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IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Background.

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Presentation on theme: "IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Background."— Presentation transcript:

1 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Background

2 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Background 1.What electricity is used for: Heating, cooking, cooling, light, sound, computers, communication, entertainment… 2.Distribution grid: Our focus

3 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Typical Operation Fuel is used to produce heat energy 2.Water is heated and boiled to steam 3.High pressure steam enters and spins turbines (Turbines convert steam into mechanical energy) 4.Turbines turn electrical generator (electricity is created) 5.Electricity is transmitted via cables through power grid

4 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Alternative Operation 1.Alternative energy source (e.g. water, wind) spins turbines 2.Turbines turn electrical generator 3.Electricity is transmitted via cables through power grid 1 2 3

5 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Non-renewable 1.Fossil Fuel Power Plant – Coal a.Prime mover is steam turbine b.Flue gas exhausted to atmosphere c.Waste heat released to atmosphere – cooling towers 2 nd law of thermodynamics – not all heat can be converted into mechanical form to do work, some heat will be wasted A power plant cannot be 100% efficient

6 Power Plants – Power Stations 1.Fossil Fuel Power Plant – Coal (cont.) Waste Heat Flue Types of Power Stations – Non-renewable

7 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations 2.Fossil Fuel Power Plant – Petroleum and Natural Gas Prime mover is gas turbine Types of Power Stations – Non-renewable

8 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Waste heat (options): a.Cooling Towers: Released to atmosphere b.Combined Cycle: Recycled in secondary boiler

9 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations PRIMARY LOOP 3.Nuclear Power Plant 4.Steam spins turbine 5.Electricity generated to grid 6.Cooling water from outside source; gets hot as it condenses steam 7.Released in cooling tower 1.Closed-loop reactor 2.Control rods inserted to decrease chain reaction (control rods absorb neutrons, which slows reaction) 3.Heated reactor water boils secondary loop of water in boiler (steam generator) SECONDARY LOOP TERTIARY LOOP

10 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Containment Structure Reactor Boiler 3.Nuclear Power Plant (continued) Steam Turbine Generator Condenser Cooling Tower

11 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant a.Total solar energy absorbed by earth in 1 hour is more than world uses in a year b.1 year of solar energy is as much as twice the amount of energy derived from all non-renewables on Earth c.All renewables (except geothermal) derive energy from the Sun (e.g., wind, biomass, hydro, wave…) d.Sun’s warmth and light a.Passive collection – capturing warmth and light through design b.Active collection – using technology to transform solar energy into electricity

12 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant – PASSIVE COLLECTION a.Architecture – designing structures 1)Face buildings south 2)Solar water heating

13 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant – PASSIVE COLLECTION (cont.) b.Agriculture – growing food 1)Fruit walls (trap heat and accelerate ripening) 2)Timed planting cycles 3)Drying chicken manure 4)Greenhouses

14 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant – PASSIVE COLLECTION (cont.) c.Other Uses 1)Water treatment – UV filter 2)Cooking – focuses heat directly or creates steam

15 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant – ACTIVE COLLECTION a.Photovoltaics (PV) Photovoltaic Effect – converts light into electric current 1880s – first solar cell 1958 – first significant application – Vanguard I satellite 1960s – PV established power source for satellites Hamau Solar Park, Germany

16 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant – ACTIVE COLLECTION (cont.) b.Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Use lenses, mirrors, trackers to focus large area of sunlight into small beam Solar troughs – most cost-effective Parabolic reflector – most efficient

17 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 1.Solar Power Plant – ACTIVE COLLECTION (cont.) c. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Solar tower – traps heat, creates steam for turbines Solar updraft tower – combines chimney, greenhouse, wind turbine

18 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 2.Wind Power Plant a.Sun influences weather processes that create wind b.Converts wind energy into electricity using turbines c.History 1)>5,500 yrs ago – sailboats and natural ventilation 2)600s, Afghanistan – vertical shaft mills grind grain 3)1100s, Europe – horizontal shaft mills grind wheat 4)U.S. – used for irrigation

19 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 2.Wind Power Plant (cont.) 1)Blades – propellers mounted on masts are pitched (angled) 2)Gear Box – connects low-speed shaft to high-speed shaft to increase rpm from ~50 to ~1200 3)Generator – converts mechanical energy of high-speed shaft to electrical energy Sketch and label this diagram Mast

20 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 3.Hydroelectric Power Plant a.Gravitational force of falling water converted into electricity using turbines b.History 1)>2000 yrs ago, Rome and Greece – grinding wheat into flour 2)1700/1800s – powered textile and industrial mills 3)1882, Wisconsin – first hydroelectric plant

21 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 3.Hydroelectric Power Plant (cont.) 1)Dam stores water in reservoir Energy generation depends on head – height difference from top of reservoir to top of river – and volume 2)Spillway releases excess water 3)Gate releases dam water into penstock – screen prevents objects from damaging turbines 4)Penstock is piping – pressure of water increases

22 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 3.Hydroelectric Power Plant (cont.)

23 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 3.Hydroelectric Power Plant (cont.)

24 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 4.Geothermal Power Plant a.Harnessing energy generated from heat stored in Earth b.History 1)Hot springs used for centuries for bathing and heating 2)1911, Italy – world’s first and only plant until 1958

25 IOT POLY ENGINEERING 3-7 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 4.Geothermal Power Plant (cont.) 1)Steam or hot water pumped from underground to turn turbines 2)Waste steam/water returned to ground or reused

26 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 5.Tidal Power Plants

27 Power Plants – Power Stations Types of Power Stations – Renewable Energy 6.Wave Power Plants – 2 types Linear Generator


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