2 Items Covered In This Lab 1. Problems : Dilution and Concentration 2. Prescriptions : 1) Castor oil emulsion 2) BaSO4 enema 3) Turpentine oil enema
3 DILUTION AND CONCENTRATOIN (P: 40) Add 100 ml water1 gm NaClin 200 ml solution1 gm NaClin 100 ml solution0.5 %1%Amount before dilution = Amount after dilutionQ 1 C = Q C 2N.B Q 1 & Q 2 must have the same unitsC1 & C2 must have the same units
4 DILUTION AND CONCENTRATOIN Example: Aluminium acetate solution contains 5% of aluminium acetate. When 100 ml are diluted to a liter, what will be the diluted solution ? Answer: Q 1 = 100 ml C 1 = 5%, Q 2 = 1 liter = 1000 ml C 2 = ?? Q1 C1 = Q2 C ml X 5% = 1000 ml X C C2 = 0.5%
5 Dilution of Alcohols and acids Since there is a volume contraction when alcohol &water are mixed togetherwe can not calculate the volume of water needed to dilute alcohol to a desired v/v strengthStrength of official concentrated acids % w/wStrength of official diluted acids % w/vN.B % w/ v = % w/w X specific gravity
6 Example:How much water should be mixed with 5000 ml of 85% (v/v) alcohol to make 50% (v/v) alcohol ?Answer:Q 1 = 5000 ml C 1 = 85% v/v Q 2 = ? C 2 = 50% v/v Q1 C1 = Q2 C ml X % = Q2 X % Q2 = 8500 mlTherefore ; use 5000 ml of 85% (v/v) alcohol & enough water to make 8500 ml
7 EMULSIONS (P:88)Two immiscible liquids, e.g. water and oil, one of which isdispersed as small globules (internal phase) in the other (externalphase) by the aid of emulsifying agent (e.g. gum acacia).Oil (internal phase)H2O (external phase)Emulsifying agentWater
8 Ratio of primary emulsion (O:W:G) To prepare acacia emulsion,A Primary Emulsion must be made firstWith fixed ratios of Oil : Water : GumType of oilExampleRatio of primary emulsion (O:W:G)FixedCastor oilAlmond oilArachis oil4 : 2 : 1MineralLiquid Paraffin3 : 2 : 1.5VolatileTurpentine oilPeppermint oil2 : 2 : 1Oleo-resinMale fern Extract1 : 2 : 1
9 Ricin(Castor) Oil Emulsion (P: 94) RxRicin oil (castor oil) mlGum acacia Q.S.Water mlFiat: HastusSig. : statinUse : PurgativeCalculation :Castor oil fixed oil. ratio to prepare primary emulsionOil : Water : Gum4 : : 1 16 ml : 8 ml : 4 gmFinal volume = 80 water+ 16 ml oil = 96 ml
10 8 ml Water on the otherside Dry gum MethodTrituration must be:From the wrist.In one direction.In all parts of the morter.Continueous.Very Fast.8 ml Water on the otherside16 mlOil on onesideIn a dry mortar; add gum & grind with pestlePlace gum in a line in the centerTriturate with whipping motion until primary emulsion is formed (white , thick ,cracking sound)Continue triturating for 2 min. (stabilization)
11 Dry gum Method Wip with a tissue Transfer to a cup measure adjust volume to 96 ml with water10ml Water portion-wise& triturate10ml WaterDpwise &triturateWip witha tissueTransfer to a cup measurePrimary Emulsion
12 Keep in a Cool Place Shake The Bottle The Draught To be taken at once. ricin(Castor) OilRxRicin oil mlGum acacia Q.S.Water mlFiat: HastusSig. : statinLabel : WhiteKeep in a Cool PlaceShake The BottleThe DraughtTo be taken at once.
13 BaSO4 Enema (suspension) (p: 87) RxBarium sulphate gMucilage of acacia mlStarch enema ad mlFiat: EnemaUse : Roentgenographic examination of lower bowel.Starch enema (3%)RxStarch gWater to mlUse : emollient enema as starch coats the mucous membrane & relieve local irritation.
14 Label : RedShake The BottleThe EnemaTo be used as directed.
15 Preparation of STARCH ENEMA: Add starch suspension to boiling water while on flameCOOLAdd 3 g StarchStarch SuspensionAdd 20 ml waterSTARCH ENEMAStirrBoil 80 ml waterBoil the mixture on the flame on flame with stirring with glass rod until translucent viscous liquid (2 min)
16 BaSO4 ENEMA Add BaSO4 in mortar & grind with pestle RxBarium sulphate gMucilage of acacia 10 mlStarch enema ad 50 mlFiat: EnemaBaSO4 ENEMAAdd BaSO4 in mortar & grind with pestleAdd Acacia mucilageAdd starch enema till pourable (25 ml)Continue volume with starch enema to 50 ml.Transfer to cup measure
18 Label : RedShake The BottleThe EnemaTo be used as directed.
19 As previously mentioned Preparation of Starch Enema:As previously mentioned
20 Preparation:1-in a colorless 200 ml bottle put 47.5 ml cool starch enema (as turpentine oil is volatile)2- Add 2.5 ml turpentine oil dropwise & shake vigorously after each addition White viscous liquid that leaves film on the wall of the bottle (when inverted upside down)