Presentation on theme: "Espresso Italiano Barista Manual. What you need to know First: Learn how to operate the espresso machine and grinder, your trainer will help you. Second:"— Presentation transcript:
Espresso Italiano Barista Manual
What you need to know First: Learn how to operate the espresso machine and grinder, your trainer will help you. Second: All coffee drinks begin with an espresso - learn how to dose, pack, tamp and extract the perfect espresso. Third: All milky drinks require milk textured for foam or in a wet creamy style. Learn the two milk texturing techniques. Fourth: Learn what the recipes are for the various coffee drinks on our menu; how many shots of espresso, how much chocolate for a mocha, is it foamy milk or creamy and wet? Fifth: Learn how to care for and clean the coffee making equipment.
The Four Factors Freshness Ideally, roasted coffee is sold in whole bean form so as not to allow its taste, freshness or aroma to deteriorate. This aroma and freshness is paramount to ensuring that a proper espresso is made each time. An unopened bag of Caffe Kimbo coffee has a shelf life of 1 year. When you open the bag, you have a freshness window of 18 to 24 hours. Once the coffee has been ground, you have 40 minutes. It is therefore very important that any open bag of coffee is stored correctly. Please note: To make sure that your coffee is always fresh, only put enough coffee in the hopper to get you through the next few hours Grind Considering that espresso means "coffee quickly”, the grinding of each dose must occur immediately prior to the actual brewing of the coffee. The tool used for this operation is the grinder. The degree of grinding is directly related to the extraction time of the espresso. If the grind is correct, an espresso is extracted between seconds. If the extraction time is lower than that, the grind may be too coarse. An extraction time exceeding 30 seconds can indicate that the grind is too fine. Another main component of the grinder is the doser. This devise determines the exact dose of coffee needed for an espresso, and this is the part that drops the correct amount of ground espresso into the filter basket. Cleanliness of the machine The brewing heads must be cleaned on a regular basis – this is called backflushing. Every coffee you make leaves a bit of ground coffee in these brewing heads, they brew at 90C. Coffee burns at this temperature if left in the head all day. Therefore we must back- flush on a regular basis. We recommend at least 4 times a day. The cleaning section in the back of this manual gives you step by step details. The hand of the Barista Does the person making the coffee drink understand how to pull the perfect Espresso and texture milk for the perfect Cappuccino?
THE PERFECT ESPRESSO Weak-No taste Seconds Bitter-Too Strong Balanced Less than 20 seconds: The coffee will be thin, watery, taste weak and sour due to under- extraction caused by being exposed to water for too little time More than 30 seconds: The coffee will be burnt and taste bitter due to over-extraction caused by being exposed to water for too much time.
THE PERFECT ESPRESSO Step 1 Step One: Choose the correct handle for the drink you plan to make. Ensure basket in handle is clean and free from any wet coffee from previous extraction. Use single handle for: Espresso 7 gramsRegular Cappuccino Regular Caffe latte Macchiato Use double handle for: Double espresso 14 gramsLarge Cappuccino Large Caffe latte Caffe mocha Americano
THE PERFECT ESPRESSO Step 2 Step Two: The taste of your coffee will be directly affected by the amount of coffee you dispense into your handle; Single handle: One complete pull. No more - no less Double handle: Two complete pulls No more - no less
THE PERFECT ESPRESSO Steps 3-4 Step Three: Tamping the coffee. Hold the handle in your left hand and pull up gently on grinder tamper. With 2 fingers of your right hand push down firmly. Roughly the same pressure as kneading bread, or mashing potato. Step Four: Wipe the excess grounds from the rim of the filter & brew into espresso cup Note: This will ensure you don't have a build up of coffee grounds on the rubber seal in the brewing head. Over time this will damage the seal and cause the grounds to leak over the coffee drink being prepared.
THE PERFECT ESPRESSO The International Standard Recipe for espresso extraction is: 7 – 7 ½ grams of ground coffee dosed into correct handle Tamped: using 12 – 15 kg of pressure Brewed at a temperature of between c (90 c the ideal) Under pressure of 9 bars or 131 PSI With an extraction time of between 20 and 30 seconds maximum producing 25-30ml of fluid
TROUBLE SHOOTING A Perfect extraction Extraction is too fast Extraction is too slow
TROUBLE SHOOTING The images used here are other ways to see if you have the correct extraction for your espresso. The examples show the correct flow and colour of the espresso. If your espresso resembles either the fast or slow extraction, you can change the speed of your pour by simply increasing or decreasing whatever the case may be the grind texture of the ground espresso coming from your espresso grinder. Each espresso grinder has a metal bevel plate which is located directly under the silo on the top of your grinder, that operates the distance between your grinder blades. By simply turning your blades anti-clockwise you will reduce the size of the coffee grounds and clockwise will increase the size of the coffee grounds. A simple guide is that every click on the bevel plate will equate to 3-5 seconds (Dependant upon wear) of extraction either way. So if your espresso was running fast at 20 seconds per shot, by turning your blade clockwise by 1 click you will have reached the perfect 25 second extraction time needed.
