Types of energy resources Solar energy Wind power H.E.P. Geothermal power Tidal power Oil CoalNatural gas Nuclear power Wood
Hong Kong Energy End-use data Innovative Energy Efficient Equipment Pilot Programme for Government BuildingsInnovative Energy Efficient Equipment Pilot Programme for Government Buildings Save energy in your home
We can change the sunlight to electricity by using solar photovoltaic cells. They are called "PVs" or "PV cells" for short. Photo means light and "voltaic" is a word for electricity. Electrical energy from solar cells can be used directly in a home. PV cells are used on many small appliances, like calculators, and many large pieces of equipment like space satellites, bill boards or an emergency roadside telephone. Some experimental cars also use PV cells. They convert sunlight directly into energy to power electric motors on the car. Http://oneworld.org/ene rgy/etree.html
Examples of using solar energy Panels on the roof of a building, like this one on the right, contain water pipes. When the sun heats the panels and the pipes, the sunlight warms them. That warmed water can then be used in a swimming pool.
Advantages of solar energy a renewable energy resource abundant in regions with hot, dry climate pollution-free low operational costs can be generated on a small scale for domestic use
spatially confined to certain regions (30 N & S) technical problems in large scale development of solar energy high construction costs of solar panels Disadvantages of solar energy
Blowing wind spins the blades on a wind turbine -- just like a large toy pinwheel. The spinning blades turn a generator that makes electricity. Once electricity is made, it has to get from the wind turbines to our homes, factories and schools by the electricity transmission system. Http://oneworld.org/ene rgy/etree.html
Examples of using wind power Farmers have been using wind energy for many years to pump water from wells using windmills like the one on the left. In Holland, windmills have been used for centuries to pump water from low-lying areas. Wind is also used to turn large grinding stones to grind wheat or corn, just like a water wheel is turned by water power. Today, the wind is also used to make electricity.
How effective is wind power? The turbines usually produce about 50 to 300 kilowatts of electricity each. A kilowatt is 1,000 watts (kilo means 1,000). You can light ten 100 watt light bulbs with 1,000 watts. So, a 300 kilowatt (300,000 watts) wind turbine could light up 3,000 light bulbs that use 100 watts.
In 1995, there were 13,437 wind turbines in California. These turbines are grouped together in what are called wind "farms." About 30 percent of the world's wind-generated electricity is found in California. Other countries that use a lot of wind energy are Denmark and Germany.
Limitation of using wind power It is not windy all year long. Wind farms give a negative visual impact. Wind speeds must be high to turn the turbines fast enough to generate electricity.
Hundreds of years ago, the moving water turned wooden wheels that then turned big, heavy stone wheels to grind flour or corn. Today, moving water is used to make electricity. Hydroelectric power plants use water to make electricity. "Hydro" means water. Dams, usually in the mountains, are built to hold river water forming a lake behind the dam called a reservoir. This reservoir water flows through a pipe called a penstock and into a machine called a turbine. A turbine has blades like a big fan. The water pushes against turbine blades that turn. The turbine spins around and is attached to a generator that produces electricity http://www.fwee.org /walk.html
Can we use H.E.P. in Hong Kong ? Locational requirements for dam construction http://www.nationalgeographic.com/geoguide/dams/index.html
prevent floods generate power improve navigation create lakes for fishing, swimming, waterskiing, and boating. Dams prevent floodwaters from replenishing the soil downstream. It cuts the supply of alluvium. Soil fertility drops in floodplain. Forest—habitat for wild animals and plants—may be lost beneath the waters of a reservoir. Reservoir inundates people’s homes, forcing them to move elsewhere. Increased salinization as more water can evaporate from reservoir As water entering the reservoir slows down, it also drops most of the sediment it carries. Silting occurs. http://www.nationalgeographic. com/geoguide/dams/index.html
Animals and plants lived millions of years ago in shallow seas and lakes When the animals and plants died, they sank to the sea bed. There they were mixed with and covered by sand and mud. After a long time, the plants and animals rotted. Oil formed and passes into the porous rocks. Impermeable rocks stopped the soil from escaping.
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a voluntary inter-governmental Organization formed in 1973. It aims to co-ordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its Member Countries. OPEC seeks to – ensure the stabilization of oil prices in international oil and – provide an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations.
OPEC is an Organization of eleven oil producing and exporting countries, from Africa (Algeria, the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and Nigeria); Asia (Indonesia); the Middle East (the Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates); and Latin America (Venezuela).
Global warming Forest destruction –loss of biodiversityloss of biodiversity –species extinctionspecies extinction Oil leakage results in –toxic contamination of rivers, streams and soiltoxic contamination of rivers, streams and soil
Use alternative energy resources Use energy-saving machines and cars use pollution-free fuels minimize the number of private cars and provide efficient mass transit system improve building design to save energy educate citizens on energy-saving and anti-pollution
Switch off light, air-conditioners or heaters when they are not being used. Close the door when the air conditioning is on. Use public transport instead of private cars
Slide show http://www.energyed.ecw.org/acrobat /renewablecolor.pdf
Question 1 Which of the following types of energy resources is non-renewable ? A. wind power B. Tidal energy C. Hydro-electric power D. Nuclear power
Wind power is a type of renewable energy resources Try again!
Tidal power is a type of renewable energy resources Try again!
Hydro-electric power is a type of renewable energy resources Try again!
Question 3 Which of the following correctly shows the relationship between the level of economic development and the rate of oil consumption ? Level of economic development Rate of oil consumption A. Level of economic development Rate of oil consumption Level of economic development Rate of oil consumption Level of economic development Rate of oil consumption C.B.D.
There is a positive relationship between the level of economic development and the rate of oil consumption Try again!
Question 4 What were the effects of increasing oil prices in the 1970s? (1) high inflation (2) development of energy-saving technology (3) oil crisis (4) slow-down of industrial development in developed countries A. (1) and (2)B. (1), (3) and (4) C. (2), (3) and (4)D. All
Question 5 Which of the followings are measures adopted by the government to conserve energy resources ? (1) control private car ownership by increasing the tax on new cars (2) develop mass transit system (3) practice careful urban planning (4) encourage the use of public transport instead of private cars A. (1) and (2)B. (1), (3) and (4) C. (2), (3) and (4)D. All