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Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Punnama Siriphannon,

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Presentation on theme: "Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Punnama Siriphannon,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Nanotechnology for Eco-friendly Development in Textile Finishing Punnama Siriphannon, Yuwanda Iamphaojeen and Pratyaporn Tepmatee 1 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science 2 Functional Nanostructured Materials Laboratory, College of KMITL Nanotechnology King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand

2 2 Textile Industry In 2012, Thailand had a trade surplus of Textiles and Clothing trade, with exports accounted for 3.4% of GDP.

3 3 Pollution from Textile Industry Textile manufacturing process  high consumption of resources - fuel, chemicals, water  low process efficiency generates a significant amount of waste Environmental issues in textile industry Wastewater Air pollution Energy consumption Solid and liquid waste Hazardous material management

4 4 Eco-Friendly Textile Industry Pollution-free eco-friendly textiles have become the dominant market in the 21 st century, the main products. Profitability and Environmental Protection Integration of Productivity and Environmental Management Sustainability and Quality of Life

5 5 Fabrication and Immobilization of Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process Nanoporous Adsorbents for Dye Containing Wastewater Treatment Nanotechnology for Eco-Friendly Textile Industry

6 Fabrication and Immobilization of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process 6 Motivation & Objective 1 Cotton Properties Soft touch Easy to maintenance High water absorbency Nano ZnO Properties Antibacteria UV Protection Self-cleaning + Nano ZnO coated cotton Add value to cotton fabrics by creating new properties and improving quality using nanotechnology

7 Fabrication and Immobilization of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process 7 Motivation & Objective 2 Poor adhesion of inorganic nanoparticles  Performance drop after prolonged usage Develop an effective and cost-saving technique for immoblization of nano ZnO on cotton fabrics

8 Fabrication and Immobilization of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabrics by Eco-Friendly Process 8 Purposed system  non-toxic chemical  low chemical concentration  low treatment temperature  low energy consumption  minimize waste GREEN CHEMISTRY Polyelectrolyte assisted immobilization Polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group will dissociate in aqueous solutions, making the polymers charged. Anionic polyelectrolyte Poly 4-styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) Hydrothermal growth of nano ZnO on cotton

9 Preparation of cationized cotton fabrics 9 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl- trimethylammonium chloride epoxypropyltrimethyl- ammonium chloride CelluloseCationized cellulose

10 Layer-by-Layer treatment of cationized cotton Immobilization of nano-ZnO on cotton fabrics cotton PSS 0.1 M DI water ZnNO 3  6H 2 O 0.1 M 5 min Hydrothermal treatment NH 4 OH 0.1 M PSS/Zn 2+ cotton Nano-ZnO immobilized cotton LbL 2,4,6 cycles

11 PSS NH 4 OH Hydrothermal 90  C 11 Zn 2+ + 2OH - Zn(OH) 2 Zn(OH) 2 ZnO + H 2 O Immobilization of nano-ZnO on cotton fabrics

12 Morphology of cotton fabrics (SEM) 12 PSS/Zn 2+ coated cottonZn60m-cot Zn60m-cot-G Cotton Nano ZnO Cotton LbL 2 cycles Nano ZnO Cotton LbL 4 cycles Nano ZnO Cotton LbL 6 cycles

13 XPS spectrum of Nano ZnO immobilized cotton 13 O(–2) in ZnO O–H in Zn(OH) 2 1021.3 and 1044.4 eV 531.7 eV

14 Zn content (AAS) 14 & UV protection properties Samples Number of PSS/Zn 2+ layer Zn content (ppm/g) UPF UV protection category* Neat cotton0n/a21GOOD ZnO-cot-2s2 57.3  4.6 27VERY GOOD ZnO-cot-4s4 222.5  19.2 30VERY GOOD ZnO-cot-6s6727.4  29.535VERY GOOD * UV protection category was classified according to AS/NZS 4399: 1996

15 UV-protection property Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF) E = relative erythemal spectral effectiveness S = solar spectral irradiance (Wm −2 nm −1 ) T = spectral transmission of the specimen obtained from UV spectrophotometric experiments  = wavelength interval for measurements(nm) = wavelength(nm) AATCC 183-2004 15

16 UPF classification system AS/NZ 4399 UPF Range UV protection category Effective transmission (%) 15 - 24GOOD 6.7 to 4.2 25 - 39VERY GOOD 4.1 to 2.6 40 – 50, 50+EXCELLENT 2.5 16

17 17 Antimicrobial activity ASTM E2149-01 Soaked fabric sample in 50 ml E. Coli 1.5 – 3.0 x 10 6 cfu/ml Incubated with shaking for 24 h E.coli after soaking was plated in nutrient agar then incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and surviving cells were counted A = surviving colonies in neat cotton (CFU/ml) B = surviving colonies in nano-ZnO immobilized cotton (CFU/ml)

18 18 Sample Zn content (ppm/g) Antimicrobial activity Surviving cells (CFU/ml) % Reduction Neat cottonn/a 2.93  10 6 - ZnO-cot-2s 57.3  4.6 1.41  10 6 51.9 ZnO-cot-4s 222.5  19.2 0.72  10 6 75.4 ZnO-cot-6s727.4  29.5 0.49  10 6 83.3 Zn content & Antimicrobial activity

19 Conclusion Self-assembled Nano-ZnO immobilized PSS/Zn 2+ nanolayer cotton fabric 19 Hydrothermal Basic solution The purposed method is simple and eco-friendly using low amount of non-toxic chemicals and low energy consumption, resulting in the reduction of residual chemicals and investment cost. The nano-ZnO could effectively enhance the UV protection and antimicrobial activity of the treated cotton fabrics, improving quality and value.

