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Enlightenment Isaac Newton Minuet Plague Gravity Principia Mathematica.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Isaac Newton Minuet Plague Gravity Principia Mathematica."— Presentation transcript:


2 Enlightenment Isaac Newton Minuet Plague Gravity Principia Mathematica

3 Period in history between 1600 and 1700 Europe People believed that the darkness of the past was giving way to new light Symbolism of Darkness Ignorance, superstition, unproven beliefs Symbolism of Light Knowledge

4 The Renaissance Thinkers turned to Ancient Greek and Roman thought for inspiration 1600-1700s People decided that they could uncover the laws of nature and come to an understanding of human society and government The Enlightenment is also called the Age of Reason Changed history and created the beginning of the modern world Revolutions in science, mathematics and government

5 The upper class Nice homes Every object in the home is a work of art Dressed in silk and lace Wore white wigs and danced the minuet Minuet is a slow dance that involves much bowing and toe-pointing Kings ruled by divine right Life was hard Lived in slums Worked from dawn to dusk Owned nothing Less than ½ of babies made it to adulthood Prisons were full Torture was legal People had no rights The lower class

6 Not the nobles or the poor The middle class Merchants, bankers, traders, and skilled craftsmen are thriving Destined to be the leaders of the enlightenment Some of the middle class became rich and lived like the upper class Were called Burgers Bourgeoisie (boor jwah zee) Bourgeois means “town dweller”

7 Born of Christmas day in 1642 Very small Very observant Spent long hours observing nature Invented mechanical devices Windmill to grind corn into cornmeal Clock powered by falling water Lots of reading Absentminded Tending sheep

8 19 years old Cambridge University Read books before they were assigned Learned about chemistry from a local pharmacist The Plague a disease that is deadly and spreads rapidly Newton returns home Most productive two years of his life Sitting Around Discovery of Gravity

9 Could the same laws of gravity apply to other parts of the universe? Copernicus The earth moves around the sun Galileo Telescope to prove the theory of Copernicus Both Copernicus and Galileo had a hard time trying to convince people of their ideas Gravity Falling of the apple keeps the planet in orbit around the sun

10 Sun Stare Almost blinded himself Experimented with objects and motion A body is either at rest or in motion in a straight line unless acted upon by some outside source Invented Calculus Newton was very hesitant to release his new ideas Very modest and did not like quarrelling

11 Mathematical Principles Produced after 2 ½ years of solitary study Explained the law of gravity and laws of motion in mathematical terms Did not publish it for 20 years Publication of the Principia One of the most important events in the history of science and thought Newton insisted that his laws were true throughout the physical world All things can be explained through observation and reason

12 Inspired confidence in science and reason Natures laws could be understood through inquiry, observation and calculation People began to examine politics, religion and society. Newton opened the door to a new understanding of the world First scientist to be knighted by an English queen

13 Renѐ Descartes Philosophy Discourse on Method “Cogito ergo sum”

14 Lived with his grandmother as a young boy Mother died when he was one Sent to boarding school at the age of 10 Often Sick Allowed to sleep in Studied law Had no interest in it, expected by his family Still enjoyed sleeping in Joins the army at age 22

15 Becomes fascinated with mathematics Writes several papers on the subject Joins that Bavarian Army Still woke up late and spent a lot of time on his own Enjoyed his life until the snow started to fall Spent most of his time bundled up and thinking

16 Descartes began to use reason to explore the human condition and his belief in God Beginning of modern Philosophy Returned to Holland Did not punish those who questioned religious or political traditions Holland was the center of the European printing industry Ideas thrived in Holland

17 Descartes best known book Book comes from his time in the snow covered Bavaria Began to question and doubt There is one thing that we can all be sure of Our thoughts—our existence “There is just one thing that is undeniable: I am thinking. This alone proves my existence.” Cogito Ergo Sum I think, therefore I am “It is not enough just to have a fine mind; the main thing is to learn how to apply it properly.”