STEAMING MILK PERFECTLY If you want the velvety texture and natural sweetness that comes from slightly caramelized milk, its essential to steam milk properly. Milk steaming should happen in two distinct stages; stretching and spinning. Stretching means introducing air into the milk via the steam wand to increase its volume, while spinning is whipping the steamed milk into the desired velvety and glassy texture.
Steaming Milk Perfectly For the best results… Start with a clean cold pitcher, thermometer & always use fresh cold milk! Step One: Pour only enough milk as you need for the drink into the pitcher. YOU WILL BE DOUBLING THE VOLUME OF THE MILK, SO NEVER FILL MORE THAN ½ Step Two: To begin stretching, insert the tip of the nozzle in the centre, just under the surface of the milk and fully turn the steam wand on. Step Three: As the milk takes in air, you will hear a ch-ch sound. Continue lowering the jug in one motion, so that the nozzle is always just under the surface of the milk.
Steaming Milk Perfectly Step Four: When the temperature is about 30c you enter the spinning stage. Sink the wand into the milk on one side of the pitcher and tilt it slightly to get the milk spinning. Spinning helps achieve those micro bubbles that give the velvety texture you are after. Step Five: When the temperature reaches 150 F, turn the steam arm off, remove the jug from the steam wand and wipe the wand with a clean damp cloth. Step Six: Swirl the milk in the pitcher to ‘gloss’ the milk. Bang the pitcher on the counter if you can see any large bubbles and swirl again. And your ready to pour! Do not exceed 160 F as the milk will scorch and the drink will burn your tongue. Try not to use milk left over from the last drink, always use fresh milk (remember not to exceed the ½ full rule). You must add fresh milk to regenerate the protein content that creates foam. At the end of the process, the milk must be wet, thick, dense, creamy and sweet.
Cappuccino and Latte Milk The Milk: For a well made Cappuccino you need to use fresh COLD whole milk or homogenised milk stored at or below 5c (40f). The fat allows for suitable control of the foam formation during emulsion, while the proteins stabilize the structure of the foam itself. The milk should be heated without scalding and without pumping it with air. So you introduce the air at the beginning in short bursts. Creating a ch-ch sound. The wand and nozzle of the steam arm MUST be cleaned with a damp cloth and PURGED after each use. Emulsion: This occurs in two stages: During the first stage the milk is “Whipped” to incorporate large bubbles of air. The next stage is when the real emulsion occurs, this involves submerging the steam wand into the milk jug/pitcher. This action breaks down the the large bubbles and integrates them with the milk to produce a velvety and glassy appearance.
CLOSE DOWN CLEANING Step one: Backflush the brewing heads. A minimum of once a day backflush each group head. The goal of this exercise is to remove any loose coffee grounds that have built-up between the screen and brewing head during the days use. Because the blank will not allow water to pass through, this water is forced back through the screen and brewing head and the loose grounds are dislodged into the blank. 1.Choose a handle, remove the filter with a teaspoon and insert the blank filter into the handle. 2. Using the continuous pour button, let hot water circulate in the brewing head for 8-10 sec. Push the continuous pour again to stop the pump. Repeat this process up to 5 times. 3. Remove the handle and look see if the water is running clear if not repeat the process. If the build up is still there after this process you will need to clean more regularly. At least once a day at the end of the evening you MUST backflush with pully caffe cleaning powder. Using the above process as the cleaning method and making sure to add the cleaning powder into the blank. THE CLEANING PROCESS IS REQUIRED TO TRANSFORM FROM GRIMY TO GLISTENING. IT TAKES NO MORE THAN 10 MINS A DAY. THIS WILL ENSURE A PERFECT ESPRESSO.
