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Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing

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Presentation on theme: "Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing"— Presentation transcript:

1 Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing
Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Punnama Siriphannon, Yuwanda Iamphaojeen and Pratyaporn Tepmatee 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science 2Functional Nanostructured Materials Laboratory, College of KMITL Nanotechnology King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand

2 Textile Industry In 2012, Thailand had a trade surplus of Textiles and Clothing trade, with exports accounted for 3.4% of GDP.

3 Pollution from Textile Industry
Textile manufacturing process  high consumption of resources - fuel, chemicals, water  low process efficiency generates a significant amount of waste Environmental issues in textile industry Wastewater Air pollution Energy consumption Solid and liquid waste Hazardous material management

4 Eco-Friendly Textile Industry
Pollution-free eco-friendly textiles have become the dominant market in the 21st century, the main products. Profitability and Environmental Protection Integration of Productivity and Environmental Management Sustainability and Quality of Life

5 Nanotechnology for Eco-Friendly Textile Industry
Fabrication and Immobilization of Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process Nanoporous Adsorbents for Dye Containing Wastewater Treatment

6 + Cotton Properties Nano ZnO Properties
Fabrication and Immobilization of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process Motivation & Objective 1 Cotton Properties  Soft touch  Easy to maintenance  High water absorbency Nano ZnO Properties  Antibacteria  UV Protection  Self-cleaning + Nano ZnO coated cotton In the first work, we focused on an improvement of cotton fabric, which is popular natural fiber due to its soft touch, easy to maintenance and high water absorbency, producing comfort and breathable properties of cotton. However, because the high water absorption of cotton causes this fiber more susceptible to microbial attack. To overcome these drawbacks, ZnO nanocrystals were selected to modify the surface of cotton fabric in order to improve the antibacterial, UV protection and self cleaning properties, leading to the first benefit of value adding by creating new properties and improving quality of cotton using nanotechnology. Add value to cotton fabrics by creating new properties and improving quality using nanotechnology

7 Poor adhesion of inorganic nanoparticles
Fabrication and Immobilization of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process Motivation & Objective 2 Poor adhesion of inorganic nanoparticles  Performance drop after prolonged usage Develop an effective and cost-saving technique for immoblization of nano ZnO on cotton fabrics

8 Polyelectrolyte assisted immobilization Anionic polyelectrolyte
Fabrication and Immobilization of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process Purposed system Polyelectrolyte assisted immobilization Hydrothermal growth of nano ZnO on cotton non-toxic chemical low chemical concentration low treatment temperature low energy consumption minimize waste Polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group will dissociate in aqueous solutions, making the polymers charged. Anionic polyelectrolyte Poly 4-styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) GREEN CHEMISTRY

9 Preparation of cationized cotton fabrics
3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl- trimethylammonium chloride epoxypropyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride Cellulose Cationized cellulose

10 Layer-by-Layer treatment of cationized cotton
Immobilization of nano-ZnO on cotton fabrics Layer-by-Layer treatment of cationized cotton Hydrothermal treatment NH4OH 0.1 M PSS/Zn2+ cotton Nano-ZnO immobilized cotton 90 ºC 24 hr. cotton PSS 0.1 M DI water ZnNO36H2O 0.1 M 5 min LbL 2,4,6 cycles

11 Immobilization of nano-ZnO on cotton fabrics
PSS Zn OH- Zn(OH)2 Zn(OH)2 ZnO + H2O NH4OH Hydrothermal 90 C

12 Morphology of cotton fabrics (SEM)
PSS/Zn2+ coated cotton Zn60m-cot Nano ZnO Cotton LbL 2 cycles Zn60m-cot-G Nano ZnO Cotton LbL 4 cycles Nano ZnO Cotton LbL 6 cycles

13 XPS spectrum of Nano ZnO immobilized cotton
O(–2) in ZnO 531.7 eV and eV O–H in Zn(OH)2

14 Number of PSS/Zn2+ layer
Zn content (AAS) & UV protection properties Samples Number of PSS/Zn2+ layer Zn content (ppm/g) UPF UV protection category* Neat cotton n/a 21 GOOD ZnO-cot-2s 2 57.3  4.6 27 VERY GOOD ZnO-cot-4s 4 222.5  19.2 30 ZnO-cot-6s 6 727.4  29.5 35 * UV protection category was classified according to AS/NZS 4399: 1996

15 UV-protection property
AATCC Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) E = relative erythemal spectral effectiveness S = solar spectral irradiance (Wm−2 nm−1) T = spectral transmission of the specimen obtained from UV spectrophotometric experiments  = wavelength interval for measurements(nm)  = wavelength(nm) Wavelength 280 – 400 nm

16 UV protection category Effective transmission (%)
UPF classification system AS/NZ 4399 UPF Range UV protection category Effective transmission (%) GOOD 6.7 to 4.2 VERY GOOD 4.1 to 2.6 40 – 50 , 50+ EXCELLENT 2.5

17 Antimicrobial activity ASTM E2149-01
Soaked fabric sample in 50 ml E. Coli 1.5 – 3.0 x 106 cfu/ml Incubated with shaking for 24 h E.coli after soaking was plated in nutrient agar then incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and surviving cells were counted A = surviving colonies in neat cotton (CFU/ml) B = surviving colonies in nano-ZnO immobilized cotton (CFU/ml)

