# Pre-lab 6.

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Pre-lab 6

Items Covered In This Lab
1. Problems : Dilution and Concentration 2. Prescriptions : 1) Castor oil emulsion 2) BaSO4 enema 3) Turpentine oil enema

DILUTION AND CONCENTRATOIN (P: 40)
Add 100 ml water 1 gm NaCl in 200 ml solution 1 gm NaCl in 100 ml solution 0.5 % 1% Amount before dilution = Amount after dilution Q 1 C = Q C 2 N.B Q 1 & Q 2 must have the same units C1 & C2 must have the same units

DILUTION AND CONCENTRATOIN
Example: Aluminium acetate solution contains 5% of aluminium acetate. When 100 ml are diluted to a liter, what will be the diluted solution ?   Answer: Q 1 = 100 ml C 1 = 5%, Q 2 = 1 liter = 1000 ml C 2 = ?? Q1 C1 = Q2 C ml X 5% = 1000 ml X C C2 = 0.5%

Dilution of Alcohols and acids
Since there is a volume contraction when alcohol & water are mixed together we can not calculate the volume of water needed to dilute alcohol to a desired v/v strength Strength of official concentrated acids % w/w Strength of official diluted acids  % w/v N.B % w/ v = % w/w X specific gravity

Example: How much water should be mixed with 5000 ml of 85% (v/v) alcohol to make 50% (v/v) alcohol ? Answer: Q 1 = 5000 ml C 1 = 85% v/v Q 2 = ? C 2 = 50% v/v Q1 C1 = Q2 C ml X % = Q2 X % Q2 = 8500 ml Therefore ; use 5000 ml of 85% (v/v) alcohol & enough water to make 8500 ml

EMULSIONS (P:88) Two immiscible liquids, e.g. water and oil, one of which is dispersed as small globules (internal phase) in the other (external phase) by the aid of emulsifying agent (e.g. gum acacia). Oil (internal phase) H2O (external phase) Emulsifying agent Water

Ratio of primary emulsion (O:W:G)
To prepare acacia emulsion, A Primary Emulsion must be made first With fixed ratios of Oil : Water : Gum Type of oil Example Ratio of primary emulsion (O:W:G) Fixed Castor oil Almond oil Arachis oil 4 : 2 : 1 Mineral Liquid Paraffin 3 : 2 : 1.5 Volatile Turpentine oil Peppermint oil 2 : 2 : 1 Oleo-resin Male fern Extract 1 : 2 : 1

Ricin(Castor) Oil Emulsion (P: 94)
Rx Ricin oil (castor oil) ml Gum acacia Q.S. Water ml Fiat: Hastus Sig. : statin Use : Purgative Calculation : Castor oil  fixed oil.  ratio to prepare primary emulsion Oil : Water : Gum 4 : : 1  16 ml : 8 ml : 4 gm Final volume = 80 water+ 16 ml oil = 96 ml

8 ml Water on the otherside
Dry gum Method Trituration must be: From the wrist. In one direction. In all parts of the morter. Continueous. Very Fast. 8 ml Water on the otherside 16 ml Oil on oneside In a dry mortar; add gum & grind with pestle Place gum in a line in the center Triturate with whipping motion until primary emulsion is formed (white , thick ,cracking sound) Continue triturating for 2 min. (stabilization)

Dry gum Method Wip with a tissue Transfer to a cup measure
adjust volume to 96 ml with water 10ml Water portion-wise & triturate 10ml Water Dpwise & triturate Wip with a tissue Transfer to a cup measure Primary Emulsion

Keep in a Cool Place Shake The Bottle The Draught To be taken at once.
ricin(Castor) Oil Rx Ricin oil ml Gum acacia Q.S. Water ml Fiat: Hastus Sig. : statin Label : White Keep in a Cool Place Shake The Bottle The Draught To be taken at once.

BaSO4 Enema (suspension) (p: 87)
Rx Barium sulphate g Mucilage of acacia ml Starch enema ad ml Fiat: Enema Use : Roentgenographic examination of lower bowel. Starch enema (3%) Rx Starch g Water to ml Use : emollient enema as starch coats the mucous membrane & relieve local irritation.

Label : Red Shake The Bottle The Enema To be used as directed.

Preparation of STARCH ENEMA:
Add starch suspension to boiling water while on flame COOL Add 3 g Starch Starch Suspension Add 20 ml water STARCH ENEMA Stirr Boil 80 ml water Boil the mixture on the flame on flame with stirring with glass rod until translucent viscous liquid (2 min)

BaSO4 ENEMA Add BaSO4 in mortar & grind with pestle
Rx Barium sulphate g Mucilage of acacia 10 ml Starch enema ad 50 ml Fiat: Enema BaSO4 ENEMA Add BaSO4 in mortar & grind with pestle Add Acacia mucilage Add starch enema till pourable (25 ml) Continue volume with starch enema to 50 ml. Transfer to cup measure

Turpentine Enema (emulsion) (p: 97)
Rx Turpentine oil ml Starch enema to ml Fiat: enema Mitte : 50 ml Sig. : m.d.u X 0.5 2.5 ml 50 ml Use : anthelmintic for thread worm Starch enema (3%) Rx Starch g Water to ml Calculation : F= 50/ 100 = 0.5

Label : Red Shake The Bottle The Enema To be used as directed.

As previously mentioned
Preparation of Starch Enema: As previously mentioned

Preparation: 1-in a colorless 200 ml bottle put 47.5 ml cool starch enema (as turpentine oil is volatile) 2- Add 2.5 ml turpentine oil dropwise & shake vigorously after each addition  White viscous liquid that leaves film on the wall of the bottle (when inverted upside down)

Thank you