CLOSE DOWN CLEANING Step two: Using a small jug, fill 1/2 full with very hot water, submerge the tip of the steam wand into the hot water and turn on the steam valve just a bit; you want a slow rolling motion. Let this slowly bubble away way for a few seconds. Stop the steam valve, remove the jug and by using a blue cloth you will be able to clean away any milk build-up Step three: Take the espresso machine handles to a sink, remove the brewing filters and clean with a green scrubby and warm water. No liquid soap. Soak the handles overnight in warm water. Once a week place the filter baskets and handles in warm water mixed with 2-3 teaspoons of espresso cleaning powder and soak overnight. NOTE: When you use the cleaning powder for soaking ensure that the plastic handles are kept above the water line to prevent damage to the plastic.
Closing down cleaning Step four: Remove the two part metal drip tray, milk foaming jugs to the sink and wash. Step five: Be aware of blocked drains. Pour two or three small milk foaming jugs of very hot water down the round, black drain box, do this to ensure any loose grounds will be forced down to the mains. Step six: Using a cloth, wipe down all stainless steel surfaces on the espresso machine. Pay particular attention to the areas around the brewing heads and the steam wands. Step seven: Re-assemble the espresso machine and return all barista tools so the opening shift have everything they need to open.
CLOSE DOWN CLEANING The Espresso Grinder Remember: To ensure coffee freshness for tomorrow, 1- 2 hours before closing time close the black slide on the bean hopper and grind away any remaining beans. At closing proceed with the following cleaning steps: Step one: Remove the bean hopper and return any remaining bean back to a coffee bag. Roll the bag down tightly and close with a thick rubber band. Step two: Remove any remaining ground coffee to a small airtight container. Step three: Using your grinder brush, sweep away any remaining beans in the bean shoot and any remaining ground coffee in the dosing chamber. Step four: Place the bean hopper under the steam wand and give a short blast of hot water and steam into the hopper. Use paper towels to wipe away any water and oil. Do not use liquid soap or green scrubbies. Step five: Wipe and clean all external surfaces with a damp cloth. Step six: Reassemble all parts, leaving the remaining whole bean bag in the hopper and the small air tight container on the dosing chamber ready for tomorrow morning.
OPENING PROCEDURES Step one: Turn on espresso machine and grinder. Warm-up takes minutes. Before using the machine, open a steam wand to ensure steam is released at full pressure then continue to the next step. Step two: Pour any remaining ground coffee from yesterday into the dosing chamber. Find the partial bag of fresh beans from yesterday and pour into the bean hopper. Step three: To ensure any remaining detergent from last nights cleaning is purged from the brewing head, fill each handle with yesterdays stale ground coffee and brew an espresso, allowing the coffee to brew into the drain board. Step four: Grind fresh coffee into the dosing chamber over the small amount remaining from yesterday. As the fresh coffee is grinding mix together the fresh and old coffee in the dosing chamber to ensure the best possible taste for the first few orders. Step five: Assemble all barista tools required, milk jugs, thermometers, mocha whisk, spatulas. Get a fresh j-cloth for the steam wand and counter tops. Check your supply of fresh beans, milk and chocolate. Step six: Make yourself a coffee – does everything taste right for the first orders?
GLOSSARY Arabica - is the quality bean, has half the caffeine of robusta, grows at higher altitudes, matures slowly and is handpicked. Barista - a bartender trained in espresso preparation. Bean hopper - stores the coffee beans prior to grinding. A tinted hopper preserves the beans from light. The hopper should have no more beans than necessary for service that day. Blank filter - used to clean the diffuser by fitting the group handle with a blank filter and backflushing with water several times a day. Once a day the blank filter can be used to backflush with a neutral detergent. Caffeine - is a compound found naturally in coffee and more than 60 other plants. It is an odourless, slightly bitter - tasting solid that dissolves easily in water or alcohol. Cake - the spent coffee from the group handle should knock out in a firm almost dry condition after extraction. This is called a cake. Crema - the crema on an espresso should be a 0.03 inch thick, rich and golden-caramel coloured foam. Decaffeination - whatever method of decaffeination is used, the decaffeinated green bean must contain less than 0.1% caffeine to comply with EEC regulations. This corresponds to about 3mg caffeine in a cup of decaffeinated coffee. Dry processing - coffee processed by removing the husk or fruit after the coffee berries have been dried. This process produces "natural" coffees. Espresso - is made to order from freshly ground beans. The perfect espresso is 7 grams of coffee extracted for 25 seconds, no more than 30mls, served in a warm cup. Grinder / doser - the machine used to grind the coffee beans prior to extracting a cup of coffee. Group handle - portable coffee filter to be fitted with a single or double brewing basket in the preparation of espresso coffee. Group head - is the part of the machine from which hot water is dispersed through group handle. Robusta - is grown at lower altitudes, has a quicker growth cycle which, is easier to process and used to enhance certain coffee blends characteristics.