18 Promised himself “never to accept anything as true if I did not clearly know it to be so,” The truth of the universe can be learned by observation and reason Not just by faith Encouraged people to doubt everything except their own existence. Until they proved each thing to be true

19 Queen Christina of Sweden invited Renѐ to her court Did not excite the 53 year old Renѐ The Queen got her way Brisk sleigh ride each morning Pneumonia after two weeks Dies in Sweden Legacy of Descartes Introduced a new way of thinking about what we know and how we know it Father of modern philosophy

20 Pessimist Authoritarian Leviathan Behemoth

21 Entered Oxford at the age of 15 Typical college students entered school at 16-18 After Graduation Tutor for the son of a nobleman Traveled abroad Meets Descartes in France England Political unrest Problems between the king and parliament Hobbes fled to Paris Ended up tutoring the former kings son, Prince Charles I

22 Hobbs observed the political scene in England Drew conclusions about the purpose and nature of government Writes a book called the Leviathan A sea-monster in the bible that is an all powerful ruler of the sea. Hobbes believed that the government should be like a leviathan

23 Reasons that Hobbes believed the government should be a Leviathan Human “state of nature” People are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish People have two main desires Feel pleasure Avoid Pain People will do anything to satisfy these desires Hobbes was a pessimist Pessimist-someone who believes the worst will happen Hobbes believed that without government human life would be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”

24 People must enter into a social contract Give up their freedoms Turn them over to a powerful leader or assembly Strong leaders, strict laws and stiff punishments would protect selfish individuals from making war on each other Society would be best served by an absolute monarchy Absolute Monarchy-an all powerful ruler What about Freedom? Real human freedom comes from living peacefully A strong government protects people from themselves

25 1660 The Monarchy is restored Prince Charles becomes King Charles II Hobbes is able to publish his work without problems 1665 The Plague 1666 A great fire in England Both of these events turned people back to religion. People who spoke out against religion were in trouble People wanted to ban the Leviathan and Hobbes King Charles II saves the day Forbade Hobbes from publishing any new work

26 Behemoth Presented for publication Banned by the king Published 3 years after Hobbes’ death Most people saw him as a threat to religion Ignored by fellow philosophers and scientist Continued to submit papers Turned away Hobbes becomes an angry and bitter man Dies at the age of 91

27 Put a dark view on human nature Presented and authoritarian model of how society should be organized Authoritarian-presented as if from an expert or an authority People are not basically good A strong government or leader is necessary to make the laws for peace and safety

28 Essay Concerning Human Understanding Tabula Rasa Dr. van der Linden Parliament Radical

29 A fine student Named a “king’s scholar” Scholarship to Oxford 30 years studying, tutoring and writing Studied medicine and became a doctor Removed a growth from his friend’s liver Saved his life Became famous for his writing about human knowledge and politics

30 Every person comes into this world with a mind like a tabula rasa Tabula Rasa—Blank Tablet We have no knowledge at birth All knowledge comes from experience If a child were kept in a place where he never saw any other color but black and white till he were a man, he would have no ideas of scarlet or green We learn about the world through our senses After we experience we compare our new experiences to previous ones

31 Hobbes Government should be all powerful People are selfish People are warlike People have natural rights The rule of a monarch depends on the consent of the people People become what they are based on their experiences Locke

32 People who only know fighting and cruelty will likely be violent and cruel Advised parents to treat children with tenderness and kindness They would learn to be kind People given the right experiences would be moral and reasonable People are born with certain natural rights Life, liberty, and property It is the government’s duty to preserve the rights of the citizens

33 Locke also believed that if a government fails to protect the natural rights of the people that the people have the right to overthrow the government This idea is what inspired the American Revolution

34 King James II Unpopular ruler Catholics in high offices People feared the Parliament would be disbanded King James was not a fan of Locke Locke had sided with the Parliament Rumors that Locke supported the overthrow of the crown Locke is blacklisted Locke flees to Holland Dr. Van der Linden Completes his Essay Concerning Human Understanding

35 Locke meets Prince William of Orange Husband of Mary (King James II daughter) Locke becomes a supporter of William 1688 Parliament unseats King James II William comes to take the throne Locke returns to England was a traveling companion to Mary

36 Had to give up many of their powers to the Parliament Parliament called for a Bill of Rights Change is called the Glorious Revolution No bloodshed or violence 1688 and on No king or queen could rule in England without the consent of the Parliament Locke’s radical ideas became a reality Radical –relating to great changes or reform

37 Montesquieu Clergy Limited Monarchy The Persian Letters The Spirit of Laws

38 Charles de Secondat Noble Baron de Montesquieu Lots of Money Becomes one of the most important thinker of 18 th century Traveled around Europe Italy and England Read widely Ancient and medieval times Chinese and Native American cultures

39 Observed, studied and reasoned Came to a conclusion France was in big trouble Most of the people were suffering Poverty Injustice Strict social order allowed for no chance for change Enforced by the monarch and clergy Clergy people who are religious leaders Montesquieu goes to Holland Publishes the Persian Letters “Written” by Usbek and Rica Collection of their “writings” Criticized the French ruling class