18 Zn content & Antimicrobial activity
Sample Zn content (ppm/g) Antimicrobial activity Surviving cells (CFU/ml) % Reduction Neat cotton n/a 2.93  106 - ZnO-cot-2s 57.3  4.6 1.41  106 51.9 ZnO-cot-4s 222.5  19.2 0.72  106 75.4 ZnO-cot-6s 727.4  29.5 0.49  106 83.3

19 Conclusion Self-assembled Nano-ZnO immobilized
Hydrothermal Self-assembled Nano-ZnO immobilized PSS/Zn2+ nanolayer cotton fabric Basic solution The purposed method is simple and eco-friendly using low amount of non-toxic chemicals and low energy consumption, resulting in the reduction of residual chemicals and investment cost. The nano-ZnO could effectively enhance the UV protection and antimicrobial activity of the treated cotton fabrics, improving quality and value.

20 Nanoporous Adsorbents for Dye Containing Wastewater Treatment
Motivation & Objective Dyes are regularly stable and withstand to degrade with time, sunlight and biological and chemical treatments. Dyes in wastewater can severely affect the aquatic life due to the reduction of light penetration and their toxicity. The turbidity and color create an unsightly appearance. O2

21 Dye Removal Method Montmorillonite
Amongst the numerous techniques of dye removal, adsorption is the procedure of choice and gives the best results as it can be used to remove different types of coloring materials. Adsorption is physico-chemical method for dye removal. Inexpensive alternative adsorbents have been developed from natural materials. Montmorillonite A layered structure can act as host material with high sorption properties.

22 Chitosan Intercalated Montmorillonite (Chi-MMT)
Monolayer of chitosan in MMT Adsorbent Chitosan Intercalated Montmorillonite (Chi-MMT) Bilayers of chitosan in MMT Chi-MMT adsorbent showed higher adsorption capacity for cationic dye than anionic dye. Problem : Releasing of acetate couterions during adsorption Cannot regeneration by simple method Thermal stability Monvisade, P., and Siriphannon, P., Chitosan Intercalated Montmorillonite: Preparation, Characterization and Basic Dye Adsorption. Appl.Clay.Sci.; 2009; 42(3-4):

23 Aluminium-pillared Montmorillonite (Al-MMT)
Adsorbent Aluminium-pillared Montmorillonite (Al-MMT) The intercalation of polynuclear hydroxy metal cations and metal cluster cations such as aluminium polyoxocation in montmorillonite affords pillared clay structure. (Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12)7+ Al13-Keggin Advantages:- relatively large pore size high specific surface area good thermal stability

24 Preparation of Al-MMT Modified MMT Drying 105oC AlOH-MMT
2 ml/min Sonication Aging RT 24 hr. Filter and Wash with distilled water Drying 105oC AlOH-MMT Al13-polyoxocation solution 2.5 g Na+- MMT in 100 ml water XRD, XRF, FTIR, TGA, BET Calcining 500oC 4hr. Al-MMT

25 Chemical composition (mass%)
Sample Chemical composition (mass%) Al/Si Molar ratio Al2O3 SiO2 Na2O Other Na+-MMT 11.99 73.44 2.31 12.26 0.19 AlOH-MMT 20.65 71.92 0.58 6.85 0.33 Al-MMT 20.48 71.71 0.54 7.27 0.34

26 XRD patterns 2q = 5.00o  d001 17.7 Å 2q = 4.80o  d001 18.6 Å

27 Gas adsorption analysis
Specific surface area Na+-MMT m2/g Al-MMT m2/g 3.8 nm nm

28 Aluminium-pillared Montmorillonite (Al-MMT)
House of card

29 Adsorbates Basic dye Acid dye Basic blue 66 (BB66) Acid red 91 (AR91)

30 Dye adsorption Centrifugation 1 g adsorbent + 100 ml dye solution
3500 rpm 10 min 1 g adsorbent + 100 ml dye solution Shaking 30, 60, 120 min UV-Visible spectrophotometer BB66 l 615 nm AR91 l 519 nm Standard curve Concentration Absorbance

31 Adsorption capacity Initial concentration 500 mg/l

32 Dye adsorption of Na+-MMT
Cation exchange between Na+ and dye cations Surface adsorption Dye _ Na+ Na+ _

33 Dye adsorption of Al-MMT
The broaden pore structure with multiple pore sizes of Al-MMT facilitating the penetration of macromolecular dyes. The increases of surface area and hydroxyl content promoting the electrostatic interaction between Al-MMT adsorbent and dye molecules. Dye

34 Percentage of dye removal
Adsorbent AR91 BB66 Dye Removal (%) Adsorption capacity (mg/g) Na+-MMT 15 7.7 29 14.7 Al-MMT 72 36.2 93 46.6 Adsorption time 60 min

35 Conclusion The aluminium pillared montmorillonite adsorbents were successfully prepared by high power ultrasonic assisted synthesis and in situ intercalating the aluminium polyhydroxy cations into the interlayer spacing of MMT. Existence of aluminium pillared structure could enlarge the pore diameter and increase the specific surface area of Al-MMT, facilitating the penetration of macromolecular dyes and also electrostatically interacting with the applied dyes.

36 Acknowledgements Thai government's budget for fiscal year 2011-2012
The National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), Thailand

37 Thank you for your attention

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