2Tongue Mostly muscle tissue What type of muscle would it be?Frenulum – connects the tongue to the bottom of the mouthWhat is the purpose of the tongue?Papillae – rough projections that contain taste budsWhy would these be rough?Four types of taste buds – sweet, sour, salt, bitter
3Palate 2 sections Hard Palate Soft Palate Also known as the maxillaAnterior PortionSoft PalatePosterior PortionThis and the uvula are drawn up during swallowingWhy is this important?Blocks off the nasal passage during swallowing
4Tonsils Lingual – at the base of the tongue Used as anchor, covered by lymphatic tissuePalatine – Located on the side of the tongueWhich do you think is removed when you have tonsillitis?Palatine – exposed to many pathogens so they can easily become infected.
5Teeth 2 sets Primary (baby) – 10 on each jaw They are lost What happens to these?They are lostThe roots are resorbed and teeth are pushed out by secondary teethSecondary (permanent) – 16 on each jawBegin to appear around age six
6Secondary Teeth Incisors – total of eight, front teeth Function?Tearing off bitesCuspids (Canine) – total of four, sharper teeth (fangs)Rip and Tear tough food.
7Secondary TeethBicuspids (premolar) – total of eight, behind cuspids, a bit flatterFunction?Mash and grind, little bit of tearingMolars – total of 12, back teeth much flatter (4 first, 4 Second, 4 Third)Third also known as wisdom teethMash and GrindWhy do we need so many types of teeth?
8Tooth Structure Based on the name where do you think each part is? Crown –Root –Enamel –Hardest substance in the body and cannot be replacedWhat problem does this pose?Dentin – deep to the enamel and surrounds the pulp cavity (nutrient supply)
9Salivary Glands Main Secretions What triggers secretions? Amylase – breaks down large starch and glycogen moleculesMucus –What is its purpose?Bind food particles and lubricate alimentary canalWhat triggers secretions?Parasympathetic nervous system
10Salivary Glands – 3 different glands Paratid – Located anterior and inferior to the earSecretes saliva rich in amylaseSubmandibular – Located where?Secretes thicker saliva than paratid.Why thicker?Sublingual – Located where?Secretes primarily mucus
11Pharynx Connects nasal and oral cavities with the esophagus Contains the epiglottisWhat is this?Flaplike structure used to seal off trachea during swallowing.Has three sections- nasopharynx attaches nasal cavity- oropharynx attaches mouth- laryngopharynx attaches esophagus
13Esophagus Connects pharynx to stomach Function -Ends at lower esophageal sphincterWhat is a sphincter?This one connects the stomach and the esophagus, what will its function be?
14StomachLocation –Size is small when empty, yet it can hold one liter. How?What happens in the stomach?
15Stomach Regions of the stomach Stomach ends at Pyloric Sphincter Cardiac - posterior to lower esophageal sphincterFunction-Fundic – Most anterior portionFunction –Body – Main regionPyloric – most posterior regionStomach ends at Pyloric Sphincter
17Gastric Regulation Produced regularly, but rate can vary Gastrin – What might cause it to vary?Gastrin –What stimulates the release?
18Gastric Mixing How will the stomach perform its functions? Chyme – Where does food go to exit stomach?How does the stomach move it there?
19Pancreas Located near posterior abdominal wall inferior to stomach Secretes____ into the ___.AmylaseLipaseNucleaseWhat other important function?
20Liver Located… Lobed Multiple Functions Digestive functions Blood – Storage -Digestive functionsMetabolism of Carbohydrates, Lipids and ProteinsSecretes ____ through the ___into the ____.
21Bile Consists of: 1. 2. 3. Two types biliverdin and bilirubin Only part of the bile that has digestive functionEmulsification3.
22Gallbladder Storage area Reabsorbs water to concentrate __________. What does it store?Reabsorbs water to concentrate __________.Hormones stimulate sphincter to relax, open ductCausing what to happen?
23QuestionsIf a person had a condition which limited their ability to produce hydrochloric acid in the stomach, how might this affect digestion and why?If someone lost control of their pyloric sphincter and was unable to contract it, how would this affect digestion?Thinking about the contents of the stomach, what might happen to a person with a lower esophageal sphincter that does not contract completely?