain a healthy weightLearn to lift properly
30Heart, blood vessels, stomach, intestines, and toes Heart, blood vessels, stomach, intestines, and toes. Identify the type of muscle tissue that is associated with each one. Heart, blood Vessels, stomach, intestines, toes.
32Digestion is the changing of food you can eat into substances the body can use Digestive system- is an organ system that converts food to a form useful for the bodyDigestion frees nutrients so they can be used by the bodyNutrients are substances that the body needs to work properlyCells use nutrients to grow, repair themselves, and get energy
33Digestion begins in the mouth Teeth cut and grind food while saliva moistens itSaliva ( fluid produced by salivary glands) is 99% waterPasses through pharynx and esophagusIt enters the stomach- collected and churned like a food processorGoes to small intestine- coiled 20 foot long tube, where it absorbs most nutrients, which are used by the body for growth, energy, and repair. Digestion is completed hereFood then enters large intestine and then excreted through the anus
35Liver- a large gland where many digestive functions occur Liver- a large gland where many digestive functions occur. Produces bile to get rid of fatsGallbladder- small saclike organ that stores bilePancreas- organ that produces enzymes that assist in digestion. Releases enzymes directly into the small intestineKidneys- Blood carries waste to kidneys, who mix it with water and excrete it as urineSweat glands remove salt and water from bodyLungs remove carbon dioxide from body
40Excretion is the process of removing wastes from the body Remains that cannot digest pass to the colon- large intestineThe lining of the colon absorbs most liquid forms of undigested materialThe solids are deposited as fecesWhen the colon is full it sends a message to the brain to contract and push out the feces from the anus
42The small intestine is 20 ft long and spends about 4 hours there. How many feet does it travel an hour?The large intestine is about 5 feet long. Food spends about hours there.What speed does food move through the large intestine?How much faster does food travel through the small intestine that through the large intestine?Why is it important to drink plenty of water?
43Indigestion- uncomfortable feeling in stomach from eating to quickly or too much Diarrhea- watery feces-may be caused by bacteria in foodUlcers- sores on interior stomach or small intestineCirrhosis-destruction of liverGallstones- mineral crystals on gallbladder, block passage of bileKidney stones-like gallstones but block passage of urineAppendicitis- inflammation of appendixHemorrhoids-swelling of veins at the opening of the anusColon cancer –growth of abnormal cells in the colon
44Eat a variety of foods- low-fat and high-fiber foods Eat complete meals- eating breakfast is extremely importantDo not rush mealsChew food thoroughly- do not wash big pieces down with a drinkDrink plenty of water- 6 to 8 glasses a day of 8 ounces of waterSee your dentist regularly
45What have you learned about the Digestive and Excretory systems?
47Organs and tissues that transport essential materials to the body cells and remove their waste products
48Made up of plasma, platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells Plasma is liquid where the body cells absorb waterPlatelets help form clots where there is injury in a blood vesselWhite blood cells fight off infection
49Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body Blood moves through blood vesselsBlood vessels that carry blood away from the heart are arteriesBlood vessels that carry blood to the heart are veinsCapillaries carry blood between veins and arteries
50Pulmonary circulation- flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart Systematic circulation- flow of blood to all the body tissues except the lungs
52Contracts and pumps blood through blood vessels Heart (with 4 chambers)Right ventricle pumps blood to lungs, where it exchanges carbon dioxide for oxygenBlood flows into the left atriumIt pumps blood to the left ventricleThe left ventricle pumps to the entire bodyThe body absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxideThen it flows to the right atriumRight atrium pumps it to the right ventricle
53Squeeze a tennis ball 70 times in a minute Squeeze a tennis ball 70 times in a minute. This is the same force that heart needs to pump blood, and it does it 70 times a minute.
54Act out the path of blood through the body Act out the path of blood through the body. I need seven volunteers ( right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, lungs, body part, and blood). Students sitting down need to tell me when oxygen is being gained or lost.
55Act out the path of blood through the body. I need seven volunteers Act out the path of blood through the body. I need seven volunteers. Students sitting down need to tell me when oxygen is being gained or lost.
56Hypertension- blood pressure is consistently higher than normal Stroke- results from blood clots that block vessels to brain or rupture of oneHeart Attack- blockage of the flow of blood to the heartArteriosclerosis- arteries harden, reducing the amount of blood that can flow through them
57Anemia- abnormally low level of hemoglobin, protein that binds to oxygen in red blood cells Leukemia- disease where extra white blood cells are producedHemophilia- disease where plasma does not contain substances to block or clot
58Limit fat in your foods- can deposit on artery walls, narrowing them and increasing blood pressure Get regular physical activity- strengthens heart muscles, allowing it to pump more blood with each beatAvoid tobacco- tobacco contains nicotine, which narrows arteries, requiring higher blood pressureManage stress- under stress the body secretes adrenaline, which increases blood pressure
59A. Provide each student or group of students with a cup of flour, one-fourth cup of salt, and one-half cup of hot tap water. Stir these ingredients together with a spoon until a ball forms. Check for desired consistency. If dough is too sticky, add more flour. If dough is too dry and more hot tap water.B. With this ball of salt dough, the student(s) mold a human heart shaped model. Complete with aorta, superior vena cava, and inferior vena cava. Models will require several hours to dry.C. After the model dries, the student(s) labels the four chambers: right and left atria, and right and left ventricles, and the major veins and artery.D. Have the students to explain their models.
