Presentation on theme: "Fasteners, Adhesives and Clamping Most wood products must be fastened together. There are several methods to accomplish this. Different types of glues,"— Presentation transcript:
Fasteners, Adhesives and Clamping Most wood products must be fastened together. There are several methods to accomplish this. Different types of glues, nails, screws and other fasteners can be used.
Nails Most nails are made out of mild steel on automatic machines. Others are made from other metals such as copper, stainless steel, aluminum and brass. Some have coatings such as galvanized nails for better weather resistance. Nail size is indicated by the letter “d” which is the English symbol for penny. 2d nails are 1inch long & 60d nails are 6 inches long.
Nail lengths increase ¼” for each additional d. (a 4d nail would be 1 ½” long) Nails are generally sold by the pound. Nails commonly used in Woodworking are: COMMON BOX FINISH CASING BRAD SPIRAL SHANK RING SHANK ESCUTCHEON
Common nails have flat heads and are used for framing. Box nails also have flat heads but has a smaller shank which is less likely to split the wood. Finish nails have small round heads which can be set below the surface of the wood. Casing nails are heavier than finishing & have a tapered head. Finish nails smaller than 2d are called brads. Brads are available in many sizes.
Escutcheon nails are used to fasten decorative plates such as hinges or lock. Half-Round head is left exposed. (usually made of brass or copper) Spiral-shank & ring shank nails have a straight thread appearance & have good holding power. A sample application is drywall installation. We’ve nailed this topic down
Wood Screws Wood screws are used when a product needs to have extra holding power or disassembled. Screw size diameters are based on wire gage size which vary from 0 to 24. Each gage size is a specific diameter. Screw lengths average from ¼” to 6” in length. Can be made from a variety of metals depending on use required. We’ll try not to screw this up.
Shape of screw heads are generally flat, round or oval. Flat head screws fit flush with surface of stock. Round head screw fit on top of surface. Oval head screws are partially recessed into surface. Length Gage
Screw head recesses vary greatly. The two most common are A Slotted and B Philips head. Other types include: C Clutch, D Square, E Torx, F Hex. A B C DE F
Screw Installation Use proper size screw driver for the screw being used.. A: Just right ABC D E B: To small C: To big D: Proper grind on tip of blade E: Improper grind on blade – rounded, slanted, beveled.
Drilling Holes For Screws Two holes should be drilled, the Clearance hole and Pilot hole. Clearance should be same size as shank diameter of screw. Pilot should be a little smaller than the root (smallest) diameter of thread. Holes for flat head screws should be countersunk so head fits flush with surface of wood. Some applications require a counter-bored hole to recess the screw below the wood surface.
Pilot HoleClearance Countersink Shank Diameter Root Diameter
Other Bolts & Fasteners Elevator Carriage Frame Plow Serrated Flange Step Hanger Cap Screw Hex Head Slotted Flat Cap
Philips Bugle Head Drywall Dowel ScrewsSquare Recess Particle Board Lag Screw Shield Lag Bolt
Corrugated Fasteners Flat Staples Round Staples There are hundreds of different types Of fasteners for special applications. We have only listed a few to give you Some idea of the variety available.
Power Nailers and Screw Drivers Drill Driver Framing Gun Brad Nailer Finish Nailer Used to drive a variety of nails & screws. Fast, no need to pre-drill in hardwoods.
Reinforcement of Wood Joints Glue Blocks: help square and strengthen a joint – often used to attach tops of dressers or cabinets to a base. Wood Dowels: cylindrical stock made of birch. –Diameters range fro 1/8” to 1” –Usually in 3 or 4 foot lengths –Short Dowels specifically made for joinery have grooves to allow air escape
Feather: is a thin strip Of wood used to Reinforce corners. Biscuits: made of beech Used in plate joinery. Glue expands biscuit to Make very strong joint. Splines: are thin strips of stock that Are inserted into grooves of adjacent Parts of a joint.
Adhesives Some Adhesives (glues) are actually stronger than the stock. Rubber cement: used to bond paper, cardboard, felt & other porous materials. Temporary bonds are formed by applying to only 1 surface, permanent by applying to two surfaces. Contact cement: used to fasten plastic laminates to solid stock. Used in counter top construction. Glue is applied to both surfaces & allowed to set up.
Plastics Cement: Sets quickly to form a waterproof bond. Used for a variety of repair jobs. White Liquid Resin Glue: (polyvinyl acetate) most common type. Used for interior applications – not waterproof – not very heat resistant - sets and dries in about 30 min. Good gap filling quality. Animal glue: made from animal hooves or hides – one of the oldest types – not waterproof.
Plastic Resin glue: (urea- formaldehyde) – good moisture resistance and very strong. Comes in powder form & mixed with water. Dries to a hard & brittle substance. Aliphatic Resin glue: (yellow glue) – resists heat & chemicals. Sands easily – sets in about 45 minutes. Does not resist moisture. Resorcinal glue: Powder mixed with water & a catalyst. Very strong & waterproof. Needs 12 to 16 hours clamping time. Leaves dark glue line.
Casein Glue: made from milk curd. Is water resistant, strong & is useful with oily wood like cypress. Tends to stain woods like maple & oak. Epoxy Cement: Two part cement with a resin & hardener. Extremely strong, waterproof & can be sanded. Setting speed can be controlled with various hardeners. Epoxies are cured by chemical reaction producing heat. Hot Glue: For temporary bonds not requiring strength. Sticks are used in a hot glue gun.
Clamping Devices Bar Clamps: for larger work. Edge Clamps: Corner / Miter clamps C-Clamps
Clamps Parallel Clamps Spring Clamps Strap Clamps Pipe Clamps