40 First letter home Usbek and Rica had left their homes in search for wisdom “our purpose is to educate ourselves about the customs and social arrangements in the West.” The Persian Letters are a hit Readers read them out loud Rica and Usbek revealed harsh truths Not a problem because the were “Persian Citizens”

41 “The king is a great magician” Able to convince people that paper was money If he runs low on money he can just print more Presto Everyone could become rich Description of the life of a court nobleman Trying to “conceal the fact that he has nothing to do by looking busy” People began to figure out the Montesquieu was the writer of The Persian Letters

42 The Spirit of Laws Writes about what he has learned about governments around the world Praises the British government for limiting the power of the Monarchy and protecting the rights of the people A country must limit the power of its ruler Or any branch of government Separation of Powers

43 Monarch Executive Powers Parliament Make laws Courts Enforce justice Each branch of government should be able to check the power of the other two Checks and balances Montesquieu attacks slavery “The most shocking violation of human nature” As logical as enslaving someone because they have a “short or long face”

44 Did not suggest extreme social changes No rebellion or democracy Peaceful and modest reforms This would give people happier lives The ideal monarch Listens to his people Held in check by the parliament and courts

45 Bastille Voltaire Pseudonym Censorship Candide Philosophes

46 The Bastille Once a military fortress that protected Paris 4 years before Montesquieu Francois Marie Arouet Place in prison for writing verses making fun of the French Government Uses the Pseudonym Voltaire Pseudonym-”pen name” used by an author in the place of their real name.

47 Examined society and launched a battle to improve it Targeted Greedy official Lazy noble Evil institutions Slavery Religious prejudice Used humor and sarcasm to point out social wrongs and demand change Montesquieu comments were ignored He was a noble Voltaire’s comments were not allowed He was a commoner.

48 Released from the Bastille In trouble again Offended a powerful young noble Challenged him to a duel 2 choices Go to jail Flee to England Voltaire goes to England 3 years Studies the philosophy of Locke Studies the science of Newton England has the answers France is in trouble

49 In regards to England “In this country it is possible to use one’ mind freely and nobly, without fear or cringing.” Freedom of expression “My trade is to say what I think” Refuses to be silenced Publishes again in France Candide “Arrest Voltaire, Burn his book” Increased his popularity

50 Voltaire flees to Paris again Buys and estate at Ferney Near the border of Switzerland and France Voltaire continues to write books, plays, pamphlets, and letters. Sharp voice against censorship Censorship- the act of removing or holding back anything thought not right for people to see or hear Lots of visitors to Ferney “I do not agree with a word that you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it!”

51 Set an example for free thinkers to follow Philosophes Lovers of wisdom Discussed and debated ways to achieve a fairer society Wrote books and pamphlets Published Encyclopedia Summed up the major idea and discoveries of the enlightenment The message of the Enlightenment took a long time to reach all people Once it had there was no turning back

52 Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Franklin Diplomat James Madison

53 1776 Colonists decided that they could no longer tolerate Britain’s Rule Taxation without representation Tried to do demonstrations and protests Declaration of Independence Written by Thomas Jefferson Attacks Tyranny Calls for freedom

54 Well suited for the task Private tutors in school Law Degree Spent a lot of time studying and reading Jefferson’s interests Fossils from Native American mounds Collected books Observed life How to make it better Invented Storm windows Clock that could tell the day of the week and hour

55 All men are entitled certain natural rights Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness Idea from John Locke The government has the duty to preserve the citizens natural rights. If not protected the citizens should change or replace the government The government gets it’s power from the people These Ideas led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and the American Revolution of 1776

56 The American Philosophe Spent most of his time seeking knowledge Studied, experimented, invented things, and traveled Had correspondence with European philosophes Added to the world’s store of knowledge Poor Richards Almanack “Three can keep a secret if two of them are dead” “A fish and visitors smell after three days” Aimed at helping people improve themselves Helped Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence

57 Scientist Invented the Lightning Rod, Bifocal glasses Diplomat to France Diplomat– a person in government whose work is dealing with governments of other nations Seeking support for the revolution

58 James Madison Studied and observed Officials can only govern with the consent of the people “Father of the Constitution” To promote the general welfare 1789 The United States Constitution becomes a law of the land. Most of the ideas of the Constitution and Declaration of Independence were inspired by Enlightenment Thinkers

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