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1. Problems : Dilution and Concentration 2. Prescriptions : 1) Castor oil emulsion 2) BaSO 4 enema 3) Turpentine oil enema.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Problems : Dilution and Concentration 2. Prescriptions : 1) Castor oil emulsion 2) BaSO 4 enema 3) Turpentine oil enema."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1. Problems : Dilution and Concentration 2. Prescriptions : 1) Castor oil emulsion 2) BaSO 4 enema 3) Turpentine oil enema

3 DILUTION AND CONCENTRATOIN (P: 40) 1% Add 100 ml water 1 gm NaCl in 200 ml solution 1 gm NaCl in 100 ml solution 0.5 % Amount before dilution = Amount after dilution Q 1 C 1 = Q 2 C 2 N.B. Q 1 & Q 2 must have the same units C1 & C2 must have the same units

4 DILUTION AND CONCENTRATOIN

5 Dilution of Alcohols and acids  Since there is a volume contraction when alcohol & water are mixed together  we can not calculate the volume of water needed to dilute alcohol to a desired v/v strength  Strength of official concentrated acids  % w/w  Strength of official diluted acids  % w/v N.B. % w/ v = % w/w X specific gravity

6 Example: How much water should be mixed with 5000 ml of 85% (v/v) alcohol to make 50% (v/v) alcohol ? Q 1 = 5000 ml C 1 = 85% v/v Q 2 = ? C 2 = 50% v/v Q 1 C 1 = Q 2 C ml X 85% = Q 2 X 50 % Q 2 = 8500 ml Answer: Therefore ; use 5000 ml of 85% (v/v) alcohol & enough water to make 8500 ml

7 EMULSIONS (P:88)  Two immiscible liquids, e.g. water and oil, one of which is dispersed as small globules (internal phase) in the other (external phase) by the aid of emulsifying agent (e.g. gum acacia). Water Oil (internal phase) H 2 O (external phase) Emulsifying agent

8 To prepare acacia emulsion, A Primary Emulsion must be made first With fixed ratios of Oil : Water : Gum Type of oilExample Ratio of primary emulsion (O:W:G) Fixed Castor oil Almond oil Arachis oil 4 : 2 : 1 MineralLiquid Paraffin3 : 2 : 1.5 Volatile Turpentine oil Peppermint oil 2 : 2 : 1 Oleo-resin Male fern Extract 1 : 2 : 1

9 Ricin(Castor) Oil Emulsion (P: 94) Rx Ricin oil (castor oil) 16 ml Gum acacia Q.S. Water 80 ml Fiat: Hastus Sig. : statin Use : Purgative Calculation : Castor oil  fixed oil.  ratio to prepare primary emulsion Oil : Water : Gum 4 : 2 : 1  16 ml : 8 ml : 4 gm Final volume = 80 water+ 16 ml oil = 96 ml

10 16 ml Oil on oneside Dry gum Method In a dry mortar; add gum & grind with pestle Place gum in a line in the center Triturate with whipping motion until primary emulsion is formed (white, thick,cracking sound) Continue triturating for 2 min. (stabilization) Trituration must be: 1.From the wrist. 2.In one direction. 3.In all parts of the morter. 4.Continueous. 5.Very Fast. 8 ml Water on the otherside

11 Dry gum Method adjust volume to 96 ml with water 10ml Water Dpwise & triturate 10ml Water portion-wise & triturate Transfer to a cup measure Primary Emulsion Wip with a tissue

12 Label : White Shake The Bottle Keep in a Cool Place ricin(Castor) Oil Rx Ricin oil 16 ml Gum acacia Q.S. Water 80 ml Fiat: Hastus Sig. : statin The Draught To be taken at once.

13 BaSO 4 Enema (suspension) (p: 87) Use : Roentgenographic examination of lower bowel. Rx Barium sulphate 12 g Mucilage of acacia 10 ml Starch enema ad 50 ml Fiat: Enema Starch enema (3%) Rx Starch 3 g Water to 100 ml Use : emollient enema as starch coats the mucous membrane & relieve local irritation.

14 Label : Red Shake The Bottle The Enema To be used as directed.

15 Preparation of STARCH ENEMA: Add 3 g Starch Add 20 ml water Stirr Starch Suspension Boil 80 ml water Add starch suspension to boiling water while on flame Boil the mixture on the flame on flame with stirring with glass rod until translucent viscous liquid (2 min) COOL STARCH ENEMA

16 Rx Barium sulphate 12 g Mucilage of acacia 10 ml Starch enema ad 50 ml Fiat: Enema BaSO 4 ENEMA Add BaSO 4 in mortar & grind with pestle Add starch enema till pourable (25 ml) Continue volume with starch enema to 50 ml. Transfer to cup measure Add Acacia mucilage

17 Turpentine Enema (emulsion) (p: 97) Use : anthelmintic for thread worm Rx Turpentine oil 5 ml Starch enema to 100 ml Fiat: enema Mitte : 50 ml Sig. : m.d.u Starch enema (3%) Rx Starch 3 g Water to 100 ml Calculation : F= 50/ 100 = 0.5 X ml 2.5 ml

18 Label : Red Shake The Bottle The Enema To be used as directed.

19 Preparation of Starch Enema: As previously mentioned

20 Preparation: 1-in a colorless 200 ml bottle put 47.5 ml cool starch enema (as turpentine oil is volatile) 2- Add 2.5 ml turpentine oil dropwise & shake vigorously after each addition  White viscous liquid that leaves film on the wall of the bottle (when inverted upside down)

21 Thank you


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