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Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus

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1 Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Whitney Gunn David Coleman John Rice

2 Platypus Facts Common Name: Platypus
Scientific Name: Ornithorhynchus anatinus They live for about 10 to 15 years Natural habitat is East Australia and New Guinea Carnivorous diet Call sound

3 History Estimate of the Monotremes-Theria divergence, time range between 160 and 120 Myr ago. The red line shows these are small mammals that developed hair, lactation, and homoeothermic.

4 Characteristics Has spurs on its hind feet
Platypus is one of the few venomous mammals. The male platypus can delivers a poison through a spur on its hind foot. Adults do not have teeth Baby platypus are born with teeth this may be due to a “throwback” from its ancestors. Once they lose them they do not grow new teeth back. Adults do not need teeth because they use horny pads to grind their food.

5 Characteristics The have no true stomachs Female platypus lay eggs
She lays 1-3 eggs, which she incubates between her abdomen and tail. Lactation The female platypus do not have nipples, so it’s young ones suck milk from patches on the abdomen

6 Evolution of Platypus

7 Evolution Protamine P1 protein sequence

8 Evolution P Distance matrix DNA
Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships between monotremes, marsupials, and mammals Ech Mou Opo Pla Roo 0.7162 0.8040 0.7789 0.1030 0.7448 0.8037 0.9769 1.1324 1.2805 0.9405

9 Venomous Trait The venom is made up of at least 19 different substances The substance has been named the defensin-like proteins, or DLPs, because their three dimensional structure resembles that of an antimicrobial peptide known as beta-defensin.

10 Lactation and Eggs It has been proposed that early lactation evolved as a water source to protect porous parchment-shelled eggs from desiccation during incubation or as a protection against microbial infection. Parchment-shelled egg-laying monotremes also exhibit a more ancestral glandular mammary patch or areola without a nipple that may still possess roles in egg protection

11 Similarities Both are only found in Australia and New Guinea
Monotreme means "one-holed," referring to the cloaca, a single hole that serves the urinary tract, anus, and reproductive tract in monotremes. Both lay eggs

12 Differences Echidna Platypus Has a point snout Pointy spines on coat
Has duck like bill Short dark brown fur

13 Further Studies Recently scientist have been taking the platypus genome and comparing it to humans. A study on why they secret milk through their abdominal muscles instead of through nipples would be helpful to further understand its evolutionary process.

14 References

15 Picture Sources

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