Presentation on theme: "The Confederacy -the southern states 1. Feb. 1861 – Confederate States of America 2. Confederate Constitution similar to U.S. but: Each state sovereign."— Presentation transcript:
The Confederacy -the southern states 1. Feb – Confederate States of America 2. Confederate Constitution similar to U.S. but: Each state sovereign (independent) Right to own slaves guaranteed 3. Jefferson Davis is President
Confusion reigned in North and South Pres. Buchanan didn’t do anything Southerners took over Federal property – courthouses, post offices, and forts Most Northerners didn’t react one way or another
The Union is broken and the War begins Firing on Ft. Sumter (Charleston, S.C.) April Confederates demanded surrender, Union refused so SC militia fired. *This was seen as an attack on the USA. 2. Result: 1. Eliminated middle ground 2. Created anger in North 3. Created “war fever” in South 4. Va. And 4 more states seceded
NORTHSOUTH 1.Size23 States11 States 2.Population22 mil (4 mil. Men)9 mil (1.2 mil men) 3.Railroads20,000 mi., 96% of RR equip 9,000 mi. 4.Money$189 million $56 million in gold $47 million $27 mil. (gold) 5.Industry4/5 nation’s industry 1/5 nation’s ind.
NORTHSOUTH 6.AgricultureGrew 2/3 nation’s food Mostly cotton 7.LeadersLincoln (strong)Davis (weak) 8.Military Leaders Poor GeneralsStrong (most US Generals and officers) 9.EnlistedFew skilled riders, few good shots Good riders and shots. Owned guns
1 st Major Battle- July 1861 Location – Va., west of Washington DC Result – South won. “Stonewall Jackson”-Thomas Jackson Significance – showed that the war would not be easy or quick. Boosted Southern morale.
Tactics – equipment, methods, and manpower changed during the war. Manpower: Started with volunteers Later had to draft (Lincoln 1 st US President to draft-1863) Troops organized by state No uniforms in beginning – later went to blue and grey Infantry – Cavalry and Artillery
Weapons – Guns and muskets in the beginning Rifles later which were more accurate at greater distances (not effective in frontal charges)- minie ball Cavalry – less important as rifles became more accurate Warships – used ironclads Examples: Monitor vs. Virginia (Merrimac)
Civil War Medicine
The American humanitarian Clara Barton was the founder of the American Red Cross
Strategies Anaconda Plan – Union 3 Part Strategy Part 1- Western Campaign – to divide Confed. and control Mississippi River Shiloh (Tenn.) March 1862– bloody battle, Union won but learned: 1. Must think defensively 2. No easy victories; 23,000 dead 3. Beginning of South’s failure to hold the Mississippi River.
Part 2 - Naval Blockade a. Successful in blocking regular shipping b. Blockade Runners – good but small c. Union captured New Orleans
Inside the Hunley
Part 3 - Eastern Campaign – to capture Richmond (Confederacy Capital) a. Peninsula Campaign- Virginia McClellan (cautious) vs. Lee (Bold & brilliant) b. Second Bull Run – South won
Sept Antietam (Md.) – South on Offensive 1. Lee’s plans found by McClellan’s Army 2. McClellan won but didn’t follow through. 3. Bloodiest single day of war; 22,000 dead 4. Lincoln fired McClellan
Antietam, Maryland- single bloodiest day of the war
1862- law said they could serve but only after the Emancipation Proclamation did they enlist in large numbers By the end of the war- nearly 10% of Union troops were black Suffered discrimination and higher death rates Example- The 54 th Mass. Regiment –the movie “Glory”
Manpower diminishes in the South 1. Fredericksburg, Va. – The Union lost 13,000 and the South lost 5,300; South wins 2. Chancellorsville, Va. – South lost 12,000 but still won; Stonewall Jackson 3. South could not replace the losses, but the North could
Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, It stated that all slaves BEHIND enemy lines were FREE. IT DID NOT IMMEDIATELY FREE THE SLAVES! IT HELPED GAIN BRITISH SUPPORT GAVE THE WAR A MORAL CRUSADE
Turning Point of the War Gettysburg (Pa.) – won July 4, 1863 a. 3 day battle – 51,000 dead, wounded, or missing b. North won, the South lost too many c. Only the 2 nd time the South went North to fight
Gettysburg Address – Lincoln’s two minute speech. urgaddress.htm urgaddress.htm a. Stated a new purpose – to end slavery b. Gov’t. created a National Cemetery, b/c so many dead were left unburied.
“ Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”
Vicksburg – won July 4, 1863 a. Southern supply town of Vicksburg (on Miss. River) was under siege and cut off from all supplies b. After this victory, U.S. Grant (Union General) was named the Commander of the Union forces
1. Conditions were terrible, especially in the South 2. Northerners starved in Southern prisons 3. Southerners froze or died of pneumonia in Northern prisons 4. Andersonville – worst prison (Georgia), the Commandant hanged as a war criminal after the war.
Lincoln’s Reelection Lincoln’s popularity increases with Union victories 2. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address – “Bind up the nation’s wounds.”
Union Strategy Changes 1. “Grind Up Resources” – burn and destroy anything of use to the South 2. Best example of this is “Sherman’s March to the Sea” – Sherman (Union Gen.) called this “total war” – the goal was to demoralize and completely destroy the South. He marched from Atlanta to Savannah leaving a path of devastation.
War Ends – Richmond is evacuated and burned – Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House (Va.) on Apr – Terms of surrender were generous – 13 th Amendment passed – made slavery illegal
Death of Lincoln 1. The assassin was John Wilkes Booth, unemployed actor and Southern sympathizer 2. Lincoln was shot at Ford’s Theater and died on April 15, 1865.
1. Lincoln wanted a mild reconstruction plan (forgiving) 2. The Radical Republicans wanted a harsh reconstruction plan to punish the South.