20 Nanoporous Adsorbents for Dye Containing Wastewater Treatment 20 Motivation & Objective Dyes are regularly stable and withstand to degrade with time, sunlight and biological and chemical treatments. Dyes in wastewater can severely affect the aquatic life due to the reduction of light penetration and their toxicity. The turbidity and color create an unsightly appearance. O2O2

21 Dye Removal Method 21 Amongst the numerous techniques of dye removal, adsorption is the procedure of choice and gives the best results as it can be used to remove different types of coloring materials. Adsorption is physico-chemical method for dye removal. Inexpensive alternative adsorbents have been developed from natural materials. Montmorillonite A layered structure can act as host material with high sorption properties.

22 22 Chitosan Intercalated Montmorillonite (Chi-MMT) Bilayers of chitosan in MMT Monolayer of chitosan in MMT Chi-MMT adsorbent showed higher adsorption capacity for cationic dye than anionic dye. Monvisade, P., and Siriphannon, P., Chitosan Intercalated Montmorillonite: Preparation, Characterization and Basic Dye Adsorption. Appl.Clay.Sci.; 2009; 42(3-4): 427-431. Problem : Releasing of acetate couterions during adsorption Cannot regeneration by simple method Thermal stability Adsorbent

23 23 Aluminium-pillared Montmorillonite (Al-MMT) The intercalation of polynuclear hydroxy metal cations and metal cluster cations such as aluminium polyoxocation in montmorillonite affords pillared clay structure. Advantages:- relatively large pore size high specific surface area good thermal stability Adsorbent (Al 13 O 4 (OH) 24 (H 2 O) 12 ) 7+ Al 13 -Keggin

24 24 2.5 g Na + - MMT in 100 ml water 2 ml/min Modified MMT Al 13 -polyoxocation solution Sonication Aging RT 24 hr. Filter and Wash with distilled water Drying 105 o C AlOH-MMT Calcining 500 o C 4hr. Al-MMT XRD, XRF, FTIR, TGA, BET Preparation of Al-MMT

25 25 Chemical composition Sample Chemical composition (mass%) Al/Si Molar ratio Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 Na 2 OOther Na + -MMT 11.9973.442.31 12.260.19 AlOH-MMT 20.6571.920.586.85 0.33 Al-MMT 20.4871.710.54 7.270.34

26 26 2  = 7.12 o  d 001 12.4 Å XRD patterns 2  = 4.80 o  d 001 18.6 Å 2  = 5.00 o  d 001 17.7 Å

27 27 Gas adsorption analysis Specific surface area Na + -MMT 54 m 2 /g Al-MMT 134 m 2 /g 3.8 nm 6 - 30 nm

28 28 Aluminium-pillared Montmorillonite (Al-MMT) House of card

29 29 Adsorbates Acid dye Acid red 91 (AR91) Basic dye Basic blue 66 (BB66)

30 30 Dye adsorption Centrifugation 3500 rpm 10 min 1 g adsorbent + 100 ml dye solution Shaking 30, 60, 120 min UV-Visible spectrophotometer BB66 615 nm AR91 519 nm Standard curve Concentration Absorbance

31 31 Adsorption capacity Initial concentration 500 mg/l

32 32 Dye adsorption of Na + -MMT Adsorption of Na + -MMT Cation exchange between Na + and dye cations Surface adsorption _ ___ __ _ __ _ ___ __ _ __ Na + Dye

33 33 Dye adsorption of Al-MMT The broaden pore structure with multiple pore sizes of Al-MMT facilitating the penetration of macromolecular dyes. The increases of surface area and hydroxyl content promoting the electrostatic interaction between Al-MMT adsorbent and dye molecules.

34 34 Percentage of dye removal Adsorbent AR91BB66 Dye Removal (%) Adsorption capacity (mg/g) Dye Removal (%) Adsorption capacity (mg/g) Na + -MMT157.72914.7 Al-MMT7236.29346.6 Adsorption time 60 min

35 35 Conclusion The aluminium pillared montmorillonite adsorbents were successfully prepared by high power ultrasonic assisted synthesis and in situ intercalating the aluminium polyhydroxy cations into the interlayer spacing of MMT. Existence of aluminium pillared structure could enlarge the pore diameter and increase the specific surface area of Al-MMT, facilitating the penetration of macromolecular dyes and also electrostatically interacting with the applied dyes.

36 36 Acknowledgements Thai government's budget for fiscal year 2011-2012 The National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), Thailand

37 37

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