60Draw the path of blood through the four chambers, lungs, and body.
62Supply oxygen to bloodRemove carbon dioxide from the blood and release it outside the bodyAir enters through the mouth and noseTravels to pharynxMoves from the throat to the larynx or voice boxThen to the trachea- a pipe that carries air deep into the bodyThen it splits into two branches at the bronchiCarries to the lungs- sponge-like organ that allows gases to pass between blood and airYour diaphragm separates the lungs from the abdomen
67Influenza- colds caused by viruses Bronchitis- swelling of the bronchi due to infectionAllergies- immune responses to foreign substancesAsthma-inflammatory disease causing the bronchi to become narrowed or blockedPneumonia- lung infection caused by viruses or bacteriaEmphysema- disease where alveoli becomes damaged or destroyedTuberculosis-bacterial lung infectionLung Cancer- disease where lung tissue are destroyed by the growth of a tumor
68Stay activeAvoid smoking and second hand smokeAvoid polluted airReduce your risk of respiratory infection- wash hands regularly with soap and water and avoid touching your nose and mouth
71Specialized cells make up nervous system are neurons Neurons carry informationControls all body activitiesTwo types of neurons: sensory- send message to spinal cord and motor- receive messages from the brain and stimulate muscles to respond
72Major organ is the brain Movement, memory, learning, speaking, and the five senses are controlled by the brainBrain is attached to the spinal cord-carries messages to and from the brainMessages travel through nerves- bundles of cells that conduct messages from one part of the body to anotherThere are two main parts of the Nervous Systems:Central Nervous System (CNS)- brain and spinal cordControls voluntary (walking) and involuntary (heart beating) actionsPeripheral Nervous System (PNS)- nerves that connect the CNS to all parts of the bodySomatic system (actions controlled) and autonomic actions( actions don’t control) breathing
73Head injury- caused by a blow to the head or violent jarring of the head Spinal cord injury- can result from damage of head, neck, or spineNerve inflammation- follow a minor injury
74Get enough sleepAvoid alcohol and other drugsPlay safelyWear a seat beltObey all traffic rules
75What are the parts of the Nervous System and their functions?
77A chemical communication system that regulates many body functions A gland is a group of cells, or an organ that secretes a chemical substanceThey are secreted into the bloodstream
78Endocrine glands take signals from the brain or other glands The brain receives chemical and electrical messages from the body to the presence of substances in the bloodThe pituitary gland signals other glands to produce hormones when needed
79When you stress your palms get sweaty and heart beats fast Your adrenal glands respond by releasing adrenaline-which prepares your body to respond to stressHeart rate and blood flow increaseBlood sugar levels and blood pressure risesAir passages expand and sweat production increasesOther body parts slow to conserve energy ( digestive system)When the stressful stimulus withdraws, the body returns to normal state
80Diabetes mellitus- caused by inadequate insulin production Overactive thyroid- swelling in neckUnderactive thyroid- dull facial expressionsGrowth extremes- abnormal amounts of growth hormones
81Eat balanced mealsGet enough sleep- period of reduced awareness where body slows downEngage in regular physical activityKeep things in perspectiveHave regular medical check-ups
82“keeping things in perspective” Why is this hard for teens “keeping things in perspective” Why is this hard for teens? How can you help someone from getting upset about minor issues? How can adults help?
83Name a gland of the endocrine system and tell its function.
85Male reproductive cells are called sperm Males produce sperm at puberty- age 12-15Sperm is produced in testes and mature in the epididymisTravel through vas deferens where they are mixed with seminal fluidThe mixture is called semenMuscular contractions force semen though the urethra and out the body called ejaculation
86Sterility- inability to produce healthy sperm to reproduce Enlarged prostate gland- associated with agingSexually transmitted Diseases- infections spread during sexual contactCancer- uncontrolled cell growth that destroys healthy tissue
88Practice of self-examination- check for lumps Bathe regularly- ensure cleanlinessAvoid wearing tight underwear- wear protective cupPractice Abstinence- until married
89Most females begin menstruation between 9-16 The Menstrual CycleAs a female reaches puberty, hormones cause eggs to mature in the ovaryOvulation is the release of one mature egg each monthThe uterus thickens in preparation to receive and begin to nourish a fertilized eggIf fertilization does not occur, then the lining is broken down and expelledThe flow of the lining out of the body is menstruationMost females begin menstruation between 9-16The times of ovulation may vary and degree of cramps and fatigue may vary, NO CONCERN
91Premenstrual Cycle- physical and emotional changes before and during menstruation Toxic Shock Syndrome- bacterial infection associated with incorrect use of tamponsInfertility-inability to reproduceOvarian cysts- growths on the ovarySexually Transmitted Diseases- diseases spread through sexual contactCancer-uncontrolled cell growth
92Examine your breasts- check for lumps Bathe regularly- change tampons and pads frequently tooRecord your menstrual cyclesPractice abstinence- until married
93Tell me what you have learned about your reproductive system.